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Unformatted text preview: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2004 1433 CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Design Optimization Techniques Trung-Kien Nguyen, Chung-Hwan Kim, Gook-Ju Ihm, Moon-Su Yang, and Sang-Gug Lee Abstract— This paper reviews and analyzes four reported low-noise amplifier (LNA) design techniques applied to the cascode topology based on CMOS technology: classical noise matching, simultaneous noise and input matching (SNIM), power-constrained noise optimization, and power-constrained simultaneous noise and input matching (PCSNIM) techniques. Very simple and insightful sets of noise parameter expressions are newly introduced for the SNIM and PCSNIM techniques. Based on the noise parameter equations, this paper provides clear understanding of the design principles, fundamental limitations, and advantages of the four reported LNA design techniques so that the designers can get the overall LNA design perspective. As a demonstration for the proposed design principle of the PCSNIM technique, a very low-power folded-cascode LNA is implemented based on 0.25- m CMOS technology for 900-MHz Zigbee applica- tions. Measurement results show the noise figure of 1.35 dB, power gain of 12 dB, and input third-order intermodulation product of 4 dBm while dissipating 1.6 mA from a 1.25-V supply (0.7 mA for the input NMOS transistor only). The overall behavior of the implemented LNA shows good agreement with theoretical predictions. Index Terms— CMOS, low-noise amplifier (LNA), low power, low voltage, noise optimization, RF, Zigbee. I. INTRODUCTION C MOS HAS become a competitive technology for radio transceiver implementation of various wireless commu- nication systems due to the technology scaling, higher level of integrability, lower cost, etc. , . In a typical radio re- ceiver, the low-noise amplifier (LNA) is one of the key com- ponents, as it tends to dominate the sensitivity. The LNA de- sign involves many tradeoffs between noise figure (NF), gain, linearity, impedance matching, and power dissipation . Gen- erally, the main goal of LNA design is to achieve simultaneous noise and input matching (SNIM) at any given amount of power dissipation. A number of LNA design techniques have been re- ported to satisfy these goals. To name a few representatives: the classical noise matching (CNM) technique , SNIM tech- nique , power-constrained noise optimization (PCNO) tech- nique , and power-constrained simultaneous noise and input matching (PCSNIM) technique . However, these previously reported works describe only one of these techniques and the analysis approaches tend to be inconsistent with each other. The Manuscript received September 23, 2003; revised January 10, 2004. This work was supported by the Digital Media Laboratory, which is funded by the Ministry of Information and Communications, Korea....
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