Lecture_25_4-29-10-PDF_42018

Lecture_25_4-29-10-PDF_42018 - Signal Transduction and...

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Signal Transduction and Mammalian Fuel Metabolism (Lec 25) What are the specialized cells and tissues involved in fuel metabolism? How are these cells and tissues coordinated for maximal efficiency and adaptability? How does faulty regulation cause disease?
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Chapter Outline 1. Organ specialization (p792-798) Brain, Muscle, Liver, Adipose tissue, and Liver 2. Inter-organ metabolic pathways (p798-799) Cori cycle, Glucose-Alanine cycle, and Glucose transporters 3. Mechanisms of Hormone Action: Signal Transduction (p406-445) Hormonal regulation, Adenylate Cyclase system, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, and the Phosphoinositide pathway. 4. Disturbances in Fuel Metabolism (p809-815) Starvation, Diabetes Mellitus, and Obesity.
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Lec 1-13 Lec 14-17 Lec 18-21
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The central pathways for fuel metabolism in mammals converge on the molecules:
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The central pathways for fuel metabolism in mammals converge on the molecules:
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Degradation of amino acids to seven common metabolic intermediates Summary Ketogenic (used for fatty acid synthesis) Glucogenic (used as glucose precursors)
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We are here Summary of lipid metabolism
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1. Glycolysis 2. Gluconeogenesis 3. Glycogen degradation and synthesis 4. Fatty acid degradation and synthesis 5. Citric Acid cycle 6. Oxidative phosphorylation 7. Amino acid synthesis and degradation 1. Organ specialization (p792-798) Seven pathways involved in making ATP from the oxidation of foodstuffs.
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1 2 4 5 6 7 3 Seven pathways involved in making ATP from the oxidation of food stuffs Fig. 22-1 (p792)
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MT
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Pyruvate and Acetyl-CoA are the common connectors to these pathways as seen in the previous slide Generally only the liver has the ability to carry out all seven pathways as seen in the next slide. Why? (This “why” has many answers) In a cell, only a few of all the possible metabolic reactions occur at significant rates.
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Organ specialization
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•All these pathways are affected by ATP concentrations. •This is signaled by the concentration of AMP . •AMP-dependent protein kinase ( AMPK ) is cells fuel gauge and activates pathways that generate ATP. •The heart and liver are two organs that are controlled by AMPK . •AMP build up causes the cell to switch to anaerobic glycolysis.
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AMPK is activated by linear 5' AMP and must not be confused with PKA , or protein kinase A, activated by 3„,5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) There are two different kinds of AMP, which is confusing for students because they are both involved in signalling.
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The first kind of AMP is ordinary linear 5' AMP which is formed through the adenylate kinase reaction in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. ADP + ADP ATP + AMP ATP is actively exported from the mitochondrial matrix by the adenine nucleotide carrier, which is driven by the mitochondrial membrane potential, so ATP:ADP is normally at least 200:1 in the intermembrane space.
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ATP synthase (F 0 F 1 -ATPase) Don‟t get confused Oxidative phosphorylation
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Substrate-level phosphorylation
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Twelve electron pairs are transferred to the coenzyme
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2010 for the course BCHS 3305 taught by Professor Fujita during the Spring '10 term at University of Houston.

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Lecture_25_4-29-10-PDF_42018 - Signal Transduction and...

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