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GunawanCorectedBGap

# GunawanCorectedBGap - IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS...

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IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATECIRCUITS, VOL. 28, NO, 6, JUNE 1993 667 A Curvature-Corrected Low-Voltage Bandgap Reference Made Gunawan, Gerard C. M. Meijer, Jeroen Fonderie, and Johan H. Huijsing, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract— A new curvature-corrected bandgap reference is presented which is able to function at supply voltages as low as 1 V, at a supply current of only 100 PA. After trimming this bandgap reference has a temperature coefficient (TC) of +4 ppm/OC. The reference voltage is about 200 mV and it can simply be adjusted to higher reference voltages, The temperature range of this circuit is from O to 125”C. This bandgap reference is realized using a standard bipolar process with base-diffused resistors. I. INTRODUCTION v OLTAGE references are used in many types of analog circuits for signal processing, such as A–D converters, smart sensors, D–A converters, etc. Of all the types of refer- ences, only bandgap references are suited to operate at very low supply voltages. In a bandgap reference, the reference voltage is obtained by compensating the base-emitter voltage of a bipolar transistor (V~,) for its temperature dependence. The temperature depen- dence of the base-emitter voltage of a transistor, biased by a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) current, can be represented by the following equation [1]: V,O – v~e(~R) -%.(T)= WJo ~R () ‘T-(~-l)\$ln ~ (1) where V’. is the extrapolated bandgap voltage at O K, V~.(TR) is the base-emitter voltage at the reference temperature TR, and q is a process-dependent constant. Practical values for these parameters are Vgo = 117’O mv, vbe (TR) = 0.65 V, TR = 300 K, and ~ = 3.6. The existing bipolar bandgap references operate generally at a supply voltage larger than 1 V. The only reference known to the authors that is able to operate at a supply voltage of 1 V is the one introduced by Widlar [2]. In this paper, a low-voltage bandgap reference with a lower temperature coefficient (TC) than that of Widlar’s circuit is Manuscript received September 8, 1992; revised February 17, 1993. M. Gunawan was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. He is now with the Indonesian Government. G. C. M. Meijer is with the Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. J. Fonderie was with the Laboratory of Electronic Instrumentation, De- partment of Electrical Engineering, Delft University of Technology 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. He is now with Phihps Semiconductors, Sunnyvale, CA 94088. J. H. Huijsing is with the Laboratory of Electronic Instrumentation, De- partment of Electrical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. IEEE Log Number 9209023. 2(1”e+1”)’% ‘Iefl I Fig. 1. The principle of the low-voltage bandgap reference.

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GunawanCorectedBGap - IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS...

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