mod8-23Moral

mod8-23Moral - Module VIII Session 23 The Moral Argument...

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Module VIII Session 23 The Moral Argument Read Stewart: 154-161
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The Moral Argument Type A: Classical Type A: Classical – From Objective Morality From Objective Morality Presuppositions: lex naturalis = natural law moral conscience ________________________________ 1/ There are objective, transcultural, universal moral laws and values governing the world. 2/ Humans cannot violate the sources of moral obligation (natural law or their moral conscience) without inflicting harm to themselves and the world as such. 3/ Hence both natural law and conscience point to the transcendent moral source of all values (we can have international criminal court or crimes against humanity based on this). 4/ We call the transcendent source of natural law or of our moral conscience (the source of all values) “God.” Objection from a naturalistic skeptic: Objection from a naturalistic skeptic: could we explain moral conscience by human psychology of needs, desires, ideals, self-interest, superego, human society without appealing to God? Ivan Karamazov: Does morality require God or is without God everything permitted? Albert Camus: is suicide an anaswer to the world without God, or can we have morality in the absurd universe?
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The Moral Argument Type B: Kantian Type B: Kantian From Subjective Morality From Subjective Morality Vocabulary Vocabulary Categorical imperative = demand of practical reason to act always in such a way that my maxim for action could become the universal law for everyone, treat other humans as capable of acting in the same free and categorical way as myself, and treat all humans as kingdom of ends in themselves, never as means. Postulate = a belief that is presupposed as a legitimate harmonization of the unconditional good (one’s always freely acting good will or virtue) and ultimate happiness. Three postulates: immortality, hope, God. Postulate differs from a proof as well as reason for moral action.
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KANT: God as the moral postulate or moral cosmology within KANT: God as the moral postulate or moral cosmology within 1/ Humans cannot but act with respect for the moral law, and so there is some semblance of rational justice even among criminals. 2/ We find the moral law within the human heart, just as we find stars orbiting in the physical order of the universe, and this moral law within marks us with human dignity in such a way that governs and limits our uses of human freedom by the categorical imperative.
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2010 for the course PHIL 206 taught by Professor Draper during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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mod8-23Moral - Module VIII Session 23 The Moral Argument...

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