Ch06 - Guide to Linux+ ISBN 0-619-21621-2 End of Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Guide to Linux+ ISBN 0-619-21621-2 End of Chapter Solutions Chapter 6 Solutions Review Questions 1. You find that a device file in the /dev directory has become corrupted. You know that this device is /dev/tty3 and that it is a character device file. What should you do? a. Use the fsck command to repair the file. b. Use the mknod command to re-create the file. c. Use the /dev/MAKEDEV command to re-create the file. d. Nothing; without the minor number, you cannot re-create the file. Answer: c 2. After a partition on a hard disk drive is formatted with a filesystem, all partitions on that hard disk drive must use the same filesystem. True or False? Answer: False 3. You want to see the filesystems that are presently in use on the system. What command could you use? a. cat /etc/fstab b. ls -l /etc/fstab c. cat /etc/mtab d. ls -l /etc/fstab Answer: c 4. Jim has just purchased two new SCSI hard disk drives and a controller card for them. He properly installs the hardware in his machine. Before he can use them for data storage and retrieval, what must he do? (Choose all that apply.) a. Mount the two hard drives so they are accessible by the operating system. b. Mount a filesystem to each of the hard disk drives. c. Use the fdisk command to create one or more partitions on each of the hard disk drives. d. Use the vi editor to edit /etc/mtab and create an entry for the controller card and the hard disk drives. e. Mount any partitions created on the two hard drives such that they are accessible by the operating system. f. Format any partitions created with a valid filesystem recognized by Linux. Answer: c,e,f 5. Given the following output from /etc/fstab, which filesystems will be automatically checked on boot by the fsck command? [BEGIN CODE] LABEL=/ / ext3 defaults 1 1 none /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 1 0 none /proc proc defaults 0 1 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 1 0 /dev/hdc2 swap swap defaults 0 1 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto,owner,kudzu 0 0 [END CODE] a. none, as fsck must be run manually for each filesystem b. /, /dev/pts and /dev/shm c. /, /proc and swap d. all of them, as fsck is run automatically at boot for all filesystems Answer: b 1 6. A user mounts a device to a mount point directory and realizes afterward there are files previously found within the mount point directory that are needed. What should this user do? a. Nothing; the files are lost and cannot ever be accessed. b. Nothing; the files could not have been there as you can only mount to empty directories. c. Unmount the device from the directory. d. Run the fsck command to recover the file. e. Look in the lost+found directory for the file. Answer: c 7. Which command is used to display the amount of free space that exists on a filesystem? a. fsck b. quota c. du d. df Answer: d 8. What must you do to successfully run the fsck command on a filesystem? a. Run the fsck command with the -u option to automatically unmount the filesystem first. b. Choose yes when warned that running fsck on a mounted filesystem can cause damage. c. Unmount the filesystem. d. Ensure that the filesystem is mounted. Answer: c 9. Character devices typically transfer data more quickly than block devices. True or False? Answer: c 10. What does the du /var command do? a. shows the users connected to the /var directory b. shows the size of all directories within the /var directory c. dumps the /var directory d. displays the amount of free space in the /var directory Answer: d 11. What does the command dumpe2fs –h do? a. backs up an ext2 filesystem b. displays the number of inodes used and available in an ext2 filesystem c. dumps an ext2 filesystem d. is not a valid command Answer: b 12. The first floppy drive on the system is not responding. You enter the file /dev/fd0 command and receive the following output. What is the problem? [BEGIN CODE] [root@server1 root]# file /dev/fd0 /dev/fd0: ASCII text [root@server1 root]# [END CODE] a. The floppy drive cable has come loose. b. There is no floppy disk in the drive. c. The device file has become corrupt. d. The floppy drive is seen as a character device. Answer: c 13. Which of the following statements are true? (Choose all that apply.) a. Quotas can only limit user space. b. Quotas can only limit the number of files a user can own. c. Quotas can limit both user space and the number of files a user can own. d. Hard limits can never be exceeded. e. Hard limits allow a user to exceed them for a certain period of time. f. Soft limits can never be exceeded. g. Soft limits allow a user to exceed them for a certain period of time. h. Either a hard limit or a soft limit can be set, but not both concurrently. Answer: c,d,g 2 14. A device file _______________________. (Choose all that apply.) a. has no inode section b. has no data section c. has no size d. displays a major and minor number in place of a file size e. has a fixed size of 300 kilobytes Answer: b,d 15. If the filesystem type is not specified with the mkfs command, it _________________. a. prompts the user for the filesystem to use b. displays a help screen detailing its usage c. uses the ext3 filesystem by default d. uses the ext2 filesystem by default Answer: d 16. Hard disk drives need to be partitioned even if all space on the entire hard drive will be used and configured with one filesystem. True or False? Answer: True 17. What happens if you type mount /mnt/floppy? a. The system responds with a message prompting for more information. b. The system responds with a message that the command failed due to missing parameters. c. The command succeeds because a line with the necessary parameters exists in /etc/fstab. d. The command succeeds because a line with the necessary parameters exists in /etc/mtab. Answer: c 18. Which command mounts all existing filesystems in /etc/fstab? a. mount -f b. mount -a c. mount /etc/fstab d. mount /etc/mtab Answer: b 19. A user runs the fsck command with the -a option on a filesystem that is showing signs of corruption. How would that user locate any files the system was unable to repair? a. Look in the root of the filesystem. b. The system prompts the user for a target location when it comes across a file it cannot repair. c. Mount the filesystem and check the lost+found directory underneath the mount point. d. View the contents of the directory /lost+found. Answer: c 20. Which command is used to format a partition on a hard disk drive? a. format b. none, because the hard disk drive and not the partition must be formatted c. mkfs -t type device d. makeFS –type device Answer: c Hands-on Projects Project 6-1 Step 1: Not available. Step 2: The 6th local terminal; it is a character device because it does not contain a filesystem; major number=4, minor number=6. Step 3: Yes. Step 4: INIT is respawning too fast. Step 5: mknod re-created the tty6 device file; /dev/MAKEDEV can be used instead to do the same. Step 6: The tty6 file exists again. Step 7: The major number is the same for all terminal devices because they share the same device driver in the kernel; however, the minor number is different to represent the different terminal devices. 3 Step 8: There are many files in the /dev directory; however, these files use less than 300K in total. Step 9: ttyS has a major number of 4. Step 10: Not available. Project 6-2 Step 1: Not available. Step 2: Not available. Step 3: Without a floppy disk, you receive an error message stating that /dev/fd0 is not a valid device. Step 4: Yes. Step 5: The lost+found directory is in the /mymount directory; the hosts file has been covered up by the system. Step 6: Yes. Step 7: The hosts file is present in the /mymount directory; the inittab file was copied to the floppy. Step 8: /mnt/floppy. Step 9: Not available. Step 10: The inittab file is on the floppy disk; you cannot unmount a floppy disk while there are users using the directory. Step 11: The root user; no. Step 12: Not available. Step 13: Not available. Project 6-3 Step 1: Not available. Step 2: Not available; depends on configuration. Step 3: Yes. Step 4: Not available. Step 5: Yes. Step 6: /mnt/cdrom. Step 7: Not available. Step 8: Not available. Step 9: Not available. Step 10: GNOME. Step 11: The CD-ROM was automatically mounted; yes. Step 12: Not available. Step 13: Not available. Project 6-4 Step 1: Not available. Step 2: Not available. Step 3: /dev/hda1 and /dev/hda2. Step 4: Not available. Step 5: Linux. Step 6: t. Step 7: Not available. Step 8: Not available. Step 9: Not available. Step 10: Not available. Step 11: Not available. Step 12: Yes. Step 13: Not available. Step 14: Not available. Step 15: Yes. Step 16: Yes, the conversion does not affect the files—it only creates a journal file. Step 17: Not available. Step 18: Not available. 4 Step 19: Not available. Step 20: Yes; it was mounted at boot time via an entry in /etc/fstab. Step 21: Not available. Step 22: Yes; the mount –a command mounts all entries from /etc/fstab. Step 23: Not available, Project 6-5 Step 1: Not available. Step 2: / and /newmount; the swap partition is not mounted and unavailable to the df command. Step 3: Not available; depends on the size. Step 4: You must unmount the filesystem before running fsck. Step 5: Not available. Step 6: A few seconds; only a short check was performed. Step 7: Longer than a few seconds; a full check was performed. Step 8: Displays a progress bar while checking. Step 9: Checks the filesystem for bad blocks and updates the badblocks table. Step 10: Yes, because it is journaling, it does not need to be checked for errors frequently. Step 11: Not available. Step 12: Not available. Step 13: Not available. Step 14: Not available. Step 15: There are eight errors. Step 16: Not available. Project 6-6 Step 1: Not available. Step 2: Not available. Step 3: Not available. Step 4: Not available. Step 5: Not available. Step 6: Not available. Step 7: Not available. Step 8: Not available. Step 9: Not available. Step 10: Not available. Step 11: Not available. Step 12:It updates the quota database files; you should see the aquota.user and aquota.group files. Step 13: Not available. Step 14: No; 400 inodes, 60000K. Step 15: Not available. Step 16: Not available. Step 17: Not available. Step 18: Yes. Step 19: The same as Step 16. Step 20: Not available. Discovery Exercises Discovery Exercise 1 Answers will vary. Some common commands include: a) dume2fs –h /dev/hda1 b) mount (or cat /etc/mtab) c) cat /etc/fstab d) cat /etc/fstab 5 Discovery Exercise 2 a) 2 b) 2 c) 2 d) 3 e) 3 f) 3 g) 8 h) 8 i) 8 All devices of the same general type share the same major number. Discovery Exercise 3 Not Available. Discovery Exercise 4 Answers will vary. Generally, you require more than one hard disk to reduce the likelihood that a had disk failure will greatly impact the system. The /var, /usr, /opt, /home, /boot, and / directories should be mounted to their own partition (preferably on separate hard disks). The /home directory should have quotas enabled that have a hard limit of 5Gb for all users. Discovery Exercise 5 Answers will vary. Possible causes include: a corrupted filesystem on /dev/hdc6 incorrect parameters in /etc/fstab a corrupted hard disk Some commands to diagnose the problem include: fsck –f –t ext2 /dev/hdc6 fdisk /dev/hdc6 vi /etc/fstab 6 ...
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