08-25-2010 - Introduction to: 1.The nervous system 2.Brain...

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Introduction to: 1.The nervous system 2.Brain 3.Neuron 4.Neuroscience
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Neuron 1. Basic units of the nervous system 2. More about neurons and neuronal anatomy 3. Receive, integrate, and transmit information 4. Operate through electrical impulses (AP) 5. Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals
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Glial cells 100 billion neurons 10x more glial cells Glial cells Support neurons (provide physical support, as well as nutrients) Cover neurons with myelin Act as K + and neurotransmitter buffers
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Astrocytes (most abundant glial cells) 1. Star-shaped 2. Filling the space between neurons. 3. Regulation of ion concentration in the extracellular space. 4. Neurotransmitter uptake and release. 5. Providing neurons with nutrients such as glucose. Glial cells
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Glial cells Astrocytes (most abundant glial cells) Myelinating glial cells (Schwann cell and oligodendrocytes) Neurolemma (Neurilemma)
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Myelinated optic nerve fibers cut in cross section. Myelin sheath Myelin sheath is an extension of cell membrane of glial cell Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons, whereas oligodendrocytes supply it to those of the central nervous system.
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Myelin sheath are white in appearance, hence the "white matter" of the brain. Not present on all neurons
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2010 for the course BIOS 286 taught by Professor Murphy during the Fall '06 term at Ill. Chicago.

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08-25-2010 - Introduction to: 1.The nervous system 2.Brain...

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