Tony, Sohan, Cherndawg
1NC Link – Marx
Providing social services explicitly undermines the economic balance of capitalism.
, Dept. Social Work – U. Plymouth, Journal of Social Policy, “Public Services and the
Service Economy: Individualism and the Choice Agenda”, 35:143-162, 2006
, Cambridge U. Press
Much as the original justifications of property and markets focused on the production of commodities, so did the
critique of liberal political economy. Two fundamental criticisms of capitalism were common to Marxian
(Cole, 1920, 1927; Reckitt and Bechhofer, 1918)
Douglas, 1919, 1920)
political mobilisations. First, the criteria by which finance capital chose to invest in
productive industry were derived entirely from the prospect of profit, and not at all from human needs
were totally unaccountable to citizens, or to industrial stakeholders.
Second, industrial production involved the
extraction of value from workers which yielded profit, but their wages were insufficient for them to purchase the
goods they produced
. Although they disagreed about the exact mechanisms behind these injustices, their remedies all involved some
combination of state ownership, fiscal and monetary management, and income redistribution (Hutchinson and Burkitt, 1997; Hutchinson et al., 2002).
This focus on public finance and the processes of factory production meant that
socialist revolutions and
social democratic reforms targeted
the property of the rich and the power of industrialists, leaving the consequences for private services to
work themselves out. But as part of their
new designs for societies, they created a more collectivised,
planned and regulated
social environment, which balanced the productive side of the economy.
Public services expressed the goals of
solidarity, security and justice
They were ‘designed to widen and deepen the expression of the spirit of democratic co-operation’,
practising in a ‘more equalitarian spirit’, with professional workers dealing with citizens in ‘a democratic way consistent with the spirit of the times’
(Cole, 1945: 29).
So the aims of collectivised services were explicitly political and social
; there was little economic theory to
inform their creation. The second-most quoted text in Beveridge's great works (after Keynes), A. C. Pigou's The Economics of Welfare (1920)
contained no references to health or education services. In the state socialist countries this political purpose was even more pronounced, reflected in
the programmes and priorities of public services, and proclaimed by insignia and banners throughout the built environment. Professionals in state
services under both ideological systems were acculturated through training, and co-opted through career incentives, to sustain these ideologies. In this
the public services became an important instrument throughout which political elites spread the