Carbon Biomolecules

Carbon Biomolecules - Organic Chemistry Organic molecules...

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1 Organic Chemistry Organic molecules contain carbon Abundant in living organisms Macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules
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2 Carbon Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell Needs 4 more electrons to fill the shell It can make up to 4 bonds Usually single or double bonds Carbon can form nonpolar and polar bonds Molecules with nonpolar bonds (like hydrocarbons) are poorly water soluble Molecules with polar bonds are more water soluble
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5 Functional Groups Groups of atoms with special chemical features that are functionally important Each type of functional group exhibits the same properties in all molecules in which it occurs
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8 Isomers Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics Structural isomers- contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships Stereoisomers- identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers Geometric isomers- positioning around double bond Enantiomers- mirror image of another molecule
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10 Four major types of organic molecules and macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids
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11 Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms C n (H 2 O) n Most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group
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12 Monosaccharides Simplest sugars Most common are 5 or 6 carbons Pentoses- ribose (C 5 H 10 O 5 ), deoxyribose (C 5 H 10 O 4 ) Hexose- glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Different ways to depict structures Ring or linear
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13 Glucose isomers Structural isomers- different arrangement of same elements Glucose and galactose Stereoisomers Geometric isomers- above or below ring α- and β-glucose Enantiomers- mirror image D- and L-glucose
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15 Disaccharides Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction Broken apart by hydrolysis Examples -sucrose, maltose, lactose
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17 Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides linked together to
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2010 for the course BIO 1A taught by Professor Ahuja during the Summer '10 term at Laney College.

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Carbon Biomolecules - Organic Chemistry Organic molecules...

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