All1AStudyGuide - Bio1A Dr McCray Study Guide 1 Part I...

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Bio1A Dr. McCray Study Guide 1 Part I: Basics of Biological Chemistry and the Cell 1. Write these words in order as they should describe the levels of structural organization (from smallest to largest): population, tissue, organismal, ecosystem, cellular, chemical, community, organ system, biosphere, organ. 2. Name and describe five necessary processes common to all living things (necessary life functions). 3. Define homeostasis. Provide an example of a homeostatic (control) mechanism and one example of a homeostatic imbalance. 4. Define “element.” What are the four major elements of life (most abundant)? 5. Define “isotope,” “ion,” and “molecule.” 6. Name and describe the types of chemical bonds we discussed in class. 7. Describe a few examples illustrating the role of “weak bonds” in biological organisms. 8. Why do sodium (atomic number 11) and potassium (atomic number = 19) exhibit similar chemical behavior? 9. The different shells in which the electrons of an atom are arranged reflect different ____________. 10. Draw several water molecules and show how hydrogen bonds form between these. 11. Acid precipitation has less effect on the pH of lakes on limestone bedrock (CaCO 3 ) than on the pH of lakes on other kinds of bedrock. How does the limestone act to counter the acid? (Hint: when limestone is dissolved in water, it forms Ca 2+ and CO 3 2- ) 12. The capacity of soil to hold water against the downward pull of gravity depends largely on the size of mineral particles in the soil. Discuss the property of water that enables clay soil (tiny particles) to hold more water than sandy soil (large particles). 13. Most living cells are made up of 60%-80% water. What are the features of water responsible for its importance to biological systems? 14. What defines an acid? What defines a base? Compare and contrast acidic solutions, alkaline solutions, and neutral solutions in terms of pH. 15. (short essay) Describe the four biologically important classes of organic compounds. For each class of molecule, you should mention a major function that molecule has in the body and the molecular subunit (building blocks). 16. A fat molecule has ____ fatty acids, whereas a phospholipid has ___ fatty acids. 17. Provide two or three examples of molecules classified as steroids. 18. For each of the structural levels of proteins describe the molecular shapes and kinds of chemical bonds that characterize each structure. 19. Hemoglobin has four polypeptide subunits. What level of structure must this reach in order to become a fully functional protein? 20. What do molecular chaperones do? 21. What are enzymes? Provide some examples of enzyme action. 22. Provide two situations that can lead to denaturation of a protein. 23. Name the reaction that links monomer subunits together to form larger polymers.
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