Chapter_18_and_19_Notes_ - The Diversity of American...

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The Diversity of American Colonial Societies, 1530-1770The Columbian ExchangeDemographic ChangesPeople of the New World did not have immunity to diseases from the Old WorldSmallpox, measles, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever, and pulmonary plague caused decline in the population of the native people in Spanish and Portuguese coloniesSyphilis was brought from the Americas to EuropeSpread of Old World diseases undermined the ability of native peoples to resist settlement and accelerated cultural changeTransfer of Plants and AnimalsEuropean, Asian, and African food crops were introduced to the AmericasAmerican crops were brought to the Eastern HemisphereNew world crops led to rapid growth in world population after 1700Introduction of European livestock influenced the environment and culture of the native people of the AmericasOld World livestock destroyed some crops of Amerindian farmersSome Amerindians benefitted from new animalsSpanish America and BrazilState and ChurchSpanish crown tried to exert control over American colonies through the Council of the IndiesDifficult communication between Spain and the New World led to a situation where the Viceroys of New Spain and Peru enjoyed a lot of powerPortuguese appointed a viceroy to administer BrazilGovernmental institutions were highly developed, costly bureaucracies that thwarted local economic initiative and political experimentationCatholic Church played a role in the transfer of the European language, culture, and Christian beliefs to the New WorldCatholic clergy converted Amerindians, some held on to some of their native beliefs and practicesCatholic clergy protected Amerindians from exploitation and abuse of the Spanish settlersBartolome de Las Casas denounced Spanish policies toward the Amerindians

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