Final Exam

Final Exam - ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) found in kidneys;...

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ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) found in kidneys; increase water retention, decrease water loss Alleles - different versions of the same gene; arise by mutation and encode slightly different versions of the same trait Alveoli - oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide to alveoli Ames Test - directly determines if a compound is mutagenic Amino acids - are encoded by more than one codon, making the genetic code redundant Aminocentesis - take out fluid from amniotic sac to see the chromosomes from fetus and test for various genetic disorders, sex, or Trisomy 23 Amylase - enzyme that breaks down into sugar (a starch) Angiogenesis - process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones to growing tumors Apoptosis - genetically programmed cell death Ardipithecus ramidus (Ardi) - recently described fossilized skeleton that predated Lucy by ~10m years; ~4.4m years ago, some bipedal movement, not knuckle walking, less fighting, ~4ft tall, opposable big toe-tree used for tree climbing Australopithecus (southern ape) afarensis (Lucy) - ~3m years ago, ~4ft tall, gorilla-sized brain, but bipedal and human teeth, curved fingers, thick neck more ape-like, organ balance in inner ear more ape-like than human Autosome - 2 copies are present in the nucleus of human baby’s brain cells Base pairs - approximately 3 billion are present in the human genome Biological species - members of same biological species interbreed and produce fertile offspring Bladder - collects and stores urine; infection- cystitis Blastocyst - inner cell mass develops into embryo Blood transfusion - somatic cells are transferred from the blood donor to the recipient Carcinoma - ~85% of cancers; affects epithelial (skin) cells; skin, lungs, breast, colon, ect. Central dogma of molecular biology - DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated to protein cGMP (cyolic guanosine mono-phosphate) – relaxes arteries in penis, increases blood flow into erectile tissure, compresses veins, decreasing blood flow from penis, resulting in an erection Chemotherapy - kills all growing cells; most block DNA synthesis; taxol blocks cell division Codons - 5 needed to encode 5 amino acids Colostrum - milk with high protein and antibody content; released immediately Consanguineous relationship - the partners are members of the same family Contact inhibition - a characteristic of normal cells that prevents tumor development Corpus luteum - essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy Darwin’s hypothesis - many individuals born, population size remains constant so competition to survive, individuals vary randomly, variation is heritable, population evolves but not the individual, evolutionary change/ selection results from the survival of the fittest Dialysis - artificial replacement for kidney function in people with renal failure Diploid - somatic cells; 2 copies of each autosome plus XX or XY; 2n; if nondisjunctions then there are 2 copies Dizygotic twins - 2 eggs and 2 sperm; fraternal twins ECG (electrocardiogram
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Final Exam - ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) found in kidneys;...

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