Chap 13 - 13 Liquids and Solids Kinetic-Molecular...

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13 Liquids and Solids
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2 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Solids and liquids are Solids and liquids are condensed states condensed states . . The atoms, ions, or molecules in solids and liquids The atoms, ions, or molecules in solids and liquids are much closer to one another than in gases. are much closer to one another than in gases. Solids and liquids are highly incompressible. Solids and liquids are highly incompressible.
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3 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Liquids and gases are Liquids and gases are fluids fluids , they , they easily flow. easily flow. The intermolecular attractions intermolecular attractions in liquids and in liquids and solids are strong. solids are strong.
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4 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Schematic representation of the three common states of matter.
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5 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids
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6 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids If we compare the strengths of interactions strengths of interactions among particles and the degree of ordering degree of ordering of particles, we see that Gases < Liquids < Solids Miscible liquids Miscible liquids are soluble in each other. Water dissolves in alcohol. Gasoline dissolves in motor oil.
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7 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids Immiscible liquids Immiscible liquids are insoluble in each other. Water does not dissolve in oil. Water does not dissolve in cyclohexane.
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8 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes There are four important intermolecular attractions: ion-ion interactions, hydrogen bonding dipole-dipole interactions, and London forces The strength of intermolecular interactions decrease in the order: ionic > hydrogen bonding > dipole-dipole >> London forces
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9 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes 1. Ion-ion interactions Interactions between two oppositely charged ions (ionic compounds). These interactions are governed by Coulomb’s law.
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10 Coulomb’s Law ( )( ) ions. e between th distance the is d charges. ion the are q and q d q q F - 2 - + +
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11 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Coulomb’s law determines: The melting and boiling points of ionic compounds. The solubility of ionic compounds (in water). Higher + and – charges mean higher M.P. and B.P. and lower water solubility .
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12 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Example 13-1: Arrange the following ionic compounds in the expected order of increasing melting and boiling points. NaF, CaO, CaF 2
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13 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Example 13-1: Arrange the following ionic compounds in the expected order of increasing melting and boiling points. NaF, CaO, CaF 2 + - 2+ - 2+ 2- NaF < CaF 2 < CaO
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14 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes 2. Dipole-dipole interactions Interaction of the positive end, δ + , of a polar molecule with the negative end, δ - , of another molecule
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15 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes Consider BrF a polar molecule.
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Chap 13 - 13 Liquids and Solids Kinetic-Molecular...

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