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24794317-Medical-Surgical-Nursing-Review-Notes -...

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MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING NERVOUS SYSTEM Overview of structures and functions: Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Sympathetic Nervous System (ADRENERGIC) Parasympathetic Nervous System (CHOLINERGIC, VAGAL, SYMPATHOLYTIC) - Involved in fight or aggression response. - Release of Norepinephrine (cathecolamines) from adrenal glands and causes vasoconstriction. - Increase all bodily activity except GIT EFFECTS OF SNS - Dilation of pupils( mydriasis ) in order to be aware. - Dry mouth (thickened saliva). - Increase BP and Heart Rate. - Bronchodilation, Increase RR - Constipation. - Urinary Retention. - Increase blood supply to brain , heart and skeletal muscles . - SNS I. Adrenergic Agents - Give Epinephrine. Signs and Symptoms: - SNS Contraindication: - Contraindicated to patients suffering from COPD (Broncholitis, Bronchoectasis, Emphysema, Asthma). II. Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents - Also called Beta-blockers . - All ending with “ lol - Propranolol , Atenelol , Metoprolol . Effects of Beta-blockers B – roncho spasm E – licits a decrease in myocardial contraction. T – reats hypertension. A – V conduction slows down. Should be given to patients with Angina Pectoris , Myocardial Infarction , Hypertension . ANTI- HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS 1. Beta-blockers – “lol” 2. Ace Inhibitors – Angiotensin, “pril” (Captopril, Enalapril) 3. Calcium Antagonist – Nifedipine (Calcibloc) In chronic cases of arrhythmia give Lidocaine ( Xylocaine ) - Involved in fight or withdrawal response. - Release of Acetylcholine. - Decreases all bodily activities except GIT. EFFECTS OF PNS - Constriction of pupils ( meiosis ). - Increase salivation. - Decrease BP and Heart Rate. - Bronchoconstriction, Decrease RR. - Diarrhea - Urinary frequency. I. Cholinergic Agents - Mestinon , Neostigmine . Side Effects - PNS II. Anti-cholinergic Agents - To counter cholinergic agents. - Atropine Sulfate Side Effects - SNS
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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain and Spinal Cord. I. CELLS A. NEURONS Basic cells for nerve impulse and conduction. PROPERTIES Excitability – ability of neuron to be affected by changes in external environment. Conductivity – ability of neuron to transmit a wave of excitation from one cell to another. Permanent Cell – once destroyed not capable of regeneration. TYPES OF CELLS BASED ON REGENERATIVE CAPACITY 1. Labile Capable of regeneration. Epidermal cells, GIT cells, GUT cells, cells of lungs. 2. Stable Capable of regeneration with limited time, survival period. Kidney cells, Liver cells, Salivary cells, pancreas. 3. Permanent
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