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Unformatted text preview: Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows to accompany Accounting Principles Ninth Edition Rex A Schildhouse, LCDR, U.S. Navy, Retired, M.B.A. San Diego Community College District, Miramar Campus, San Diego, CA Jerry J. Weygandt, PhD, CPA, Arthur Andersen Alumni Professor of Accounting, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Donald E. Kieso, PhD, CPA, KPMG Peat Marwick Emeritus Professor of Accountancy, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL Terry D. Warfield, PhD, CPA, PricewaterhouseCoopers Research Scholar, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Chapter 1 SOME BASICS OF WINDOWS XP Chapter Outline Microsoft Windows Versions Windows Explorer Copying the Data Disk To The Hard Drive Copying the Data Disk To Floppy Disks Renaming Files Within Windows Search Within Windows File Shortcuts Microsoft Windows Versions As the “Microsoft Windows” product develops and computer capabilities expand, Microsoft Corporation progressively releases versions of “Windows” The more recent releases for the home desktop computing system have included Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Me, and Microsoft Windows XP. This text is written in reference to Microsoft Windows XP. If you are operating in an older version of Windows you may not be able to accomplish some of the items shown in the text. If you are operating in a newer version of Windows or operating a professional version of Windows you may have more capabilities than addressed here. Since this text is written for Microsoft Office, and particularly, Microsoft Excel, only the aspects of Microsoft Windows that are addressed are those provided to enhance your capabilities within Microsoft Office. Windows Explorer The Microsoft Windows Explorer is usually found as an icon on the desktop of a computer with the Windows operating system. This icon, shown here, can be doubleclicked to get the primary resource of the Windows operating system, a depiction of the data structure of the host computer. This presentation may be graphic in nature or text based. The text based presentation, shown in the top half of the accompanying screen print is attained through the path View > Details. The thumbnails with text titles is attained Windows through the path View > Explorer “Details” for text and small icons Thumbnails with text titles Section 2, Page 1 Page 2 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows Thumbnails. Both, as well as the rest of the presentation options such as “Tiles”, “Icons” and “List” all show the same basic information – file name and location. You may use the presentation of your choice. Most presentations within this text will normally be through the “Details” configuration. Copying The Data Disk To The Hard Drive If you are working at a computer lab or learning resource center, do not copy the template files to the local disk drive. Instead, copy the data files onto removable media or other personally transportable media. Within Windows Explorer is your ability to copy data files from the data disk to the local hard drive, to floppy disks, or other media available to you. To do this insert your data disk into the CD-ROM drive of the system. This drive is usually the “D:\” drive but may be any letter of the alphabet. This drive may be identified as “CD Drive” (D)” where the letter “D” is the specific letter for your drive. When the source drive – where your data disk is inserted, is double-clicked, the contents of the data disk should be shown on the right side of the Windows Explorer display. This list will usually be in an alphabetical order on the disk. This listing will include the data files for the subjects addressed in Section A of the text. If working on your own desktop computer system, click into the “Local Disk (C)” or the local hard drive. Once the local disk or hard drive is selected as indicated by the blue (default value so yours may be different) band, follow the path Files > New > Folder. This may take several moments for your system to respond. Click on the “Folder” option. Windows Explorer will now put a new folder or directory into the “root directory” of the local disk (C) drive. By default this folder or directory is labeled “New Folder.” The title should be highlighted in blue indicating that you can change the title simply by typing into it. If it is not highlighted, you can double click the title and enter the title edit mode or right click on it and select “Rename” from the pop-up menu. By naming this new folder or directory something like “Accounting Principles 01-01-08” with the values “01-01-08” being the current date, you will know the reference for the file contents and the date the folder was established. Whatever you name the folder remember that you will be entering this folder on many occasions so making it a fourth or fifth level subfolder or subdirectory may make it burdensome to enter. Once the new folder is created and named, click back into the source drive for your data disk, by default, this may be the “CD Drive” (D)” drive. Double-click on the drive to get all the files on the disk shown on the right side of Windows Explorer. While the contents of the data disk are shown on the right side, without clicking on a file or folder icon, use the scroll bars for the left side to move the displayed folders and directories up or down until your new (Accounting Principles 01-01-08?) folder is visible on left side of the window. Now click once into the right side of the Windows Explorer and use the keystrokes Ctrl-A. To accomplish this, press and hold the “Control” or “Ctrl” key down and then press and release the “A” key. This operation is not case sensitive so upper or lower case is not an issue. This is the “Select all” command and it will select all of the data disk files. Once the files on the right side are highlighted through the “Select all” command, right click once into the listing and keep the mouse button down. This will allow you to drag the files to the new directory with a mouse movement. Drag the files to the left side of the Windows Explorer display and position the mouse cursor so that the new directory is highlighted. Then release the mouse button. A pop-up menu will appear asking what you would like to do. The options are usually “Copy Here”, “Move Here”, “Create shortcuts”, or “Cancel.” If the target folder or directory “slipped and your new folder or directory is no longer highlighted, select “Cancel.” If the new folder or directory is still selected, click on “Copy Here” and Windows Explorer will copy the data disk files to the new folder or directory. From this point on the data files will be on your local drive and available for use at a location where they can be opened and saved to. Copying The Data Disk To Floppy Disks If you are working at a computer lab or learning resource center, do not copy the data disk to the local disk drive. Instead, copy the data files onto personally transportable media by placing your media into the Chapter 1, Page 3 appropriate drive of the computer system. Then open Windows Explorer and locate the data disk files on the CD-ROM drive. Double-click on the CD-ROM or the source drive for the data files. Then select the data files on the right side of the Windows Explorer display by clicking onto the first folder or file and then hold the shift key down and click on the last file in the list. This process will select and highlight all of the folders or files between the two “click points.” If the target media icon or line identification is not showing on the left side of the Windows Explorer display, use the scroll bars for the left side to make the media icon or line visible. Once the transportable media line or icon is visible right click onto the selection on the right side of the window and, without releasing the button, drag the highlighted files to the transportable media icon on the left side of the Windows Explorer display. The transportable media line or icon will highlight when your mouse cursor is over it. When it is highlighted, release the mouse button. The pop-up menu will ask if you want to “Copy Here”, “Move Here”, “Create a Shortcut” or “Cancel.” If the target has shifted off the transportable media, you can cancel. Otherwise select “Copy Here” and Windows Explorer will copy the highlighted folders and files to the transportable media. If the disk fills before the selected folders and files are copied, you can see which folders and files were copied by double-clicking on the transportable media line or icon. The remaining data files will have to be saved to other transportable media. While most of the folders and files are less than 50 KB in size, these files will grow in size while you populate the exercise and problem templates with data. This growth should be accounted for when selecting your transportable media. Renaming Files Within Windows You may have the requirement to rename a file within Windows. This can be accomplished easily within Windows Explorer. Simply locate the file on either side of the Windows presentation. Once located, rightclick the folder or file name and then select “Rename” from the pop-up menu options. The folder or file name will be highlighted and you will be allowed to enter a new folder or file name by typing it in. Under the Windows folders and names convention, any letter, upper or lower case can be used, and any number can be used. Additionally, the “-” (dash) can be used as well as spaces. Windows considers the characters of “\”, “/”, “:”, “*”, “?”, “<”, “>”, “|” and the quotation marks (“”) as special characters and unacceptable as part of a folder or file name. Other operating systems may consider other characters as unacceptable. The file names can be rather long so titles such as “Student - John Doe – 01-01-05” are acceptable within the Windows environment. These long file names may create problems in other operating systems. You can also rename a file or folder by clicking on it once on the right side waiting several moments, and then clicking once into it again. This puts you into the “edit name” mode only if the folder or file is on the left side of the Windows presentation. Clicking too soon or rapidly will open the folder or file. If a file is open by an application or a file is open within a directory you can not rename that file or directory as they are “active.” You will need to close those files first and then rename the file or directory. Search Within Windows Another frequently used tool within Windows Explorer is the “Search” tool. Suppose that you copied the data disk files to your local hard drive and now you can not locate them. By looking in your textbook you confirm that Problem P1-1A is an Excel problem template and that its file name should be “1p-1a.xls.” Open up Windows Explorer and click on the “Search” icon or button. From the new menu select “All Files and Folders.” The next menu will ask “All or part of the file name” and populate that window with “1p-1a.xls” – without the quotation marks and click on the search button. Windows Explorer should return a list of all folders or files which contained the sequence of “1p-1a.xls” in their titles. The results will also show you the “Path” to that file. You can screen print the results as a record. While Windows Explorer Search will show you the path, you can also double-click on the target file, “1p-1a.xls” and Windows Explorer will open the file, if Excel is installed on the computer. Once Excel is open, by following the path “File > Save as” from the menu bar you can also determine the location of Page 4 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows file from the dialog box since the “default” or “preferred” action will be to save the file back to where it came from. Search will also accept “wildcard” characters. Searching for “*.xls” will find every file on the drive with an extension of “XLS” since the “*”, a “wildcard” character means any letter(s), number(s), or character(s) in this position in any order or sequence. Executing a search for “excel.exe” will find the application file for Excel and all the shortcuts to that file. Selecting “Folders” will restore the normal view of the Windows Explorer. File Shortcuts File shortcuts are icons you placed or “built” on the desktop which allow you to open a specific file and, therefore, a specific application. For example, you keep your timesheet as an Excel file on the computer’s local hard drive, the “C:\” drive in the “Documents and Setting” directory. When you arrive at work you log on, open up Excel and then open up your timesheet file, “Timesheet” to enter the date and time of your arrival. Rather than that series of steps, you can place or “build” a shortcut to that file on the desktop through the following steps that will open Excel and the file in a single set of double clicks. Assume that the file is stored in the “C:\Documents and Settings” directory. Open up Windows Explorer (Not Internet Explorer). If Windows Explorer fills the screen, reduce the size slightly so that you Desktop can see the desktop area next to it. Then click on “My Computer” to open that level of area resources followed by clicking on the “Local Disk C:\” and finally the “My Documents and Settings” directory. You should see the “Timesheet” file on the right side of Windows Explorer. Right click your mouse on the “Timesheet” file and hold the right mouse button down. Then drag the mouse cursor to the desktop area and release the right mouse button. A pop-up menu asking what you would like to accomplish will appear. Select the “Create Shortcuts Here” from the options. Windows Explorer will now create or “build” the shortcut to the “Timesheet” file. This shortcut will usually have a name or title such as “Shortcut to Timesheet” attached to it and contain a black sweeping arrow on a white square background in the lower left corner. This arrow indicates that it is a shortcut to an application or file and not the file itself. From now on, arrive at work, start up the computer, single click on the shortcut to “Timesheet” on the desktop and Excel will open and open the file at the same time. This does not restrict you to this file or workbook. Once the application is open, you can open other files or workbooks and close the “Timesheet” workbook without closing Excel. Since the icon “Timesheet” is a shortcut, deleting it by clicking on it once and then pressing and releasing the “Delete” key or right clicking it and selecting “Delete” from the pop-up menu options will remove the shortcut from the desktop and not the file itself. This same concept of building shortcut icons is applicable to other files as well. You need to find the file in Windows Explorer, use the right mouse button to drag the file name to the desktop, then instruct Windows Explorer to create the shortcut. As addressed earlier, shortcuts can be renamed by right clicking them and selecting “Rename” from the options on the pop-up menu. You can also click on the icon title, wait a moment, and click again without moving the mouse. This will take you into the edit text mode on the icon title. You can now edit the title. When complete, simply click elsewhere to complete the process. Chapter 2 INSTALLING, FINDING, AND SHORTCUTS TO MICROSOFT OFFICE Chapter Outline Terms and Conventions Of This Text The Difference Between Microsoft Office Pro And Microsoft Office Purchasing Microsoft Office Installing Microsoft Office Opening Elements Of Microsoft Office Terms And Conventions Of This Text The term “Office Suite” or “Office”, capitalized as shown will infer or refer to the Microsoft Office Pro and Microsoft Office “Suite.” This “Suite” is a complement of applications. The term “office” as shown in lower case is place of business, work, or study as a location. The Microsoft applications and elements of the Office Suite will be shown in “title” case as “Word”, “Excel”, “Access” while typing in a series of letters forms a “word” and unlocking a door will give you “access” to the room. When the phrases such as “Office Suite” or “Office”, (case specific), “Open Word” or “Open Excel” are used, the instructions are generic – open your version of Microsoft Office Pro, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Word, or Microsoft Excel. The standardization of Microsoft products allows the use of this textbook with many versions of the Microsoft Office Pro and Office family. And, where a command installed in data file is not available due to the differences of versions, such as a data file structured with a particular function not available until Word XP and the data file is being opened with Word 95, Word 95 will usually open the file and ignore that command string. Word 95 may offer an advisory message upon opening the file and formatting may be affected but the file should be available for use and editing allowing a high degree of access and usage. Word “Find”, “Find and Replace”, and “Go to” dialog box A “Windows Compliant” application is an application that contains certain structures for performance, operations, and consistencies. For example pressing and releasing the “F1” (Function #1) key in almost every Windows Compliant application will result in a “Help Screen”, “Help Dialog Office Assistant Section 2, Page 5 Page 6 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows Box”, or the “Office Assistant” being presented, depending on the application and your position within the application. (The Microsoft Office Assistant can be changed from the default paperclip to one of numerous other animated objects if you have the installation disks available. The actual characterization does not change the Office Assistant’s functionality or effectiveness. Shown here is the author’s Office Assistant – Rex’s “Dog.”) Pressing the “F5” key will refresh the current view of a directory within Microsoft Windows Explorer while it will bring up the “Find” / “Find and Replace”, and “Go to” dialog box from within Word. However, within Excel the “F5” key will bring up the “Go to” dialog box, shown here. There are many processes, referred to as “commands” that are accessed through numerous “Paths.” A “Path” is a way to get to some place such as a command selection. One path is from the “Menu bar”, shown in the following screen print. The menu bar is a listing of words such as “File”, “Edit”, “View” and “Insert” across the top of the application. Associated with these are other options called “drop-down” menus. These drop-down menus are lists of actions that would normally available under that “title.” Sometimes one or more items may be “grayed out” or “faded.” This indicates that, while that item is normally available through this particular path, due to your position within the application at this time, this particular Excel “Go to” option not available. (Note: It may be available via dialog box. another path.) Paths from the menu bar will be identified as “File > Open” indicating that you click on the word “File” on the menu bar and then select “Open” from the presented options on the Open file “drop down” menu. A second path to this same action is through a “Tool bar” icon. icon with Icons are symbols or images that invoke an action. The actual symbol or image “Open” usually is associated or indicative of the action of the icon. For example, to open a tag. file you can click on the icon that looks like an “opening file” on the tool bar. If you place your mouse cursor over an icon and do not move it or click it, you will normally be “told” via a “tag” what the action associated with the icon is. Another path to opening files from within an application is by holding the “Ctrl” (Control) key down and then pressing the letter “O” (in upper or lower case) key, and then releasing the keys in any order. This path to the “Open File” dialog box is provided as “Ctrl-O.” While this path will be shown in upper case, the case will only be specified if associated command is case sensitive. Most keystroke paths within Windows compliant applications are not upper or lower case sensitive. The use of the path is the user’s option. If the text states “Open a file through the path “File > Open” or the key strokes “Ctrl-O” you may choose to utilize clicking on the “Open file” icon on the tool bar. Minimize, Title bar, Menu bar, Maximize, Tool bar and Icons Ruler Close Chapter 2, Page 7 The Differences Between Microsoft Office Pro And Microsoft Office Within Microsoft Office Pro and Microsoft Office there is no difference between the applications themselves. Word is Word, Excel is Excel, and PowerPoint is PowerPoint. The primary difference between Microsoft Office Pro and Microsoft Office is the addition of Microsoft Access, the relational database. This text may not require the purchase of Microsoft Office Pro or Microsoft Office as many colleges and universities as well as many public libraries have Microsoft Office Pro or Microsoft Office installed in the computer labs or learning resource centers for use. Most educational and public facilities computer labs and learning resource centers have computer systems that revert to a default configuration upon startup to reduce the probability of virus attacks, as well as unwanted software and information from previous users. If you are using one of these systems, you should discuss the procedure of loading, accessing, and saving your data disk and your work with that center’s personnel. In consideration of the copyright laws and privileges provided through this purchase, not copy the data disk to a public system or distribute copies of the data disk to other individuals. You may copy the files from the data disk to other media formats for your own personal use and conveyance. Purchasing Microsoft Office Students and faculty are a privileged class for Microsoft applications purchases. They can purchase many of the Microsoft products, including Microsoft Office Pro and Office, through their bookstores and numerous retailers on an “academic pricing schedule.” There are some restrictions and requirements to become eligible for these purchases so read the constraints and restrictions before purchasing these products. When purchasing the software be prepared to show proof of registration in a current term such as student identification card and a current term registration document. Faculty can usually use their faculty identification and a current pay stub or contract. Check with your bookstore or reseller to insure what documents are needed and the date of those documents. Installing Microsoft Office This installation sequence addresses a “routine” installation on a desktop system. You may find variances based on your specific system and preferences as well as your specific version. The installation of Microsoft Office is usually an automatic process that requires specific input at numerous points. Normally the media, a CDROM disk, is inserted into the appropriate drive and the computer “reads” the disk and initiates an installation process and presents you with an opening screen. This screen will initiate the installation and registration process. The “Product Key” is provided with your software. You will need this number anytime you install or reinstall the Office application. The second screen is usually a licensing agreement screen that requires acceptance to continue. The third screen, shown here, asks if you want to “Upgrade Now or choose an installation type.” With an “Upgrade” option, the installation will replace previous versions of Office and “inherit” most default settings from those previous versions. The most common selection is “Upgrade Now.” The Microsoft Office Suite is a large application and the desire to have two versions on one desktop system may be hard to justify. From this screen you can change the default directory into which the Microsoft Office Suite will be installed through the “Install to” window. If the directory does not currently exist, you can create it through this screen. For example, if you wanted Microsoft Office installed in the “MS Office Pro XP” directory of the “C:\” drive, you would enter “C:\MS Office Pro XP” and then click the “Next” button. Page 8 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows In the process of installation, the Office Suite will ask which of the specific applications you would like installed and where you would like to “run” them from. Normally this is all and you would like to run them from your computer. If your system is memory limited you may not want all of the Office Suite’s applications loaded onto the desktop. The bottom right corner of this dialog box also informs you of the space your selections require and the space available. The Microsoft Office Suite is a large application. It may take in excess of 20 minutes to get the “Successful installation” screen shown below. If the installation process faults out the documentation with the application can usually address the issue. Additionally there is help through “FAQs” (Frequently asked questions) on the Microsoft homepage at Telephone assistance is also available as listed in your application documentation. Once installed, the Microsoft Office Suite will need to be registered for unrestricted use. Upon opening your first Office application the process will be initiated. It can be done via phone or internet at that time or it can be delayed for several uses. The sooner the Office Suite is registered, the quicker the advisory about registration will go away. Opening Elements Of Microsoft Office There may be an Office Shortcut Bar, shown here, on the desktop. As shown, it is anchored or positioned on the top of the desktop. The shortcut bar may be on the left, right, top, bottom, or as a rectangular object somewhere on the desktop display. With a blue “W” for Word, a green “X” for Excel, an orange display sheet for PowerPoint, and a maroon key for Access, simply click on the application icon you desire to open on the shortcut bar. This shortcut bar can be installed on your desktop through the path Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office Tools > Microsoft Office Shortcut Bar. It Microsoft Office Shortcut Bar will require your installation disks to accomplish the install. There are other icons on this shortcut bar that are for other Microsoft applications. There may be icons for the individual applications such as “Word”, “Excel”, Microsoft Office Suite “PowerPoint” and Desktop Icons “Access” on the desktop as well. By default, these will normally be labeled such as “Shortcut to WINWORD” or “Shortcut to Excel.” These icons will normally have a black arrow in a white background square in the lower left corner indicating they are shortcut icons. You can rename an icon by clicking on it once, then right clicking it and selecting “Rename” from the pop-up menu options. To open a Microsoft Office Suite element through a shortcut icon simply double-click the appropriate icon on the desktop. Chapter 2, Page 9 If there is no Microsoft Office Shortcut Bar or shortcut icons on the desktop, you can “build” your own using Windows Explorer. To open Microsoft Windows Explorer, (Not Microsoft Internet Explorer) double-click on the Windows Explorer icon on the screen. On a desktop system, single click on the “Local Disk (C)” line. If there is a plus (+) next to this line, click on the “+” (plus) once to expose all folders or directories on the left side of the display. If Windows Explorer fills the screen or prevents you from Windows seeing the desktop area, use the Maximize/Minimize button (two Explorer overlaying sheets shown below) in the upper right corner to reduce its size. Click on the Search button or icon in the menu bar and select the “All Files and Folders” option. This will invoke a pop-up dialog box. Within the text entry area labeled “All or part of a file name:” enter “word.exe” for Word, enter “excel.exe” for Excel, enter “access.exe” for Access, enter or “powerpnt.exe” for PowerPoint and click “Search.” (Note: The actual file titles may be Winword.exe, Excel.exe, Maximize/Minimize button Microsoft Excel execute file. Powerpnt.exe, and Msaccess.exe but search will find all files with the letter sequences of “word.exe” or “excel.exe” as specified.) Search should locate one or more files meeting the criteria. In the search for “Excel.exe” for example, the target file is the file with the large green X in the box on the left of the listing. Single-click the left area (the "X" or the name area) of the one file with the large blue/green "X," labeled Excel.exe with the type of file identified as shortcut or application. Wait a moment then right-click and hold the right mouse button down. Now drag the mouse cursor to the desktop. When positioned over the desktop, release the mouse button. You will be given several options including “Create Shortcuts Here” from another pop-up menu, shown here. Select the “Create Shortcuts Here” option to create a new shortcut to Excel. Once the operation is complete, you should be able to double click this icon on your desktop to open Excel from the desktop. You can build shortcut icons for other applications in this manner at will. If the icon carries a title such as “Shortcut to WinWord (2)” that indicates that there is another shortcut with the title “Shortcut to WinWord” on the desktop. You can rename these shortcuts by right-clicking on the icon and selecting “Rename” from the pop-up menu options. You can also left click on the icon’s name once, wait several seconds, then left click again into the name without moving the mouse between clicks. This will take you into the “edit” mode for the title text. When you have finished renaming your icon simply click elsewhere to complete the process. You can reposition the icons by clicking on the icon once and keeping the left mouse button down. Then drag the icon to Page 10 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows where you want the icon to be on the desktop. Strictly as a matter of personal preference I put my Office Suite icons in the upper right corner of the desktop and then specific file shortcut icons below them. These shortcuts are discussed under “File Shortcuts” elsewhere in the text. An additional method of opening the elements of the Microsoft Office Suite is through the Start > All Programs path. Then wait a moment or two for the menu pop-up to appear. From this pop-up menu, partially shown here, you can usually find the application you want, such as Word, Excel, Access, or PowerPoint listed. Simply click on the target application and it will open. Chapter 3 BASICS OF EXCEL Chapter Outline Excel Basics Opening Excel Workbooks And Worksheets Within Excel Opening Excel Files The Exercise And Problem Templates Demo File Excel Tabs Pop-Up Menus Drop-Down Menus New Workbook Help Saving Excel Files Formula Bar Row And Column Headers Excel File Extensions Within Sizing Workbook Presentations Excel Basics Microsoft Excel is more than a “spreadsheet” application. The ability of Excel to accept and process numerical data, evaluate text data, have images and objects places on top of the worksheet, and the ability to sort, assembly and restructure data makes it a powerful application. There are numerous terms that need to be appreciated in usage of Excel. First, the basic data file for Excel is called a “Workbook.” The exercise and problem templates as well as the data files supplied on the accompanying data disk are all examples of workbooks. It is not uncommon to hear someone speak of an Excel workbook as a “spreadsheet file.” This terminology may describe the general appearance of Excel but Excel has grown far beyond the capabilities of spreadsheet applications of early computers and desktop systems. When Excel is first opened, by default the workbook will be Title bar – “Book 1” titled “Book1” as shown in the title bar, Worksheet tabs shown here. At the bottom of the screen there are three “tabs” or “worksheets. These are the worksheets within the workbook of “Book1.” To select, switch to, or enter a worksheet, simply click on the “tab” identifying the worksheet. These tabs, shown here as “Sheet1”, Sheet2”, and “Sheet3” can be renamed and moved around. This is addressed under the “Excel Tabs” section. Within the worksheet, by default, the columns and rows are identified. The columns are identified as “A”, “B”, “C”, “D” and so on across the top of the worksheet. There are 256 columns available in Excel XP, these are identified as “A” through “IV.” The rows are identified by numbers down the left side of the worksheet in numerical order starting at “1.” There are 65,536 rows available in Excel XP. This makes over 16 million “cells” available. A “Cell” is the area identified by a column and a row identity. In the screen print the column “A” is shown as highlighted and Section 2, Page 11 Page 12 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows “active” as well as the row “1.” This indicates that “Cell A1” is the active cell. This can be confirmed by the heavy outline around the cell at the intersection of column A and row 1. Immediately above the column A identifier is a window that contains “A1”. This is the “Name Box” and it shows the cell “address”, “coordinates”, or name of the current cell. The cell address is the “coordinates” – the combination of the column and row – “A1”. Names will be addressed in the Name Ranges section of the text. Opening Excel To open Microsoft Excel, double-click the icon on the desktop labeled “Shortcut to Excel.” If there is no icon, look for the Microsoft Office Shortcut Bar usually found at the top of the screen. You may also find the Excel execute file (.exe) by using Windows Explorer. To open Microsoft Windows Explorer, (not Microsoft Internet Explorer) double-click on the Windows Explorer icon on the screen. On a Microsoft desktop system, single click on the “Local Disk (C:)” line. If there is a Windows Microsoft “+” (plus) next to this line, click on the plus once to expose all Explorer Excel folders/directories on the left side of the display. If Windows Explorer Icon Icon fills the screen or prevents you from seeing the desktop area, use the Maximize/Minimize button (two overlaying sheets) in the upper right corner to reduce its size. You need to see the desktop area to complete this procedure. Click on “Search” button on Windows Explorer or follow the path of Start > Search and select the “All Files and Folders” option. This will invoke a pop-up dialog box. Within the text entry area labeled “All or part of a file name:” enter “Excel.exe” (Excel – period – exe) and click “Search.” Search should locate one or more files meeting that criteria. The target file is the file with the large green X in the box to the left of the listing. Single-click the left area (the "X" or the title area) of the one file with the large green "X," labeled “Excel” with the type of file identified as shortcut or application. Wait a moment then right-click and hold the right mouse button down. Now, with the right mouse button down, drag the mouse cursor to the desktop. When positioned over the desktop, release the mouse button. You will be given several options on a pop-up menu, select “Create Shortcut(s) Here” to create a new shortcut to Excel. This icon, by default, should be the same icon shown above, and it should be labeled “Shortcut to Excel.” Once the operation is complete, you should be able to double click on the new icon to open Excel from the desktop. This is the presentation of Excel's execute file in Windows Explorer: Maximize / Minimize Button Microsoft Excel execute file. Note: If this is accomplished on a computer lab computer or a system that reverts to a default configuration upon each startup, this shortcut may not be available upon the next startup due to the reverting to the default setup. Chapter 3, Page 13 Workbooks And Worksheets Within Excel Within Excel’s terminology a “Workbook” is the file that Excel utilizes to contain the data the user has entered or Excel has created for the user. This “Workbook” can be saved with a file name such as “demo file.xls” which is one of the data files for this book. Within the demo file or workbook, there are three worksheets. In the demo file the worksheets are named “Information”, “Demo File”, and “Instructions.” In the vocabulary of the office you will frequently hear a workbook or worksheet being called a “spreadsheet.” This is a carryover from earlier days when a spreadsheet was very similar in construction to a worksheet – a series of columns and rows forming cells into which data was entered. As computers and programs became more powerful, the restriction of a single spreadsheet within the file had been overcome, the terminology needed to change to reflect that change in capabilities. This resulted in the terms “Workbook” meaning a spreadsheet type file in which more than one spreadsheet was contained. Since the term spreadsheet was associated with an application restricted to lower power applications, the spreadsheets within workbooks became “Worksheets.” In the everyday office usage there is no harm in using the outdated vocabulary but the micro-perfectionist will grid his teeth when you do. When a new workbook is opened, it will contain the number of worksheets that is determined by a setting on the “General” tab of the “Options” dialog box. To change the number of default worksheets within a workbook when it is initially created, follow the path “Tools > Options” and select the “General” tab. Then use the “Up” or “Down” arrows next to the “Sheets in new workbook” window which is in the lower portion of the circle on the screen print shown here. A number from 3 to 6 is very reasonable. Most users do not utilize more than 1 or 2 worksheets and very few users use more than 4 or 5 worksheets within a workbook. This will not have any affect on previously created workbooks. Opening Excel Files Excel has a default directory that is usually the “My Documents” folder. This is the also the default directory for other Microsoft Office applications. As such, this directory can become rather full with many files that are not associated with each other. To open a file from Excel that has not had the default directory changed simply click on the “Open File” icon on the tool bar, follow the path “File > Open” or use the key strokes “Ctrl-O” (hold the control key – Ctrl – down and press and release the letter “O” in upper or lower case and release the control key). Excel will present you with a dialog box as shown below and all files stored within that default directory which are Excel formatted files will be shown. If your files were saved or copied to the default directory of “My Documents”, they should be shown within this directory window. If the target file is shown, you may double click the file to open it or single click it to select it and then click on the “Open” button on the bottom right corner. If your file is not shown in the default directory it will generally be for one of three reasons. First, the file is not of an extension that will be displayed by default. A file extension is the group of (usually) three letters following the last period of the file name. In the name “demo file.xls” the “xls” is the extension and it is created by the preceding period. In the default presentation, Excel will show all files with the file extensions such as “XL*”, “XLS”, and “XLT.” The “XLS” extension is the usual Excel extension. What an extension does is to tell the computer what type of file this is before opening it. By default, when a computer opens a file with an “XLS” extension, it will utilize Microsoft Excel to open that file. If the Page 14 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows computer would be asked to open a “DOC” or “TXT” extension it would most likely open the file in Microsoft Word since these extensions tell the computer that these particular files are text documents. In the presentation screen print below, only files with Excel extensions such as “XLS” or “XLT” are shown as possible selections. If your target file has an extension other than an Excel extension such as “XLS” or “XLT” or you are unsure of the extension, you can change the files shown by using the drop-down arrow to the right side of the “Files of types” window to select the appropriate type of extensions. One option and one of the best alternative selections is the top selection “All files (*.*). This is the top selection of the listing and may require scrolling to see it. Once this selection is elected by clicking on it, all files, regardless of extensions, will be shown. If the file is shown and you select it, that does not mean that Excel can open it. If the data structure of the file in incompatible with Excel, Excel may try to import it, may present you with a dialog box that says the data is unreadable, or it may ask for further guidance. Look in window Files of types The second reason you may not see your file in the “Open” dialog box may be that the file is located somewhere else other than the current or default directory. To change the directory, click on the dropdown arrow to the right side of the “Look in” window at the top of the dialog box. From the presentation you can double click on the “C” drive or local drive and see all the directories and files at that level. By double-clicking on a directory with a subdirectory will reveal lower level directories (subdirectories) and files. It is merely my preference but I change the default directory, explained in the “Change The Default Directory” section, to a specific directory which would contain only Excel files. The third reason a file usually cannot be found is the file is not there in the first place. Most computers and computer users are pretty good at keeping order to their files whether by default, by accident, or on purpose. One of the great aids in finding a missing but recently used file is to click on “File” and then look at the bottom of the presented drop-down file. At the bottom of the menu is a listing of recently used files. If your target file is there, you can double-click on it and retrieve it. Now you have the option of using “Save as” to read where it is saved or to save it to a known or common location. In this screen print it shows the eight most recent files I have worked on. Double-clicking any one of the shown files would open that specific file. This function, the “Recently Used Files List” is covered elsewhere in this text. If the file still cannot be located there is a “Search” function under the “Tools” icon on the “Open” dialog box. You can utilize this search tool to look for file names and for text within the files as well. The Windows Explorer can also be utilized to search for files on the local drives and network drives if so equipped. Once located, as discussed earlier, a file can be opened by double-clicking it or Chapter 3, Page 15 by clicking on it once to select it and then clicking on “Open” on the dialog box. If the file is located through a search process, you can double-click it to preclude having to memorize the location. Once files are open, incremental saving will update the current file in its established location. The Exercise And Problem Templates The templates can be copied from the computer media and saved to a local hard drive such as the “C” drive or hard drive. Note: Do not do this procedure on a computer lab or networked computer. If the computer to be used is a computer lab or networked computer, the files should be copied to floppy disks in groups of 10~15 exercises, problems, or subject items to a floppy disk. To open the template for Chapter 1, Exercise E1-12, file name 1e-12, open Excel, click on the Open File icon (an opening file), follow the path File > Open, or utilize the keystrokes Ctrl-O (letter "O" for open in upper or lower case). When presented with the “Open” dialog box, use the drop-down arrow on the right side of the “Look In” window to expose all of the drives available. Locate and select the drive that contains the Accounting Principles templates by clicking on that drive with the left mouse button. The displayed Excel files will change to those of the Accounting Principles templates directory. Use the Open File slide bars on the bottom or side of the display to move the display until you locate the Icon file titled 1e-12. When located, double clicking the target file, 1e-12, will open the file immediately without further action. Clicking it once will require the “Open” button on the right side of the dialog box to be clicked as well. The template will load automatically into the display. Excel “Open” dialog box showing template files. To move around the template you can use the arrow keys, Page Up/Down, Tab, Enter or click the left mouse button while the cursor is over the target cell. Alphabetical characters or numerical values can be entered into a cell simply by typing them in. If an entry starts with an arithmetic function symbol (=, /, *, + or -), preceding it with a single apostrophe (') will force Excel to read it as text. Otherwise, an error message may appear in the cell unless it is a proper formula. To save the data, click the “Save” icon (a 3.5" floppy disk icon) on the toolbar, follow the path File > Save or utilize the keystrokes Ctrl-S. All of these actions will use the default location and name—where it was opened from and it’s opening name—to save the file. If you desire to save the file elsewhere or with a new name follow the path File > Save As. This will bring up the “Save As” dialog box and allow you to assign a new name and/or designate a new save location. This dialog box will also appear when you save a newly created workbook for the first time. Demo File On the data disk there is a demonstration file of Excel basics. This file, titled “Demo File”, has quick and easy examples of how Excel can assist you in accomplishing the exercises and problems. The Demo File shows how the “Look-to” formula works and how it can be integrated into your work. Because you can do “add-ons” to the look-to formula you can utilize this to do math within the templates such as calculate the interest due on a note payable. It is suggested that you open this file, read both the Information and Instructions worksheets and then study the Demo File worksheet itself. This data file gives an example of a fully completed process of reading the presented material, entering it into a structured general journal, posting the transactions into a ledger, and then creating a trial balance. Very little of the data entry was accomplished through direct entry typing. The extensive use of the look-to formula also reduces the Page 16 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows probability of keying errors. The templates have been set up slightly different then the textbook so that the look-to formula can be used extensive throughout the exercises and problem. This formatting provides much of the numerical data in cells that can be referenced by formulas. As such you will see breaks in the text to provide this data block or statement. Some exercises and problems are reworded and the numerical data is placed to the right of the text. Advanced formulas such as concatenate are utilized in the demo file. These are explained in their own sections within this book. One of the features shown in the demonstration file is the split screen presentation of Excel. This is fully explained in the Split Pane section of the book. It is a useful tool since you can maintain the presentation of the data of the exercise or problem in the upper pane while working in the bottom or vice versa. Each pane moves independently and you can reference or look-to the other pane while working. This feature will save time and allow you to maintain your orientation while solving the exercises and problems. Excel Tabs By default, the tabs of an Excel Three worksheets within the demo file workbook worksheet are labeled “Sheet1”, “Sheet2”, “Sheet3” and so on. The number of tabs appearing is controlled through the path Tools > Options General. On this tab the “Sheets in new workbook” window allows you to change the number or worksheets within a new workbook. If you set this value to 6 and open up a data disk template you will only see two worksheets within the template or workbook since the workbook is structured that way and it is not a new workbook. This value affects only new workbooks. Since very few users use more than one worksheet and worksheets can easily be inserted into a workbook, this number can be low, such as three without restricting later action. You can also rename a tab within a workbook to better describe the worksheet within the workbook. Suppose that you are tracking checks written within the calendar year of 2008. You could name the workbook “Checks Written 2008” and label the tabs “Jan 2008”, “Feb 2008”, “Mar 2008” and so on. To change the name of a tab you can click on the tab and then doubleclick the tab to enter the edit mode and change the text as desired. Or you can click onto the tab, then right click the tab and select “Rename” from the pop-up menu. If the entire tab name is highlighted, simply typing will replace the text. If the “insert” cursor – a single vertical line, is in the text, you can use the backspace and delete keys to remove letters and characters on the tab. There is a limit to the number of characters in the worksheet tab of about thirty. There are a few “special’ characters that can not be used in the naming of tabs. Most of these are “above” the numbers on the keyboard. The exercise and problem templates all have their tabs named. These tabs can be referenced through page setup to assist in identifying the worksheet printout. This is addressed in the “Page Setup” section. Chapter 3, Page 17 Pop-Up Menus Excel will frequently respond to an action with a pop-up menu. This menu seems to appear out of nowhere and be anchored to nothing in particular. Usually it is associated with the currently active object. The most common pop-up menu is the one associated with the active cell, shown here: Pop-up menu of Excel. It is invoked by rightclicking on a cell and presents the options available at the moment. This particular pop-up menu displays the most common commands for the active cell including cut, copy, paste, format cell, and insert comment. All of these commands are available through other paths but the action of right clicking the cell or range of cells to gain access to this pop-up menu is the quickest. Pop-up menus are not anchored to a specific item as drop-down menus are. Drop-Down Menu The drop-down menu is visibly associated with another item such as the “File” title on the menu bar. The dropdown menu from the “File” menu, shown here, provides access to common file commands like New (workbook), Open or Close (a workbook), Save (a workbook) or the Save As function (for a workbook), Page Setup and Print Area. Many of these will be utilized in this text. Drop-down menus can be accessed by clicking on their titles or striking the “Alt” (Alternate) key and then using the arrows to move left and right between menus as well as up and down through the menus. Using your mouse to click or double click a choice or striking the “Enter” key will normally invoke the highlighted selection. Striking the “Esc” (Escape) key will normally back you out of the menu without any action taken. The appearance of the drop down menu from the “File” title on the menu bar is shown here. Drop-down menu associated with the “File” option. New Workbook In the process of accomplishing your work with the templates you may want an area to do "scratch" work not to be incorporated into the finished template or file. This can easily be accomplished in the area outside the gray borders of New Workbook the exercise or problem or by opening up a new workbook within Excel. To open the new workbook click once on the clear white sheet with the upper right corner folded over on the taskbar or follow New Workbook Page 18 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows the path File > New. Both will open the new workbook. Excel will normally assign the new workbook a title like “Book2” or “Book3” upon opening. To switch between the workbooks click on “Windows” on the menu bar and select the workbook you want to be active from the list at the bottom. If more than can be displayed are available the last line will inform you of that and clicking on that line will display them. By using the Maximizing/Minimizing buttons near the upper right corner of the display and / or resizing the workbooks, you can have more than one workbook showing at the same time even if they overlap. The active workbook will come to the forefront of the display. All commands issued to Excel while two or more workbooks are open will only be effective on the active workbook. Commands such as copy, paste and format painting are available from one workbook to another while they are open. The title bar of Excel will reinforce the active workbook by showing the name. Help The Help menu of Excel is very useful and gives you several options. Each version of Excel has its own methodology of presenting help so one explanation will not address all situations you might likely encounter. Another method of attaining help within Excel is by pressing and releasing the F1 key, the standard help key in a Windows environment. The alternative option is to follow the path Help > Microsoft Excel Help from the menu bar. Both of these will present you with a dialog box or an office assistant. With this dialog box open, you can type in your question, problem, or desired action and click on “Search”, “Okay”, “OK”, or “Enter” as appropriate. When Excel presents you with a solution, you will need to evaluate it before implementing the proposed solution. If you like the solution, you can print it out for record keeping and reference later. If Excel cannot find an exact match, Excel may present you with several options to choose from. If Excel cannot find a match or has no idea of your question, it will ask that you rephrase the question. Your best responses come from active tense questions. If your first effort does not provide a reasonable response, try changing the question. For example, if you are trying to format a header, typing “Header” into the help menu will result in one array of options. However, entering “Format headers” will present a different array of options. An alternative is to change the plurals to singulars and the singulars to plurals in your query. The Microsoft homepage at has additional help and assistance options. Some versions of Excel will ask if you want to continue your data search on the internet and the Microsoft homepage. Saving Excel Files The motto of “Save early and save often” of days gone by of desktop computing are not lost with today’s increased reliability of computers, operating systems, and applications. Excel offers numerous ways to save a file. The most common method of saving is to simply click on the 3.5” disk icon on the tool bar. This will save the file back to its original source making it easy to Excel Save locate a second time or for later use. This may be done with the Excel Icon templates accompanying this book if they have been copied to a recordable location from the CD-ROM format. You can also use the keyboard command “Ctrl-S” to invoke the save command. An alternative is using the menu bar path of File > Save. When using “Save” the file is copied back to its original source in the original format. If either of these desires changes, you can impose that change on Excel. For example, you are using the CDROM as your data source and you want to save your work on your hard drive, your “C” drive. By following the path File > Save As a dialog box is opened which allows you to change the location by modifying the presentation of the “Save in” box near the top of the dialog box, you can change the name of the file in the lower portion of the box through the “File name” window and you can change the type of file through the selection in the “Save as” type window at “Save As” is a different function than “Save”. Exercise caution. Chapter 3, Page 19 the bottom of the dialog box. These options give you great power over your data. You can open the file on a CD-ROM and save it to the hard drive, a network drive, or other storage devices you may have available. You can change the name from the default established by Microsoft Excel of “Book1” or “Book2” to a more desirable and descriptive title allowing relocating the correct file easier. You may also change its type to allow it to opened by other, less sophisticated software packages or save it as an Excel template which is “read only” as discussed elsewhere in this text. In selecting the name for the file there are a few special characters that cannot be used. These include most of the characters above the numbers on the keyboard and several others. The availability of characters is ample. It is also a good idea to date files that are used often. This allows you to simply back up and recovery from a previous point if something goes awry. For example, you are using Excel to keep your checkbook and each day you enter the checks and transactions into the file called “Checks.” By modifying the title to include Friday’s date each week you will retain the file in its previous week’s status even if this week’s file is lost. By using the dash or hyphen and spaces, legal characters within a file name within the Microsoft Windows environment, you can label the file “Checks 01-07-08” for the first Friday of January 2008. The following Friday using File > Save As you would modify the file name to “Checks 01-14-08.” The file “Checks 01-07-08” is still in the directory if “Checks 01-14-08” is no longer available for some reason. While you may have lost one week’s worth of data input, you have a defined point to recover from. If you are working on a professionally maintained IT system, your system administrator may be backing up your data for you. You should contact him or her to discuss the matter. You can also change the file type to a text type, comma delimited, another spreadsheet format, or a multitude of other file types as shown in the drop-down menu from the “Save as type” window. Use caution when saving as non-Excel file formats since many of the features of Excel are not data or formatting features that can be saved into these data structures. Thus, when saving an Excel file as a text or document file, the formatting and tables within the file may be lost and not recoverable. In this case, it is best to save the file in its default Excel structure first and then save it in its alternate structure. Then, if editing is needed, it can be done within Excel and exported again as the specific data structure format. When the save command is used Excel usually resets the “Undo” command. That is, if you conducted an event that could be reversed through the “Undo” arrow (addressed elsewhere in the book) the ability to recover through “Undo” is generally lost when you save the workbook. Undo and Redo are discussed in the Undo and Redo section of the text. Formula Bar One of the selections on the “View” tab controls the presentation of “Formula bar.” This is almost a requirement for daily users of Excel but may be removed to presentation type events and then restored when concluded. The formula window is shown below: Active Cell Formula Window Page 20 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows Row And Column Headers The presentation of numbers to identify the rows and the letters for the columns is controlled through the “View” tab of the “Options” dialog box. By removing the checkmark, deselecting the option, the row and column identifiers will be removed. This makes a nice presentation screen but makes daily work within Excel a little slower as the active cell location must be read on the tool bar. File Extensions Within Excel Excel will open numerous file extensions. The default is to display Excel files with the extensions of “xl*” where “xl” is followed by any letter such as “s” making it “xls” or “t” such as “xlt”. It will also display “hmt*” such as “hmt” and “hmtl” files. You can change what is displayed within the “Open” dialog box by Excel file extensions dropping the “Files of type:” dialog box down by clicking on the dropdown arrow to the right of the box. By using the slide bar to move up and down you can view different types of extensions. The top one in the listed stack “All Files (*.*)”, all files will be displayed within the “Open” dialog box. From this display you can instruct Excel to open any displayed filed. Not every displayed extension can be opened by Excel but if it can, Excel will open it. If Excel has to “import” the data, Excel may ask some basic questions about the import process before the completing the process. Not all imports and opening events will result in good data presentations. If you open a file through an Excel import or opening process and the resulting data display is unusable, try opening the source application again and exporting the data as “CSV” – comma separated values, or “TXT” which Excel can handle very well. Some of the files that Excel can handle are database files from common database programs such as Microsoft’s Access and other spreadsheet/workbook programs such as Microsoft Works. Excel can also open files with extensions such as “csv”, - comma separated values, “txt” – text files, and “prn” – print files. This allows a maximum capability and flexibility of Excel as it can interact with these other programs through this capability. Excel can also save files in many of these formats. This capability increases Excel’s versatility. As an example, to save an Excel workbook as a text or “txt” file, first save the workbook as an Excel file since this file will retain all of the applied formatting information. Then use the “Save As” function to save the file with the “txt” extension. In this operation you can keep the same file name since “extension.xls” and “extension.txt” are two different files and Excel will not confuse them. However, as just implied, when you save the file as a text file, something may happen to the file. Excel may be required to remove Excel formatting structures that are not compatible with the file standards for text or “txt” files. Excel will normally advise you that it is removing that special formatting before it completes the operation. Since you probably wanted this formatting, as recommended, you should first save the file as an Excel workbook file and retain these for later availability. Chapter 3, Page 21 Just because the file was saved in another application in an Excel format or in a format Excel can open or import does not mean that the data will be usable in Excel once opened. It may be unusable, require modification, or require editing prior to use. One way to minimize this is to paste it from one application to another – a subject covered elsewhere in this text. Sizing Workbook Presentations The size of the Excel application or individual workbook can be changed from filling screen through “Minimize” to a tile on the taskbar or screen. This process is controlled through the three buttons in the upper right corner of the application and the workbook. These buttons are independent of each other – that is, if you minimize the workbook, the application will stay as currently sized. If you minimize Excel, when resized or maximized, the workbooks will return to their same relative size. Maximize / Minimize / Restore Excel Maximize / Minimize / Restore Worksheet On the Excel applications buttons, the extreme upper right corner buttons, clicking on the red “X” button will result in a closing operation to be initiated which could close every workbook open and then close the Excel application. This process will follow a sequence through the workbooks. If there have been any changes since the last save operation on a workbook you will have the options of “Yes”, “No”, and “Cancel” as shown in this screen print. Excel will ask if you would like to save those changes in the process of closing the individual workbooks. Choose “Yes” if you would like Excel to save the most recent changes to that workbook before it is closed. Choose “No” if you do not want to save the most recent changes to that workbook and Excel will close the workbook without saving those changes made since the last save operation. If you have changed your mind about closing Excel or an Excel workbook, choose “Cancel”, and Excel will not close that workbook and the Excel application will not close. On the workbook red “X” button selection, Excel will ask you if you want to save any changes made since the last save operation to that specific workbook. You will be offered the same options as discussed above – Yes, No, and Cancel. These operations will be executed on the Excel application or on the other workbooks. On both the Excel application and workbook, the middle button is actually two buttons switching between presentations. Within the Excel application, when the presentation is maximized, the application will fill the presentation screen or desktop. While this is in affect the center button of the Excel application buttons will be two overlapping sheets. During this time, placing the mouse cursor over the center button for several seconds should result in the tag “Restore Down” being displayed. While the Excel application is in this mode it cannot be moved, dragged or resized. However, when this button is clicked once and it becomes a single sheet and the “tag” will say “Maximize” if the mouse cursor is held over the button for several seconds. While the Excel application is in this mode you can manually change the location of Excel application by clicking once into the title bar where Excel is displayed and the currently active workbook title is displayed, then, holding the left mouse button down, drag the Excel application wherever you would like it to be. Also during this presentation of a single sheet you can change the size of the application by placing your mouse cursor near any of the four sides and waiting for it to become a double-headed arrow such as . At this time, click and hold the left mouse button down, now drag the Excel application to the height or width you desire. You can resize the Page 22 Solving Accounting Principles Problems Using Excel for Windows height from the top or the bottom or resize the width of the Excel application from either the left or the right side. When the application is properly sized, release the mouse button. Within the workbook, the lower of the two button sets, you can change the size of the workbook within the presentation of the Excel application. The methodology is the same – while a single sheet is visible as a middle button, you can resize the individual, active, workbook as desired. If there is more than one workbook open at the time, the other workbooks may be visible within the Excel desktop presentation. By clicking on the individual workbooks within the Excel application and making them the active workbook, you can resize the other workbooks so you can see more than one at a time. On the Excel application the left-most button, a single sheet with a dash or border at the bottom, shown earlier, will minimize that Excel application into a “tile” on the taskbar. Tiles are shown in this screen print. Tiles on the taskbar of Windows If an application has been minimized, it can be restored to displayed and activated by clicking on the application tile. If there is adequate space on the task bar an application may appear more than once such as the Microsoft Word tiles in this screen print. At other times, when numerous applications are open a tile may say “9 Microsoft Excel ▼” indicating that there are 9 (in this case) Microsoft Excel workbooks open. To select the desired workbook click on the tile and a pop-up menu will appear which will show the available workbooks. If there are too many workbooks to show in one menu, the menu will have an arrow at the bottom of the menu allowing you to move into the next section of workbooks. The selection of a workbook is made by clicking on it. Within an Excel workbook clicking on the workbook’s minimize button, the lower set of buttons, will turn the workbook into a tile on the desktop. All have been minimized to tiles and the demo file tile has be made active. At this point the “Minimize” (to tile) button is not available since the workbook is already a tile. The only options are restore up, the left most button, maximize, the center button, and close, the red “X” button. If the restore up button is clicked, the workbook will become active and will be sized at its previous size upon “tiling” it, if the maximize button is clicked, the workbook will fill the Excel application desktop, if the red “X” button is clicked, Excel will initiate a close operation. During the close process, if there have been changes made since the last save operation, Excel will ask if you want to save the changes or not. You can overlap workbooks through resizing and position them as desired. This ability will allow you to copy from one workbook to another easily and to establish workspaces as explained next. ...
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