22 Immune System and Body_s Defenses.docx - Chapter 22:...

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Chapter 22: Immune System and the Body’s DefenseI.22.1 Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents (p.842-843)A.Compare and contrast the five major classes of infectious agents.1.Infectious agentsa.Organisms that invade other organisms (the host), causing damage and possibly deathb.Are consideredpathogenicwhen they cause harmc.Five major categoriesi.BacteriaA.Microscopic, single-celled organismsB.Prokaryotic cells (compared to the eukaryotic cells of humans)C.Three categories based on shapei.Cocci (spherical)ii.Bacilli (rodlike)iii.Spirilla (coiled)D.Virulencei.Ability of a pathogen to cause illnessii.High virulence = very likely to make someone sickii.VirusesA.Not cells; it is debated whether they are alive or notB.Smaller even than bacteriaC.Only made of a protein shell containing either RNA or DNAD.Obligate intracellular parasites– they must enter a cell in order to reproduceE.They inject their genetic material into a cell, and then use the cell’s machinery (RNA,ribosomes, etc.) to make new viruses that burst out of the cell and go on to infect morecells; this process kills the infected cell.F.Cause diseases such as HIV, common cold, herpesiii.FungiA.Eukaryotic cells (have a nucleus and organelles)B.Have a cell wallC.Includes molds, yeasts, and spore-producing fungiD.Irritation occurs in host when fungi release enzymes to break down host proteins for themto eat.E.Cause diseases such as ringworm, yeast infections, athlete’s footiv.ProtozoanA.Also eukaryoticB.No cell wallC.Cause infections such as malaria and trichomoniasisv.Multicellular parasitesA.Small, but not microscopicB.Ex. Parasitic worms such as tapewormsB.Describe prions, and name a disease they cause.
II.22.2 Overview of the Immune System (p.843-846)A.22.2a Immune Cells and Their Locations (p.843-844)1.List the types of leukocytes of the immune system, and describe where they may be found.
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ii.Monocytes become macrophages when they exit blood vessels and settle in the tissues.iii.Three types of lymphocytesA.T-lymphocytesB.B-lymphocytesC.NK (natural killer) cellsc.Where leukocytes are foundi.Lymphatic tissueA.Lymphatic structures as lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, MALT, and lymphatic nodulesB.T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, NK cells, as well as macrophages are found hereii.Some organsA.Macrophages can reside in organs such as the lungs and brain.B.Fixed macrophages are permanent to those organs.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Veltman
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