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man_part1 - ENEE 307 Electronics Analysis and Design...

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ENEE 307: Electronics Analysis and Design Laboratory: Part I Neil Goldsman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Fall 2009 Instructor: Professor Neil Goldsman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742
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Contents 1 Diodes and Operational Amplifiers 4 1.1 introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Diodes and Rectifier Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 Experiment: Simple Half-Wave Rectifier: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Experiment: The Full Wave Rectifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 DC Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.1 Half-Wave Single-Sided Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.2 The Full-Wave Single-Sided Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.3 Experiment: The Full Wave Rectifier and Power Supply . . . . . . . 9 1.3.4 Experiment: Design of Dual Output Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4 Operational-Amplifier Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.1 Noninverting Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4.2 Inverting Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.4.3 Experiment on Simple Op-Amps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.5 Preliminary Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Simple Transistor Amplifiers 16 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2 BJT Forward Active Operation, Equivalent Circuit and β . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.2 DC Levels and Loop Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.3 Experiment: Determining BJT Current Gain β and Verifying the Equivalent Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3 Common Emitter Amplifier: DC Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.2 Experiment: CE Amp DC Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4 CE Amp Small Signal Voltage Gain at Midband Frequencies . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.1 Theory: Approximate Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.2 Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.4.3 Theory: Accounting for V be in the CE Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.4.4 Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1
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2.4.5 Theory: Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit, Input Resistance and Output Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.4.6 Experiment: Effect of Input and Output Resistances . . . . . . . . . 29 2.5 Emitter Follower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.5.1 Theory: DC Bias and Small Signal Voltage Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.5.2 Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.6 Putting it All Together: Practical Amplifier Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.6.1 Experiment: Multi-Transistor Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.7 Preliminary Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3 Design and Build Your Own Compact Disk Hi Fi Audio System 35 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.2 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.2.1 Power to Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.2.2 Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.2.3 Preamplifier Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.2.4 Power Amplifier Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.2.5 Example Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.3 Experiment: Building the Hi-Fi System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3.1 Basic Audio Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3.2 Tone Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.4 Preliminary Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4 Frequency Response of Simple Transistor Circuits 44 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.2 Low Frequency Brute Force Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.3 CE Amp with Emitter Bypass Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 4.4 Short Circuit Time-Constant Approximation (SCTCA) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 4.5 Experiment: Low Frequency Response of CE Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.6 High Frequency Response Using Miller’s Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.6.1 Miller Time Constant Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4.7 Experiment: Miller Effect and High Frequency Response Part I . . . . . . . 54 4.8 Transistor Intrinsic Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.9 High Frequency Response Using Open Circuit Time Constant Analysis(OCTCA) 55 4.10 Experiment: The OCTCA and High-Frequency Response Due to Intrinsic Capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.11 Frequency Response of Multi-Transistor Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4.12 Experiment: Multi-Transistor Amps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.13 Preliminary Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2
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5 Differential Amplifiers and Op-Amp Basics 62 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5.2 Differential Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5.2.1 Differential Pair DC Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.2.2 Differential Pair Small Signal Voltage Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5.2.3 Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 5.3 Op-Amp Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5.3.1
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