Graft > graft to host & host to graft; Seed & pollen – a few viruses Aphids1. Transmit mechanically – viruses on aphids’ mouth, go to another plant 2. Circulative – aphids eat juice, viruses cross gut wall into haemocoel, circulate, go into salivary gland, saliva goes into plant > does NOT replicate but CIRCULATE 3. 2 + viruses replicate & transmitted to eggs & kids > PROPAGATIVE Non-, Semi-, & Persistant viruses Non: few min-few h; Semi: several h-few d; Persistent: many d-lifetime Other vectors: leaf & plant hoppers, white-flies, thrips, beetles, nematodes, fungi STEP ELEVEN: Transgenic Plant & RNA Silencing Plant transformation 1. Microinjection > transgene is directly injected into protoplast 2. Electroporation > DNA enters protoplast by high V > membrane heals 3. Biolistics > like shot gun; gold coated by DNA is shot at plants 4. Agrobacteria > wound plant > stick transgenes to plant chromosome Plasmid vectors - Unique restriction sites for cloning - Selectable markers, e.g. antibiotic resistance gene
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