Lecture16%20with%20slides - Fracture Lecture 16...

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1 1 Lecture 16 Fracture-1 2 Ship-loading from waves. Computer chip-cyclic thermal loading. Hip implant-cyclic loading from walking. Adapted from Fig. 22.30(b), Cal ister 7e. (Fig. 22.30(b) is courtesy of National Semiconductor Corporation.) Adapted from Fig. 22.26(b), Cal ister 7e. Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 8, Cal ister 7e. (by Neil Boenzi, The New York Times .) Fracture 3 Confused terms Stiffness: Deformation caused by applied load or stress Strength: Maximum load or strength that can be supported without yield or fracture Yield: Permanent deformation in response to a shear stress Fracture: Separation of material into two or more bits 4 Fracture mechanisms • Ductile fracture – Occurs with plastic deformation • Brittle fracture – Little or no plastic deformation – Catastrophic 5 Ductile fracture Fracture that occurs after macroscopic yield X σ ε X σ ε 6 Brittle (cleavage) fracture X stress strain elastic deformation fracture before yield σ f Occurs by propagation of a crack (can be transgranular or intergranular )
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2 7 Ductile vs Brittle Failure Very
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Lecture16%20with%20slides - Fracture Lecture 16...

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