Biology 224 UNLV chapter 18

Biology 224 UNLV chapter 18 - Welcome to A&P II BIOL...

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BIOL 224-001
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Endocrine System Chapter 18
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Overview • Carry out cell-cell communication • Regulation by either positive or negative feedback • Hormones – Amino acid derivatives – Peptide Hormones – Lipid Derivatives 1/2 Life -
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Types of Hormones Amino Acid Derivatives – Modified amino acids – Mostly derived from Peptide Hormones – Chains of amino acids – Glycoproteins Carbohydrate side chains Most diverse and largest class Lipid Derivatives – Eicosanoids Mostly paracrine in action – Steroid Hormones Aldosterone
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Mechanisms of Action • Hormone MUST have receptor • Types of receptors – Membrane bound receptors – Intracellular receptors • Cytoplasmic • DNA Receptors • DNA R 1 R 2 3
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Peptide Hormone Signaling • Bind to membrane receptor • Change intracellular activity via – Second Messengers • Transmit hormonal message • Types – cAMP/cGMP – IP3 Pathway (Calcium)
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Second Messenger Signaling cAMP Pathway – Binding of hormone – Activation of Gprotein – Activation of AC – Conversion to cAMP – Activation of Kinase – Cellular activity -cAMP broken down - By PDE (phosphodiesterase)
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Second Messenger Pathway IP3/DAG/Ca2+ – PLC activation – PIP2 breakdown into IP3 and DAG – IP3 = Ca2+ release – DAG activates PKC – PKC leads to signaling cascade – Response
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Intracellular Signaling • Steroid Hormones
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Intracellular Signaling • Thyroid Hormone
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Transcription and Translation Transcription – DNA used as a template for creating an RNA molecule Translation – mRNA is used as a template to make a peptide strand.
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Cell responses • Hormones can cause cells to: – Contract – Secrete – Transport – Increase Transcription – Increase Translation – Break down stored molecules
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Endocrine Control • Endocrine Reflexes – Function similarly to neural reflex arcs – Controlled by negative feedback by one of three methods: • Humoral stimuli – EC fluid changes • Hormonal stimuli – Presence or absence of a hormone • Neural stimuli – Neurotransmitters
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Glands • Pituitary Gland
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Biology 224 UNLV chapter 18 - Welcome to A&P II BIOL...

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