Chem 3AL Lab
Lab Report for Investigating Solubility and Acid-Base Reaction
My partner, Anna, and I observed in lab that for the solute miscibility with hexane, the ethanol,
acetone, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate dissolve into a clear, transparent solution.
This is due to the fact that hexane is non-polar and can have induced-dipole-induced-dipole
intermolecular interactions. However, for water, it forms a distinct, clear layer underneath the hexane.
This is because polar and non-polar substances do not mix easily, a phenomenon particularly obvious
with oil and water. This is known as the hydrophobic effect. Water is a polar substance whereas hexane
is a non-polar solvent, so the ID-ID forces on hexane are not favorable to interact with the dipole-
dipole forces of water molecules. Like dissolves like, so substances with similar intermolecular forces
dissolve one another As a result, hexane does not mix with water. Water has a density of 1 g/mL
whereas hexane has s density of 0.66 g/mL. Therefore, the denser liquid (water) will sink to the bottom
of the test tube.
Observations in part II concerning the solute miscibility with a polar solvent reveals that
diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, ethanol and toluene form a clear, distinct, con-
caving down layer on top of the water solvent. Only ethanol and acetone form a slightly indistinct layer
on top of the water, and it is slightly more heavy and less transparent. These solutes are less dense than
water so they float on top of the polar solvent, water. Diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane are
polar aprotic and toluene is non-polar. Toluene would not be able to interact with water on a dipole-
dipole level but only a weak dipole-induced-dipole level, so it would not be able to be dissolved in
water. The aprotic polar molecules have no hydrogens attached to the electronegative element so even
if hydrogen bonding forces between water molecules are reduced, the only significant intermolecular
forces are weak dipole-induced-dpole and dispersion forces.
For the observations in part III of the water solubility of alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol
have a clear, transparent layer on top of water. If the solutions are stirred, it makes a bubbly display
briefly but separates again to the top. The 1-propanol mixture is a clear, opaque layer on top of water,
and if it is mixed, it takes longer to return to separate layers. Ethanol mixes the best, and the clear
distinct layer on top gets less and less obvious as more and more drops are added. Overall, ethanol
mixes the best with water.Each alcohol contains a OH group that is polar, but it also has a carbon chain
that is non-polar. The water is attracted to the OH group but it is repelled by the non-polar carbon chain