Chem Lab Report # 2

Chem Lab Report # 2 - Chem 3AL Lab 9/14/10 Lab Report for...

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Chem 3AL Lab 9/14/10 Lab Report for Investigating Solubility and Acid-Base Reaction Discussion My partner, Anna, and I observed in lab that for the solute miscibility with hexane, the ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate dissolve into a clear, transparent solution. This is due to the fact that hexane is non-polar and can have induced-dipole-induced-dipole intermolecular interactions. However, for water, it forms a distinct, clear layer underneath the hexane. This is because polar and non-polar substances do not mix easily, a phenomenon particularly obvious with oil and water. This is known as the hydrophobic effect. Water is a polar substance whereas hexane is a non-polar solvent, so the ID-ID forces on hexane are not favorable to interact with the dipole- dipole forces of water molecules. Like dissolves like, so substances with similar intermolecular forces dissolve one another As a result, hexane does not mix with water. Water has a density of 1 g/mL whereas hexane has s density of 0.66 g/mL. Therefore, the denser liquid (water) will sink to the bottom of the test tube. Observations in part II concerning the solute miscibility with a polar solvent reveals that diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, ethanol and toluene form a clear, distinct, con- caving down layer on top of the water solvent. Only ethanol and acetone form a slightly indistinct layer on top of the water, and it is slightly more heavy and less transparent. These solutes are less dense than water so they float on top of the polar solvent, water. Diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane are polar aprotic and toluene is non-polar. Toluene would not be able to interact with water on a dipole- dipole level but only a weak dipole-induced-dipole level, so it would not be able to be dissolved in water. The aprotic polar molecules have no hydrogens attached to the electronegative element so even if hydrogen bonding forces between water molecules are reduced, the only significant intermolecular forces are weak dipole-induced-dpole and dispersion forces. For the observations in part III of the water solubility of alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol have a clear, transparent layer on top of water. If the solutions are stirred, it makes a bubbly display briefly but separates again to the top. The 1-propanol mixture is a clear, opaque layer on top of water, and if it is mixed, it takes longer to return to separate layers. Ethanol mixes the best, and the clear distinct layer on top gets less and less obvious as more and more drops are added. Overall, ethanol mixes the best with water.Each alcohol contains a OH group that is polar, but it also has a carbon chain that is non-polar. The water is attracted to the OH group but it is repelled by the non-polar carbon chain
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Chem Lab Report # 2 - Chem 3AL Lab 9/14/10 Lab Report for...

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