answer keys bio - BIOLOGY 295 MID TERM EXAM 2005

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Unformatted text preview: BIOLOGY 295 MID TERM EXAM 2005 Name______________________________________________ ID __________________________________________ THIS EXAM IS WORTH 20% OF YOUR GRADE IN THIS COURSE. YOU HAVE 70 MINUTES TO WRITE THIS EXAM. IT HAS A TOTAL OF 67 POINTS, 43 POINTS DISTRIBUTED EQUALLY AMONG 43 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS AND 24 POINTS FOR SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which is not characteristic of all mammals? A) have a diaphragm to assist in ventilating the lungs B) have hair during at least some period of their life C) a four-chambered heart that prevents mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood D) give birth to live young (viviparous) E) have glands to produce milk to nourish their offspring Answer: D 2) Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails just as dolphins do, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and dolphins are A) homologous. B) examples of convergent evolution. C) adaptations to a common environment. D) Both A and C are correct. E) Both B and C are correct. Answer: E 3) In a frog embryo, gastrulation A) produces a blastocoel displaced into the animal hemisphere. B) occurs along the primitive streak in the animal hemisphere. C) proceeds by involution as cells roll over the dorsal lip of the blastopore. D) is impossible because of the large amount of yolk in the ovum. E) occurs within the inner cell mass that is embedded in the large amount of yolk. Answer: C 4) Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection? 1. Differential reproduction occurs. 2. A new selective pressure occurs. 3. Allele frequencies within the population change. 4. Environmental change occurs. A) 4, 2, 1, 3 B) 4, 2, 3, 1 C) 2, 4, 1, 3 Answer: A 1 D) 2, 4, 3, 1 E) 4, 1, 2, 3 5) Upon their discovery by Europeans, koalas were classified as bears (Ursidae). Later, it became apparent that koalas are not bears, but marsupial mammals of the family Phasolarctidae. For as long as the koalas were classified as bears, what was true of the family Ursidae? A) Its classification was more in line with molecular evidence than the current one. B) Its classification had a better basis in fact than the current one. C) It was actually polyphyletic. D) all three of these E) only B and C Answer: C 6) Blastodisc is to blastula as A) primitive streak is to blastopore. B) blastocoel is to blastula. C) meroblastic cleavage is to bird. D) gastrulation is to mesoderm. E) epiblast is to hypoblast. Answer: A 7) What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals? A) blastopore, which becomes the anus B) hollow dorsal nerve cord C) bilateral symmetry D) true coelom E) segmentation Answer: B 8) In which class did jaws first occur? A) Osteichthyes B) Ostracodermi C) Chondrichthyes D) Placodermi E) Agnatha Answer: D 9) All of the following statements are part of the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection except A) organisms tend to increase in numbers at a rate more rapid than the environment can support. B) on average, the best adapted individuals leave more offspring. C) heritable variations occur in natural populations. D) characteristics that are acquired during the life of an individual are passed on to offspring. E) natural selection results from differential success in reproduction among members of a population. Answer: D 2 10) At one point in its life history, every species of jawed vertebrate possesses: A) Neural crest cells B) Teeth or tooth-like scales C) An ear ossicle corresponding to the columella or stapes D) A brain case that includes intramembranous bone Answer: A 11) All of the following occur during early cleavage of an animal zygote except: A) The developing cell undergoes cytokinesis. B) The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the cells increases. C) The developing cell undergoes mitosis. D) The ratio of surface area to volume of the cells increases. E) The embryo grows significantly in mass. Answer: E 12) Which type of articulation between vertebrae would you expect to see in bird necks? A) heteroceolous B) opisthocoelous C) procoelous D) acoelous E) amphicoelous Answer: A 13) The innermost part of compact bone is known as the A) diaphysis. B) metaphysis. C) epiphysis. D) medullary cavity. E) spongy bone. Answer: D 14) The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of: A) cartilage and interstitial lamellae. B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts. C) blood vessels and nerve fibers. D) yellow marrow and spicules. Answer: C 15) The wrist is ________ to the elbow. A) lateral B) horizontal C) proximal Answer: E 3 D) medial E) distal 16) The vertebral column in mammals contains ________ cervical vertebrae. A) 4 B) 5 C) 7 D) 12 E) 31 Answer: C 17) The major function of the intervertebral discs is to: A) prevent injuries. B) string the vertebrae together. C) prevent hyperextension. D) absorb shock. Answer: D 18) The tiny plates of bone material found in spongy bone are called A) lacunae. B) trabeculae. C) concentric lamellae. D) interstitial lamellae. E) osteons. Answer: B 19) The primary function of sensible perspiration is to A) raise the temperature of the skin. B) cool the surface of the skin. C) reduce insensible perspiration. D) heat the skin surface. E) protect the skin from excess ultraviolet radiation. Answer: B 20) Each of the following bones contributes to forming the orbit, except the ________ bone. A) ethmoid B) lacrimal C) nasal Answer: C 21) Mature bone cells are called A) osteocytes. B) osteoblasts. C) osteoclasts. D) chondrocytes. E) osteons. Answer: A 4 D) sphenoid E) frontal 22) What tissue gives rise to part of the integument? A) dermatome B) hypomere C) myotome D) epimere E) somatic layer Answer: A 23) Mammary glands are a type of ________ gland. A) eccrine sweat B) sebaceous C) apocrine sweat D) merocrine sweat E) ceruminous Answer: C 24) The following are major steps in the process of endochondral ossification. 1. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium. 2. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity. 3. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify. 4. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone. 5. The perichondrium is converted into a periosteum and the inner layer produces bone. The correct order for these events is A) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2. B) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4. C) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2. D) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2. E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2. Answer: C 25) A cut that passes parallel through the long axis of the body and divides the body into equal left and right halves is known as a A) transverse section. B) coronal section. C) parasagittal section. D) frontal section. E) midsagittal section. Answer: E 26) A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the: A) epiphysis. B) diaphysis. C) articular cartilage. Answer: B 5 D) metaphysis. 27) Somites give rise to what tissue(s)? A) dermatome, somatic layer B) sclerotome, dermatome C) sclerotome, myotome, dermatome D) splanchnic layer, somatic layer E) myotome, mesomere Answer: C 28) The major function of the axial skeleton is to: A) provide central support for the body and protect internal organs. B) provide a space for the heart and lungs. C) give the body resilience. D) provide an attachment point for muscles that allow movement. Answer: A 29) Which of the following regions corresponds to the gills? A) femoral B) branchial C) sagittal D) cervical E) brachial Answer: B 30) Choose the statement that is most correct about orbits in mammals. A) The orbits are made entirely of cartilage. B) The orbits contain only cranial bones. C) The orbits are formed of both facial and cranial bones. D) The orbits contain only facial bones. Answer: C 31) A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order? A) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum B) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale C) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum D) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum Answer: B 32) The skull bone that the foramen magnum passes through is the: A) parietal. B) atlas. C) axis. Answer: D 6 D) occipital. 33) Intramembranous ossification begins with the ________ cells. A) osteoprogenitor B) osteoclast C) osteocytes D) osteoblasts E) mesenchymal Answer: E 34) ________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas. A) Merocrine; apocrine; sebaceous B) Apocrine; sebaceous; merocrine C) Apocrine; merocrine; sebaceous D) Merocrine; sebaceous; apocrine E) Sebaceous; merocrine; apocrine Answer: D Use Figure 25.1 to answer the following questions. Figure 25.1 35) The two extant species that are most closely related to each other are A) E and A. B) A and B. C) D and E. D) C and B. E) B and D. Answer: D 36) Which extinct species should be the best candidate to serve as the outgroup for the clade whose common ancestor occurs at position number two? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E B) D C) E D) B E) A D) 4. E) 5. Answer: D 37) Which species is extinct? A) C Answer: C 38) A common ancestor for species C and E could be at position number A) 1. B) 2. C) 3. Answer: D 7 The following questions refer to the phylogenetic tree shown in Figure 34.2. Figure 34.2 39) Whose forelimbs are analogous to those of flying birds and chiropterans? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 7 E) 9 Answer: D 40) The organisms represented by 8 most likely are A) birds. B) flying reptiles. C) modern reptiles. D) all mammals. E) all mammals except humans. Answer: D 41) Which pair of numbers represents extinct reptiles that had returned to an aquatic life? A) 3 and 4 B) 1 and 2 C) 5 and 7 D) 6 and 8 E) 7 and 9 D) 7 and 9 E) 1 and 2 Answer: B 42) Which pair of numbers most likely represents modern reptiles? A) 6 and 8 B) 5 and 7 C) 3 and 4 Answer: C 43) Which organisms are represented by 6? A) all mammals except humans B) all mammals C) birds D) flying reptiles E) modern reptiles Answer: C 8 SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 44) List the 3 patterns of yolk deposition in eggs, the patterns of cleavage associated with each and 1 vertebrate example of each (4.5 points). 1) 2) 3) Answer: microlecithal - holoplastic - eutherians mesolecithal - meroblastic - amphibians, lampreys, lungfishes macrolecithal - discoidal - birds, monotremes 45) Mammals continuously lose body heat but maintain a high internal temperature. List 1 feature of the cranial skeleton and 1 feature of the axial skeleton that are adaptations to maintaining a high metabolic rate and why you think this. (4 points) 1) 2) Answer: There's quite a few correct answers to this, here's a couple... 1) fixed jaws (craniostyly) for catching and chewing prey 2) rib cage and thoracic region adapted for rapid respiration 46) List the three basic components of vertebrae and their functions. (6 points) 1) 2) 3) Answer: 1. Dorsal arches that rest on notochord, protect neural tube - neural arches 2. Ventral arches under notochord, enclose blood vessels 3. Centra, enclose notochord 9 The following questions refer to the diagram of an embryo in Figure 47.3. Match the word or statement to the lettered structures (5 points). Figure 47.3 47) somites Answer: b 48) gives rise to the muscles Answer: b 49) notochord Answer: e 50) coelom Answer: a 51) gives rise to the brain and spinal cord Answer: d The questions below refer to the following terms. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. (4.5 points) A. B. C. D. E. F. G. nonadaptive analogous homologous vestigial monophyletic synapomorphies pleisiomorphies 52) shared primitive characters Answer: C, G 53) the term that is most appropriately associated with the term clade Answer: E 54) shared derived characters Answer: C, F 10 55) whale flipper and horse foreleg Answer: C, F 56) a taxon, all of whose members have the same common ancestor Answer: E 57) human hand and lobster claw Answer: B 11 ...
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