Lecture_12_3-2-10-PDF_40983

Lecture_12_3-2-10-PDF_40983 - Photosynthesis 1....

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Photosynthesis 1. Chloroplasts 2. Light reactions 3. Absorbance of light 4. Electron transport in Photosynthetic bacteria 5. Two-center electron transport 6. Photophosphorylation 7. Dark Reactions 8. The Calvin cycle 9. Control of the Calvin cycle 10.Photorespiration Lec 12 Lec 13
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Basics of Photosynthesis Almost all plants photosynthetic autotrophs , also some bacteria & protists (d) Cyanobacteria (c) Euglena (b) Kelp (a) Mosses, ferns, and flowering plants
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Meso- phyll Vein Stomata Leaf cross section Mesophyll cell Chloroplast Inner membrane Outer membrane Grana Stroma Thylakoid Thylakoid space •Chloroplasts, like Mitochondria, thought to have arisen as endosymbionts •Evidence? Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis among eukaryotes
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Chloroplasts in a plant cell are often arranged near to air spaces (take up CO 2 and release O 2 ) chloroplast
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Chloroplast orientation is optimized for the maximum use of light
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Compare chloroplasts with mitochondria
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Chromatophores are membrane invaginations Bacterial photosynthesis takes place in “ chromatophores e.g. purple bacterium: Rhodobacter sphaeroides Chromatophore
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Light energy Carbon dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen gas The Overall Equation for Photosynthesis The reactants and products of the reaction
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Photosynthesis Overview •6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O → 6(CH 2 O) + 6 O 2 synthesis •Energy source: •Energy conversion: solar H + gradient H 2 O electron transport
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A Roadmap for Photosynthesis Energized e - added to CO 2 to make glucose Sunlight provides energy Photosynthesis consists of 2 sets of reactions: light and dark (actually light-dependent and light-independent )
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2-step process: “ light and dark Light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy (light) Oxidizes water Generates NADPH and ATP (and O 2 ) Calvin cycle makes sugar from CO 2 ( dark) Uses NADPH and ATP Fixes CO 2
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Photosynthesis Summary
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Light Reflected light Absorbed light Transmitted light Chloroplast Chloroplasts absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Roadmap for Photosynthesis: light reaction
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Roadmap for Photosynthesis: light reaction Energy Transduction reactions: 1. Photoreduction ( synthesis) synthesis)
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4. Produces sugar Roadmap for Photosynthesis: dark reaction
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NADP + and NADPH
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Chlorophyll (Light-absorbing pigment) 1.structure similar to Heme 2.accepts a low energy electron 3.donates a high energy electron Hydrophobic side chain (function?)
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chlorophyll Cytochrome Hemoglobin Structure similar to Heme
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Chlorophyll structures
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Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around pigment protein complexes called photosystems , which are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts .
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Multiple pigments make the most of the available light Absorption spectra of plant pigments
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Lecture_12_3-2-10-PDF_40983 - Photosynthesis 1....

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