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Unformatted text preview: IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 33, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1998 1551 Brief Papers A 1.1-V Current-Mode and Piecewise-Linear Curvature-Corrected Bandgap Reference Gabriel A. Rincon-Mora and Phillip E. Allen Abstract— A low-voltage, micropower, curvature-corrected bandgap reference is presented that is capable of working down to input voltages of 1.1 V in a relatively inexpensive process, MOSIS 2 " m technology. This is a vanilla N-well complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process technology with an added P-base layer. Second-order curvature correction for this reference is accomplished by a versatile piecewise-linear current-mode technique. The 0.595-V precision reference achieved a line regulation performance of 408 ppm/V for input voltages between 1.2 and 10 V. The circuit only used 14 " A of quiescent current flow. Index Terms— Bandgap, curvature correction, low voltage, mi- cropower, reference. I. INTRODUCTION R EFERENCE circuits are necessarily present in many applications ranging from purely analog, mixed-mode to purely digital circuits. The demand for low voltage references is especially apparent in mobile battery-operated products such as cellular phones, pagers, camera recorders, and laptops . Consequently, low voltage and low quiescent current flow are intrinsic and required characteristics conducive toward increased battery efficiency and longevity . Low voltage operation is also a consequence of process technology. This is because isolation barriers decrease as the component densities per unit area increase, thereby exhibiting lower breakdown voltages , . By the year 2004, the power supply voltage is expected to be as low as 0.9 V in 0.14- m technologies , . Unfortunately, this leads to lower dynamic range . As a result, maintaining high dynamic range while op- erating at reduced power supply voltages demands that the reference circuitry be more accurate. Furthermore, financial considerations also require that these circuits be realized in relatively simple processes, such as standard complemen- tary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), bipolar (Bi), and stripped down BiCMOS technologies . Manuscript received September 9, 1996; revised March 23, 1998. G. A. Rincon-Mora is with Power Management Products, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, TX 75243 USA (e-mail: [email protected]). P. E. Allen is with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 USA (e-mail: [email protected]). Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9200(98)06989-3. (a) (b) Fig. 1. Generation of the nonlinear current component. II. CURVATURE-CORRECTION METHOD A. Operation Curvature correction is based on the addition of a nonlinear component to the output of a first-order bandgap reference....
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