First Exam Review Session

First Exam Review Session - I. PrincipleBiologicalMolecules...

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I. Principle Biological Molecules A. Carbon A. Foundation of organic molecules B. Organic simply means the molecule has a carbon backbone/skeleton Inorganic molecules are molecules without carbon including carbon dioxide C. Attached to carbon backbone are functional groups which determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of molecule Functional groups are more likely to participate in reactions Hydroxyl group o –OH o Makes alcohols Carbonyl group o =CO o End of carbon skeleton = aldehyde o Anywhere else = ketone Carboxyl group o –COOH o Carboxylic acids Amino group o –NH 2 o Amines – act as bases Sulfhydryl group o –SH o Thiols Phosphate group o –OPO 3 2‐ B. Carbohydrates A. Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbon plus water B. Small water‐soluble sugars or polymers of sugar One sugar molecule = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide 3 or more = polysaccharide C. Used to store energy and for support Cellulose – cell walls o Polysaccharide C. Lipids A. Fats, phospholipids, steroids B. Hydrophobic C. DO NOT FORM POLYMERS D. Fats composed of fatty acids attached to glycerol (3‐carbon alcohol) Fatty acid consists of long hydrocarbon tail with carboxyl group at the “head” Non polar hydrocarbons make fat hydrophobic E. Triglycerol –fat
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3 fatty acids each linked to glycerol by ester linkage (bond that forms between hydroxyl and carboxyl group F. Unsaturated – double bonds Kink Kink prevents fat molecules from packing closely together which makes then liquids at room temp Healthier G. Saturated – no double bonds D. Phospholipids A. Glycerol linked to 2 fatty acids and a negatively charged phosphate group B. Phosphate head is hydrophilic and water soluble
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2010 for the course GEN BIO Biol 1005 taught by Professor Simmons during the Fall '10 term at Virginia Tech.

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First Exam Review Session - I. PrincipleBiologicalMolecules...

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