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Unformatted text preview: DICTIONARY OF NURSING Spet dictionaries Dictionary of Accounting Dictionary of Agriculture Dictionary of Aviation Dictionary of Banking and Finance Dictionary of Business Dictionary of Computing Dictionary of Economics Dictionary of Environment and Ecology Dictionary of Food Science and Nutrition Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management Dictionary of ICT Dictionary of Information and Library Management Dictionary of Law Dictionary of Leisure, Travel and Tourism Dictionary of Marketing Dictionary of Media Studies Dictionary of Medical Terms Dictionary of Politics and Government Dictionary of Publishing and Printing Dictionary of Science and Technology Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science 978 0 7136 8286 1 978 0 7136 7778 2 978 0 7136 8734 7 978 0 7136 7739 3 978 0 7136 7918 2 978 0 7475 6622 9 978 0 7136 8203 8 978 0 7475 7201 5 978 0 7136 7784 3 978 0 7136 8142 0 978 0 7475 6990 9 978 0 7136 7591 7 978 0 7136 8318 9 978 0 7136 8545 9 978 0 7475 6621 2 978 0 7136 7593 1 978 0 7136 7603 7 978 0 7475 7220 6 978 0 7136 7589 4 978 0 7475 6620 5 978 0 7136 7785 0 Easier English titles Easier English Basic Dictionary Easier English Basic Synonyms Easier English Intermediate Dictionary Easier English Student Dictionary 978 0 7475 6644 1 978 0 7475 6979 4 978 0 7475 6989 3 978 0 7475 6624 3 Check Your English Vocabulary workbooks Academic English 978 0 7136 8285 4 Banking and Finance 978 0 7136 8250 2 Business and Administration 978 0 7136 7916 8 Computers and Information Technology 978 0 7136 7917 5 Human Resources 978 0 7475 6997 8 IELTS 978 0 7136 7604 4 Law 978 0 7136 7592 4 Living in the UK 978 0 7136 7914 4 Medicine 978 0 7136 7590 0 PET 978 0 7475 6627 4 Phrasal Verbs and Idioms 978 0 7136 7805 5 TOEFLÒ 978 0 7136 8414 8 TOEICÒ 978 0 7136 7508 5 Visit our website for full details of all our books: www.acblack.com DICTIONARY OF NURSING second edition A & C Black London First edition published in 2003 by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. This second edition published 2007 by A&C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB Copyright © A&C Black 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publishers. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978 0 7136 8287 8 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0206-0 Text Production and Proofreading Joel Adams, Sandra Anderson, Heather Bateman, Emma Djonokusumo, Ruth Hillmore, Daisy Jackson, Irene Lakhani, Sarah Lusznat, Katy McAdam, Howard Sargeant This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Text processed and typeset by A&C Black Printed in Spain by GraphyCems Preface This fully-updated dictionary provides the user with a complete guide to the vocabulary in current use by nurses and other health care professionals. Over 11,000 terms are explained in clear, straightforward English. Areas covered include diseases and conditions, instruments, drugs, treatments and patient care, as well as medical speations such as surgery, psychiatry and physiotherapy. Many informal and everyday terms used by patients in describing their condition are also included. A useful supplement also contains a guide to anatomical terms, illustrated with clear and simple diagrams. Thanks are due to Glenda Cornwell, Rosemary Cook, Stephen Curtis, Fiona McIntosh, Lynn Davy and Dinah Jackson for their advice on the first edition of this text, and to Kathryn Jones for her helpful comments during the production of this second edition. Publishers Note: While every effort has been made to be as accurate as possible, the author, advisors, editors and publishers of this book cannot be held liable for any errors and omissions, or actions that may be taken as a consequence of using it. Pronunciation The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main words in the dictionary. Stress is indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark ( ) . Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position in the sentence. Vowels ɑ ɒ ai aυ aiə aυə ɔ ɔi e eə ei eυ i i ə i iə u u υ υə Consonants back harm stop type how hire hour course annoy head fair make go word keep happy about fit near annual pool book tour shut b d ð d f h j k l m n ŋ p r s ʃ t tʃ θ v w x z buck dead other jump fare gold head yellow cab leave mix nil sing print rest save shop take change theft value work loch measure zone Nursing.fm Page 1 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM A AA AA abbreviation Alcoholics Anonymous A & E / ei ənd i /, A & E department / ei ənd i di pɑ tmənt/ noun same as accident and A&E | emergency department A & E medicine / ei ənd i med(ə)sin/ noun A & E medicine the medical procedures used in A & E departments ab- / b/ prefix away from ABC / ei bi si / noun the basic initial checks of a casualtys condition. Full form airway, breathab- ABC ing and circulation abdomen / bdəmən/ noun a space inside the abdomen body below the diaphragm, above the pelvis and in front of the spine, containing the stomach, intestines, liver and other vital organs pain in the abdomen (NOTE: For other terms referring to the abdomen, see words beginning with coeli-, coelio-.) abdomin- / bdɒmin/ prefix same as abdomino- (used before vowels) abdominal / b dɒmin(ə)l/ adjective located in abdomin- abdominal | the abdomen, or relating to the abdomen abdominal aorta / b dɒmin(ə)l ei ɔ tə/ noun the part of the aorta which lies between the diaphragm and the point where the aorta divides into the iliac arteries. See illustration at KIDNEY in abdominal aorta | | Supplement abdominal cavity / b dɒmin(ə)l k viti/ abdominal cavity | noun the space in the body below the chest abdominal pain / b dɒmin(ə)l pein/ noun abdominal pain | pain in the abdomen caused by indigestion or more serious disorders abdominal viscera / b dɒmin(ə)l visərə/ plural noun the organs which are contained in the abdomen, e.g. the stomach, liver and intestines abdominal wall / b dɒmin(ə)l wɔ l/ noun muscular tissue which surrounds the abdomen abdomino- / bdɒminəυ/ prefix referring to the abdomen abdominopelvic / b dɒminəυ pelvik/ adjective referring to the abdomen and pelvis abdominoperineal / b dɒminəυperi ni əl/ adjective referring to the abdomen and perineum abdominoperineal excision / b dɒ minəυperi ni əl ik si (ə)n/ noun a surgical abdominal viscera | abdominal wall | abdomino- abdominopelvic | | abdominoperineal | | abdominoperineal excision | | | | operation that involves cutting out tissue in both the abdomen and the perineum abdominoposterior / b dɒminəυpɒ stiəriə/ adjective referring to a position of a fetus in the uterus, where the fetuss abdomen is facing the mothers back abdominoscopy / b dɒmi nɒskəpi/ noun an internal examination of the abdomen, usually with an endoscope abdominothoracic / b dɒminəυθɔ r sik/ adjective referring to the abdomen and thorax abduce / b dju s/ verb same as abduct abducens nerve / b dju s(ə)nz n v/ noun the sixth cranial nerve, which controls the muscle which makes the eyeball turn outwards abducent / b dju s(ə)nt/ adjective referring to a muscle which brings parts of the body away from each other or moves them away from the central line of the body or a limb. Compare adduabdominoposterior | | abdominoscopy | | abdominothoracic | | abduce | abducens nerve | abducent | cent abduct abduct / b d kt/ verb (of a muscle) to pull a leg or arm in a direction which is away from the centre line of the body, or to pull a toe or finger away from the central line of a leg or arm. Compare adduct abduction / b d kʃən/ noun the movement of a part of the body away from the centre line of the body or away from a neighbouring part. Opposite adduction. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement abductor / b d ktə/, abductor muscle / b d ktə m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle which pulls a part of the body away from the centre line of the body or away from a neighbouring part. Opposite | abduction | abductor | | adductor aberrant aberrant / berənt/ adjective not usual or expected aberration / bə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun an action or growth which is not usual or expected ablation /ə bleiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of an organ or of a part of the body by surgery abnormal / b nɔ m(ə)l/ adjective not usual abnormal behaviour an abnormal movement abnormality / bnɔ m liti/ noun a form or condition which is not usual (NOTE: For other | aberration | ablation | abnormal | abnormality | Nursing.fm Page 2 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM abocclusion 2 terms referring to abnormality, see words beginning with terat-, terato-.) abocclusion / bɒ klu (ə)n/ noun a condiabocclusion | tion in which the teeth in the top and bottom jaws do not touch abort /ə bɔ t/ verb to eject an embryo or fetus, or to cause an embryo or fetus to be ejected, and so end a pregnancy before the fetus is fully developed abortifacient /ə bɔ ti feiʃ(ə)nt/ noun a drug or instrument which provokes an abortion abortion /ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun a situation where a fetus leaves the uterus before it is fully developed, especially during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy, or a procedure which causes this to happen abortive /ə bɔ tiv/ adjective not successful an abortive attempt abortus /ə bɔ təs/ noun a fetus which is expelled during an abortion or miscarriage abortus fever /ə bɔ təs fi və/ noun same as abort | abortifacient | | abortion | abortive | abortus | abortus fever | brucellosis ABO system ABO system / ei bi əυ sistəm/ noun a system of classifying blood groups. blood group abrasion /ə brei (ə)n/ noun a condition in which the surface of the skin has been rubbed off by a rough surface and bleeds abreaction / bri kʃən/ noun the treatment of a person with a neurosis by making him or her think again about past bad experiences abruptio placentae /ə br ptiəυ plə senti / noun an occasion when the placenta suddenly comes away from the uterus earlier than it should, often causing shock and bleeding abscess / bses/ noun a painful swollen area where pus forms She had an abscess under a tooth. The doctor decided to lance the abscess. abrasion | abreaction | abruptio placentae | | abscess (NOTE: The formation of an abscess is often accompanied by a high temperature. The plural is abscesses.) absorbable suture /əb zɔ bəb(ə)l su tʃə/ noun a suture which will eventually be absorbed absorbable suture | into the body, and does not need to be removed absorbent cotton /əb zɔ bənt kɒt(ə)n/ noun a soft white material used as a dressing to put on wounds absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun the process by which a liquid is taken into a solid abstinence / bstinəns/ noun a deliberate act of not doing something over a period of time, abstinence especially not eating or drinking from alcohol abulia /ə bu liə/ noun a lack of willpower abuse noun /ə bju s/ 1. the act of using something wrongly the abuse of a privilege 2. the illegal use of a drug or overuse of alcohol substance abuse 3. same as child abuse 4. bad treatment of a person physical abuse sexual abuse í verb /ə bju z/ 1. to use something absorbent cotton | absorption | abstinence abulia | abuse | | wrongly Heroin and cocaine are drugs which are commonly abused. 2. to treat someone badly sexually abused children He had physically abused his wife and child. a.c. adverb (used on prescriptions) before food. Full form ante cibum acanthosis /ə k n θəυsis/ noun a disease of the prickle cell layer of the skin, where warts appear on the skin or inside the mouth acapnia /ei k pniə/ noun the condition of not having enough carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues acaricide /ə k risaid/ noun a substance which kills mites or ticks acatalasia /ei k tə leiziə/ noun an inherited condition which results in a lack of catalase in all tissue accessory /ək sesəri/ noun something which helps something else to happen or operate, but may not be very important in itself í adjective helping something else to happen or operate accident / ksid(ə)nt/ noun 1. an unpleasant event which happens suddenly and harms someones health She had an accident in the kitchen and had to go to hospital. Three people were killed in the accident on the motorway. 2. chance, or something which happens by chance I met her by accident at the bus stop. accidental injury / ksident(ə)l ind əri/ noun an injury that happens to someone in an accident accident and emergency department / ksid(ə)nt ənd i m d ənsi di pɑ tmənt/ noun the part of a hospital which deals with people who need urgent treatment because they have had accidents or are in sudden serious pain. Abbreviation A & E accident form / ksid(ə)nt fɔ m/, accident report form / ksid(ə)nt ri pɔ t fɔ m/ noun a form to be filled in with details of an accident accident prevention / ksid(ə)nt pri venʃən/ noun the work of taking action or changing procedures to prevent accidents from happening accident ward / ksid(ə)nt wɔ d/ noun a ward for urgent accident victims. Also called a.c. acanthosis | | acapnia | acaricide | acatalasia | | accessory | accident accidental injury accident and emergency department | | accident form | accident prevention | accident ward casualty ward accommodation accommodation /ə kɒmə deiʃ(ə)n/, accommodation reflex /ə kɒmə deiʃ(ə)n ri fleks/ noun (of the lens of the eye) the ability to focus on objects at different distances, using the ciliary muscle accommodative squint /ə kɒmədeitiv skwint/ noun a squint when the eye is trying to focus on an object which is very close accouchement /ə ku ʃmɒŋ/ noun the time when a woman is being looked after because her baby is being born, or has just been born | | | | accommodative squint | accouchement | Nursing.fm Page 3 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 3 accountability accountability /ə kaυntə biliti/ noun the state of being responsible to someone else for an action developing and maintaining standards of accountability accountable /ə kaυntəb(ə)l/ adjective responsible to someone else for an action accountable to the public accretion /ə kri ʃ(ə)n/ noun a gradual increase in size, as through growth or external addition an accretion of calcium around the joint acebutolol / si bju təlɒl/ noun a drug which reduces both the heart rate and how strongly the heart muscles contract, used in the treatment of high blood pressure and irregular heart rhythms ACE inhibitor / eis in hibitə/ noun same as | | accountable | accretion | acebutolol | ACE inhibitor | angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor acephalus /ei sefələs/ noun a fetus born withacephalus | out a head acetabuloplasty / si t bjυləυ pl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair or rebuild the acetabulum acetabulum / si t bjυləm/ noun the part of the pelvic bone, shaped like a cup, into which the head of the femur fits to form the hip joint. Also called cotyloid cavity (NOTE: The plural is acetabuloplasty | | acetabulum | acetabula.) acid reflux ache ache /eik/ noun a pain which goes on for a time, but is not very severe He complained of various aches and pains. í verb to have a pain in part of the body His tooth ached so much he went to the dentist. Achilles tendon /ə kili z tendən/ noun a tendon at the back of the ankle which connects the calf muscles to the heel and which acts to pull up the heel when the calf muscle is contracted achillorrhaphy / ki lɔ rəfi/ noun a surgical operation to stitch a torn Achilles tendon achillotomy / ki lɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to divide the Achilles tendon achlorhydria / eiklɔ haidriə/ noun a condition in which the gastric juices do not contain hydrochloric acid, a symptom of stomach cancer or pernicious anaemia acholia /ei kəυliə/ noun the absence or failure of the secretion of bile acholuria / eikɒ lu riə/ noun the absence of bile colouring in the urine acholuric jaundice / eikəlu rik d ɔ ndis/ noun a disease where unusually round red blood cells form, leading to anaemia, an enlarged spleen and the formation of gallstones. Also called Achilles tendon | achillorrhaphy | achillotomy | achlorhydria | acholia | acholuria | acholuric jaundice hereditary spherocytosis achondroplasia / eikɒndrə pleiziə/ noun an achondroplasia acetaminophen acetaminophen /ə si tə minəfən/ noun US same as paracetamol acetazolamide /ə si tə zɒləmaid/ noun a drug which helps a person to produce more urine, used in the treatment of oedema, glaucoma and epilepsy acetonaemia /ə si təυ ni miə/ same as keto| | acetazolamide | | acetonaemia | | naemia | inherited condition in which the long bones in the arms and legs do not grow fully while the rest of the bones in the body grow as usual, resulting in dwarfism achromatopsia / eikrəυmə tɒpsiə/ noun a rare condition in which a person cannot see any colours, but only black, white and shades of grey achy / eiki/ adjective feeling aches all over the body (informal ) aciclovir /ei saikləυviə/ noun a drug that is effective against herpesviruses. Also called acyachromatopsia | achy acetone acetone / sitəυn/ noun a colourless volatile substance formed in the body after vomiting or during diabetes. ketone acetonuria /ə si təυ nju riə/ noun the presence of acetone in the urine, shown by the fact that the urine gives off a sweet smell acetylcholine / sitail kəυli n/ noun a substance released from nerve endings, which allows nerve impulses to move from one nerve to another or from a nerve to the organ it controls acetonuria | | acetylcholine | COMMENT: Acetylcholine receptors are of two types, muscarinic, found in parasympathetic post-ganglionic nerve junctions, and nicotinic, found at neuromuscular junctions and in autonomic ganglia. Acetylcholine acts on both types of receptors, but other drugs act on one or the other. acetylcoenzyme A / sitailkəυ enzaim ei/ noun a compound produced in the metabolism of acetylcoenzyme A | carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids acetylsalicylic acid / sitail s ləsilik sid/ noun ‘ aspirin achalasia / kə leiziə/ noun the condition of being unable to relax the muscles acetylsalicylic acid | achalasia | aciclovir | clovir acidaemia acidaemia / si di miə/ noun a state in which the blood has too much acid in it. It is a feature of untreated severe diabetes. acidbase balance / sid beis b ləns/ noun the balance between acid and base, i.e. the pH level, in plasma acidity /ə siditi/ noun 1. the level of acid in a liquid The alkaline solution may help to reduce acidity. 2. same as hyperacidity acidosis / si dəυsis/ noun 1. a condition when there are more acid waste products such as urea than usual in the blood because of a lack of alkali 2. same as acidity acidotic / si dɒtik/ adjective relating to acidosis acid reflux / sid ri fl ks/ noun a condition caused by a faulty muscle in the oesophagus allowing the acid in the stomach to pass into the oesophagus | acidbase balance acidity | acidosis | acidotic | acid reflux Nursing.fm Page 4 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM acid stomach 4 acid stomach acid stomach / sid st mək/ noun same as hyperacidity acinus / sinəs/ noun 1. a tiny sac which forms part of a gland 2. part of a lobule in the lung (NOTE: The plural is acini.) acne / kni/ noun an inflammation of the sebaacinus acne ceous glands during puberty which makes blackheads appear on the skin, usually on the face, neck and shoulders. These blackheads often then become infected. She is using a cream to clear up her acne. acne rosacea / kni rəυ zeiʃə/ noun same as acne rosacea | rosacea acne vulgaris acne vulgaris / kni vυl ɑ ris/ noun same as | acne acoustic acoustic /ə ku stik/ adjective relating to sound or hearing acoustic nerve /ə ku stik n v/ noun the eighth cranial nerve which governs hearing and balance acquired /ə kwaiəd/ adjective referring to a condition which is neither congenital nor hereditary and which a person develops after birth in reaction to his or her environment acquired immunity /ə kwaiəd i mju niti/ noun an immunity which a body acquires from having caught a disease or from immunisation, not one which is congenital acquired immunodeficiency syndrome /ə kwaiəd imjυnəυdi fiʃ(ə)nsi sindrəυm/, acquired immune deficiency syndrome /ə kwaiəd im ju n di fiʃ(ə)nsi sindrəυm/ noun a viral infection which breaks down the bodys immune system. Abbreviation AIDS. HIV acrivastine /ə krivə sti n/ noun a drug which reduces the amount of histamine produced by the body. It is used in the treatment of rhinitis, urticaria and eczema. acro- / krəυ/ prefix referring to a point or tip acrocephalia / krəυsə feiliə/ noun same as | acoustic nerve | acquired | acquired immunity | | acquired immunodeficiency syndrome | | | | | acrivastine | acro- acrocephalia | oxycephaly acrocyanosis acrocyanosis / krəυsaiə nəυsis/ noun a blue coloration of the extremities, i.e. the fingers, toes, ears and nose, which is due to poor circulation acrodynia / krəυ diniə/ noun a childrens disease, caused by an allergy to mercury, where the childs hands, feet and face swell and become pink, and the child is also affected with fever and loss of appetite. Also called erythroedema, pink | acrodynia | disease acromegaly acromegaly / krəυ me əli/ noun a disease caused by excessive quantities of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland, causing a slow enlargement of the hands, feet and jaws in adults acromioclavicular / krəυmaiəυklə vikjυlə/ adjective relating to the acromion and the clavicle | acromioclavicular | acromion acromion /ə krəυmiən/ noun the pointed top of the scapula, which forms the tip of the shoulder acronyx / krɒniks, eikrɒniks/ noun a condition in which a nail grows into the flesh acroparaesthesia / krəυp ris θi ziə/ noun a condition in which the patient experiences sharp pains in the arms and numbness in the fingers after sleep acrophobia / krə fəυbiə/ noun a fear of heights acrosclerosis / krəυsklə rəυsis/ noun sclerosis which affects the extremities ACTH abbreviation adrenocorticotrophic hormone actinomycin / ktinəυ maisin/ noun an antibiotic used in the treatment of children with cancer actinomycosis / ktinəυmai kəυsis/ noun a fungal disease transmitted to humans from cattle, causing abscesses in the mouth and lungs (pulmonary actinomycosis) or in the ileum (intestinal actinomycosis) action potential / kʃən pə tenʃəl/ noun a temporary change in electrical potential which occurs between the inside and the outside of a nerve or muscle fibre when a nerve impulse is sent active immunity / ktiv i mju niti/ noun immunity which is acquired by catching and surviving an infectious disease or by vaccination with a weakened form of the disease, which makes the body form antibodies activities of daily living / k tivitiz əv deili liviŋ/ noun a scale used by geriatricians and occupational therapists to assess the capacity of elderly or disabled people to live independently. Abbreviation ADLs activity / k tiviti/ noun 1. what someone does difficulty with activities such as walking and dressing 2. the characteristic behaviour of a chemical The drugs activity only lasts a few hours. antibacterial activity effective action against bacteria acuity /ə kju iti/ noun keenness of sight, hearing or intellect acupressure / kjυpreʃə/ noun a treatment which is based on the same principle as acupuncture in which, instead of needles, fingers are used on specific points on the body, called pressure points acupuncture / kjυp ŋktʃə/ noun a treatment based on needles being inserted through the skin into nerve centres in order to relieve pain or treat a disorder acute /ə kju t/ adjective referring to a disease or condition which develops rapidly and can be dangerous an acute abscess Opposite chronic | acronyx acroparaesthesia | acrophobia | acrosclerosis | ACTH actinomycin | actinomycosis | action potential | active immunity | activities of daily living | activity | acuity | acupressure acupuncture acute | Nursing.fm Page 5 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 5 acute abdomen acute abdomen /ə kju t bdəmən/ noun any serious condition of the abdomen which requires surgery acute bed /ə kju t bed/ noun a hospital bed reserved for people requiring immediate treatment acute care /ə kju t keə/ noun medical or surgical treatment in a hospital, usually for a short period, for a patient with a sudden severe illness or injury acute disseminated encephalomyelitis /ə kju t di semineitid en kefələυmaiə laitis/ noun an encephalomyelitis or myelitis believed to result from an autoimmune attack on the myelin of the central nervous system acute glaucoma /ə kju t lɔ kəυmə/ noun same as angle-closure glaucoma acute hospital /ə kju t hɒspit(ə)l/ noun a hospital where people go for major surgery or intensive care of medical or surgical conditions acutely /ə kju tli/ adverb 1. having or causing a suddenly developing medical condition acutely ill patients acutely toxic chemicals 2. extremely (informal ) acute respiratory distress syndrome /ə kju t ri spirət(ə)ri di stres sindrəυm/ noun an infection of the lungs, often following injury, which prevents them functioning properly. Abbreviation ARDS acute rheumatism /ə kju t ru mətiz(ə)m/ noun same as rheumatic fever acute rhinitis /ə kju t rai naitis/ noun a virus infection which causes inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nose and throat acute suppurative arthritis /ə kju t s pjυrətiv ɑ θ raitis/ noun same as pyarthro| acute bed | acute care | acute disseminated encephalomyelitis | | | | acute glaucoma | | acute hospital | acutely | acute respiratory distress syndrome | | | acute rheumatism | acute rhinitis | | acute suppurative arthritis | | sis adenoids ADD ADD abbreviation attention deficit disorder Addisons anaemia / dis(ə)nz ə ni miə/ same as pernicious anaemia [Described 1849. Addisons anaemia | After Thomas Addison (17931860), from Northumberland, founder of the science of endocrinology.] Addisons disease / dis(ə)nz di zi z/ noun Addisons disease | a disease of the adrenal glands, causing a change in skin colour to yellow and then to dark brown and resulting in general weakness, anaemia, low blood pressure and wasting away. Treatment is with corticosteroid injections. [Described 1849. After Thomas Addison (17931860), from Northumberland, founder of the science of endocrinology.] adducent /ə dju s(ə)nt/ adjective referring to a adducent | muscle which brings parts of the body together or moves them towards the central line of the body or a limb. Compare abducent adduct /ə d kt/ verb (of a muscle) to pull a leg or arm towards the central line of the body, or to pull a toe or finger towards the central line of a leg or arm. Opposite abduct adducted /ə d ktid/ adjective referring to a body part brought towards the middle of the body adduction /ə d kʃən/ noun the movement of a part of the body towards the midline or towards a neighbouring part. Compare abduction. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement adductor /ə d ktə/, adductor muscle /ə d ktə m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle which pulls a part of the body towards the central line of the body. Opposite abductor aden- / din/ prefix same as adeno- (used adduct | adducted | adduction | adductor | | aden- before vowels) adenectomy adenectomy / di nektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a gland adenine / dəni n/ noun one of the four basic chemicals in DNA adenitis / di naitis/ noun inflammation of a gland or lymph node. lymphadenitis adeno- / dinəυ/ prefix referring to glands adenocarcinoma / dinəυkɑ si nəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour of a gland adenohypophysis / dinəυhai pɒfisis/ noun the front lobe of the pituitary gland which secretes most of the pituitary hormones adenoid / dinɔid/ adjective like a gland adenoidal / di nɔid(ə)l/ adjective referring to the adenoids adenoidal tissue / dinɔid(ə)l tiʃu / noun same as adenoids adenoidectomy / dinɔi dektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the adenoids adenoids / dinɔidz/ plural noun a mass of tissue at the back of the nose and throat that can restrict breathing if enlarged. Also called pha| adenine acute toxicity acute toxicity /ə kju t tɒk sisiti/ noun a level of concentration of a toxic substance which makes people seriously ill or can cause death acyclovir /ei saikləυviə/ noun same as aciclo| | acyclovir | vir adenitis | adeno- adenocarcinoma acystia acystia /ei sistiə/ noun a condition in which a baby is born without a bladder Adams apple / dəmz p(ə)l/ noun a part of the thyroid cartilage which projects from the neck below the chin in a man. Also called laryngeal | Adams apple prominence adapt /ə d pt/ verb 1. to change ones ideas or adapt | behaviour to fit into a new situation She has adapted very well to her new job in the childrens hospital. 2. to change something to make it more useful The brace has to be adapted to fit the patient. adaptation / d p teiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a change which has been or can be made to something 2. the act of changing something so that it fits a new situation adaptation | | | adenohypophysis | adenoid adenoidal | adenoidal tissue adenoidectomy | adenoids ryngeal tonsils | Nursing.fm Page 6 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM adenoid vegetation 6 adenoid vegetation adenoid vegetation / dinɔid ved ə teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in children where the adenoidal tissue is covered with growths and can block the nasal passages or the Eustachian tubes adenolymphoma / dinəυlim fəυmə/ noun a benign tumour of the salivary glands adenoma / di nəυmə/ noun a benign tumour of a gland adenomyoma / dinəυmai əυmə/ noun a benign tumour made up of glands and muscle adenopathy / di nɒpəθi/ noun a disease of a gland adenosclerosis / dinəυsklə rəυsis/ noun the hardening of a gland adenosine /ə denəυsi n/ noun a drug used to treat an irregular heartbeat adenosine diphosphate /ə denəυsi n dai fɒsfeit/ noun a chemical compound which provides energy for processes to take place within living cells, formed when adenosine triphosphate reacts with water. Abbreviation ADP adenosine triphosphate /ə denəυsi n trai fɒsfeit/ noun a chemical which occurs in all cells, but mainly in muscle, where it forms the energy reserve. Abbreviation ATP adenosis / di nəυsis/ noun any disease or disorder of the glands adenovirus / dinəυ vairəs/ noun a virus which produces upper respiratory infections and sore throats and can cause fatal pneumonia in infants ADH abbreviation antidiuretic hormone ADHD abbreviation attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adhesion /əd hi (ə)n/ noun a stable connection between two parts in the body, either in a healing process or between parts which are not usually connected adhesive dressing /əd hi siv dresiŋ/ noun a dressing with a sticky substance on the back so that it can stick to the skin adipose / dipəυs/ adjective containing fat, or made of fat adipose degeneration / dipəυs di d enə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun an accumulation of fat in the cells of an organ such as the heart or liver, which makes the organ less able to perform its proper function. Also called fatty degeneration adiposis / di pəυsis/ noun a state where too much fat is accumulated in the body adiposis dolorosa / di pəυsis dɒlə rəυsə/ noun a disease of middle-aged women in which painful lumps of fatty substance form in the body. Also called Dercums disease adiposogenitalis / di pəυsəυ d eni teilis/ noun same as Fröhlichs syndrome adiposuria /ədipsəυ ju riə/ noun the presence of fat in the urine | adenolymphoma | adenoma | adenomyoma | adenopathy | adenosclerosis | adenosine | adenosine diphosphate | | adenosine triphosphate | | adenosis | adenovirus | ADH ADHD adhesion | adhesive dressing | adipose adipose degeneration | | adiposis | adiposis dolorosa | | adiposogenitalis | adiposuria | | | adiposus / di pəυsəs/ ‘ panniculus adipoadiposus | sus aditus aditus / ditəs/ noun an opening or entrance to a passage adjustment /ə d stmənt/ noun a specific directional high-speed movement of a joint performed by a chiropractor adjuvant / d υvənt/ adjective referring to treatment by drugs or radiation therapy after surgery for cancer í noun a substance added to a drug to enhance the effect of the main ingredient adjuvant therapy / d υvənt θerəpi/ noun therapy using drugs or radiation after cancer surgery ADLs abbreviation activities of daily living administer /əd ministə/ verb to give someone medicine or a treatment to administer orally to give a medicine by mouth admission /əd miʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of being registered as a hospital patient adnexa / d neksə/ plural noun structures attached to an organ adolescence / də les(ə)ns/ noun the period of life when a child is developing into an adult adolescent / də les(ə)nt/ noun a person who is at the stage of life when he or she is developing into an adult í adjective developing into an adult, or occurring at that stage of life adolescent boys and girls adolescent fantasies adoptive immunotherapy /ə dɒptiv imjυnə θerəpi/ noun a treatment for cancer in which the patients own white blood cells are used to attack cancer cells ADP abbreviation adenosine diphosphate adrenal /ə dri n(ə)l/ adjective situated near the kidney í noun same as adrenal gland adrenalectomy /ə dri nə lektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of one of the adrenal glands adrenal gland /ə dri n(ə)l l nd/ noun one of two endocrine glands at the top of the kidneys which secrete cortisone, adrenaline and other hormones. Also called adrenal body, adrenal. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplement adrenaline /ə drenəlin/ noun a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands which has an effect similar to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system adrenal medulla /ə dri n(ə)l me d lə/ noun the inner part of the adrenal gland which secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline. Also called supraadjustment | adjuvant adjuvant therapy ADLs administer | admission | adnexa | adolescence | adolescent | adoptive immunotherapy | | ADP adrenal | adrenalectomy | | adrenal gland | adrenaline | adrenal medulla | | renal medulla adrenergic adrenergic / drə n d ik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor which is stimulated by adrenaline. beta blocker adrenergic receptor / drən d ik ri septə/ noun same as adrenoceptor | adrenergic receptor | COMMENT: Three types of adrenergic receptor act in different ways when stimulated by Nursing.fm Page 7 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 7 adrenaline. Alpha receptors constrict the bronchi, beta 1 receptors speed up the heartbeat and beta 2 receptors dilate the bronchi. adventitious bursa / dvəntiʃəs b sə/ noun a bursa which develops as a result of contin- adrenoceptor /ə drenəυ septə/ noun a cell or neurone which is stimulated by adrenaline. Also called adrenoreceptor, adrenergic receptor adrenocortical /ə dri nəυ kɔ tik(ə)l/ adjective relating to the cortex of the adrenal glands adrenocorticotrophic hormone /ə dri nəυ kɔ təkəυtrɒfik hɔ məυn/ noun a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, which makes the cortex of the adrenal glands produce corticosteroids. Abbreviation ACTH. Also called cortico| adrenocortical | | adrenocorticotrophic hormone | ued pressure or rubbing adverse / dv s/ adjective harmful or unfavourable adverse occurrence / dv s ə k rəns/ noun a harmful event which occurs during treatment advocacy / dvəkəsi/ noun active support for something, especially in order to help people who would have difficulty in gaining attention without your help adynamic ileus /ei dain mik iliəs/ noun same as paralytic ileus aegophony /i ɒfəni/ noun a high sound of the voice heard through a stethoscope, where there is fluid in the pleural cavity aer- /eə/ prefix same as aero- (used before vowadverse adrenoceptor | afferent nerve adventitious bursa | trophin adverse occurrence | advocacy adynamic ileus | aegophony | adrenocorticotrophin adrenocorticotrophin /ə dri nəυkɔ təkəυ trəυfin/ noun adrenaline extracted from animals adrenal glands and used to prevent haemorrhages or to help asthmatic conditions adrenogenital syndrome /ə dri nəυ d enit(ə)l sindrəυm/ noun a condition caused by overproduction of male sex hormones, where boys show rapid sexual development and females develop male characteristics adrenolytic /ədri nəυ litik/ adjective acting against the secretion of adrenaline adrenoreceptor /ə drenəυri septə/ noun same as adrenoceptor adsorbent / d sɔ bənt/ adjective being capable of adsorption adsorption / d sɔ pʃ(ə)n/ noun the attachment of one substance to another, often the bonding of a liquid with a gas or vapour which touches its surface adult / d lt/ adjective grown-up Adolescents reach the adult stage about the age of eighteen or twenty. í noun someone who is no longer a child adult coeliac disease / d lt si li k di zi z/ noun a condition in adults where the villi in the intestine become smaller and so reduce the surface which can absorb nutrients adult dentition / d lt den tiʃ(ə)n/ noun the 32 teeth which an adult has adulteration /ə d ltə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of making something less pure by adding another substance adult respiratory distress syndrome / d lt ri spirət(ə)ri di stres sindrəυm/ noun a description of various lung infections which reduce the lungs efficiency. Abbreviation ARDS advanced trauma life support /əd vɑ nst trɔ ma laif sə pɔ t/ noun the management of a trauma patient during the critical first hour after injury. Abbreviation ATLS adventitious / dvən tiʃəs/ adjective on the outside or in an unusual place | | aer- els) adrenogenital syndrome | | adrenolytic | adrenoreceptor | | adsorbent | adsorption | adult adult coeliac disease | adult dentition | adulteration | | adult respiratory distress syndrome | | advanced trauma life support | | adventitious | aeration aeration /eə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the adding of air or oxygen to a liquid aero- /eərəυ/ prefix referring to air aeroba /eə rəυbə/, aerobe / eərəυb/ noun a tiny organism which needs oxygen to survive aerobic /eə rəυbik/ adjective needing oxygen to live, or taking place in the presence of oxygen aerogenous /eə rɒd ənəs/ adjective referring to a bacterium which produces gas aerophagia / eərə feid ə/, aerophagy /eə rɒfəd i/ noun the habit of swallowing air when suffering from indigestion, so making the stomach pains worse aerosol / eərəsɒl/ noun tiny particles of a liquid such as a drug or disinfectant suspended in a gas under pressure in a container and used as a spray aetiology / i ti ɒləd i/ noun 1. the cause or origin of a disease 2. the study of the causes and origins of diseases AfC abbreviation Agenda for Change afebrile /ei fi brail/ adjective with no fever affect /ə fekt/ verb to make something or someone change, especially to have a bad effect on something or someone Some organs are rapidly affected if the patient lacks oxygen for even a short time. í noun same as affection affection /ə fekʃ(ə)n/, affect /ə fekt/ noun the general state of a persons emotions affective /ə fektiv/ adjective relating to a persons moods or feelings affective disorder /ə fektiv dis ɔ də/ noun a condition which changes someones mood, making him or her depressed or excited afferent / f(ə)rənt/ adjective conducting liquid or electrical impulses towards the inside. Opposite efferent afferent nerve / f(ə)rənt n v/ noun same as sensory nerve | aero- aeroba | aerobic | aerogenous | aerophagia | | aerosol aetiology | AfC afebrile | affect | affection | | affective | affective disorder | afferent afferent nerve | Nursing.fm Page 8 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM afferent vessel 8 afferent vessel afferent vessel / f(ə)rənt ves(ə)l/ noun a tube which brings lymph to a gland affinity /ə finiti/ noun an attraction between two substances aflatoxin / flə tɒksin/ noun a poison produced by some moulds in some crops such as peanuts African trypanosomiasis / frikən tripənəυsəυ maiəsis/ noun same as sleeping affinity | aflatoxin | African trypanosomiasis | sickness afterbirth afterbirth / ɑ ftəb θ/ noun the tissues, including the placenta and umbilical cord, which are present in the uterus during pregnancy and are expelled after the birth of a baby aftercare / ɑ ftəkeə/ noun 1. the care of a person who has had an operation. Aftercare treatment involves changing dressings and helping people to look after themselves again. 2. the care of a mother who has just given birth after-effect / ɑ ftər i fekt/ noun a change which appears only some time after the cause The operation had some unpleasant after-effects. after-image / ɑ ftər imid / noun an image of an object which remains in a persons sight after the object itself has gone afterpains / ɑ ftəpeinz/ plural noun regular pains in the uterus which are sometimes experienced after childbirth afunctional /ei f ŋkʃən(ə)l/ adjective which does not function properly agalactia / ei ə l ktiə/ noun a condition in which a mother is unable to produce milk after childbirth agammaglobulinaemia /ei mə lɒbjυli ni miə/ noun a deficiency or absence of immunoglobulins in the blood, which results in a reduced ability to provide immune responses agar / ei ɑ /, agar agar / ei ə ei ə/ noun a culture medium based on an extract of seaweed used for growing microorganisms in laboratories age /eid / noun the number of years which a person has lived Whats your age on your next birthday? He was sixty years of age. The size varies according to age. í verb to grow old age group / eid ru p/ noun all the people of a particular age or within a particular set of ages the age group 2025 agency / eid ənsi/ noun 1. an organisation which carries out work on behalf of another organisation, e.g. one which recruits and employs nurses and supplies them to hospitals temporarily when full-time nursing staff are unavailable 2. the act of causing something to happen The disease develops through the agency of bacteria present in the bloodstream. Agenda for Change /ə d endə fə tʃeind / noun a pay and reform package designed to ensure that all directly employed NHS staff are paid on the basis of equal pay for work of equal aftercare after-effect | after-image afterpains afunctional agalactia | agammaglobulinaemia | agar age age group agency Agenda for Change | | | value, implemented in December 2004. Abbreviation AfC agenesis /ei d enəsis/ noun the absence of an organ, resulting from a failure in embryonic development agent / eid ənt/ noun 1. a chemical substance which makes another substance react 2. a substance or organism which causes a disease or condition 3. a person who acts as a representative of another person or carries out some kinds of work on his or her behalf agglutination /ə lu ti neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of coming together or sticking to one another to form a clump, as of bacteria cells in the presence of serum, or blood cells when blood of different types is mixed agglutinin /ə lu tinin/ noun a factor in a serum which makes cells stick together in clumps agglutinogen / lu tinəd ən/ noun a factor in red blood cells which reacts with a specific agglutinin in serum agitation / d i teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a state of being very nervous and anxious aglossia /ei lɒsiə/ noun the condition of not having a tongue from birth agnosia / nəυziə/ noun a brain disorder in which a person fails to recognise places, people, tastes or smells which they used to know well agonist / ənist/ noun 1. a muscle which causes part of the body to move and another muscle to relax when it contracts. Also called prime mover 2. a substance which produces an observable physiological effect by acting through specific receptors. antagonist agony / əni/ noun a very severe physical or emotional pain He lay in agony on the floor. She suffered the agony of waiting for weeks until her condition was diagnosed. agoraphobia / (ə)rə fəυbiə/ noun a fear of being in open spaces. Compare claustrophobia agoraphobic / (ə)rə fəυbik/ adjective afraid of being in open spaces. Compare clausagenesis | agent agglutination | | agglutinin | agglutinogen | agitation | aglossia | agnosia | agonist agony agoraphobia | agoraphobic | trophobic agranulocytosis agranulocytosis /ə r njυləυsai təυsis/ noun a usually fatal disease where the number of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, falls sharply because of a bone marrow condition agraphia /ei r fiə/ noun the condition of being unable to put ideas into writing AHF abbreviation antihaemophilic factor aid /eid/ noun 1. help 2. a machine, tool or drug which helps someone do something He uses a walking frame as an aid to exercising his legs. í verb to help someone or something The procedure is designed to aid the repair of tissues after surgery. AID / ei ai di / noun full form artificial insemination by donor. Now called DI | agraphia | AHF aid AID | | Nursing.fm Page 9 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 9 AIDS AIDS /eidz/, Aids noun a viral infection which breaks down the bodys immune system. Full form acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS dementia / eidz di menʃə/ noun a form AIDS dementia | of mental degeneration resulting from infection with HIV AIDS-related complex / eidz ri leitid kɒmpleks/, AIDS-related condition / eidz ri leitid kən diʃ(ə)n/ noun early symptoms shown by someone infected with the HIV virus, e.g. weight loss, fever and herpes zoster. Abbreviation AIDS-related complex | | | ARC AIH AIH abbreviation artificial insemination by husband ailment / eilmənt/ noun an illness, though not generally a very serious one Chickenpox is one of the common childhood ailments. air bed / eə bed/ noun a mattress which is filled with air, used to prevent the formation of bedsores. conduction airborne infection / eəbɔ n in fekʃən/ noun an infection which is carried in the air air conduction / eə kən d kʃən/ noun the process by which sounds pass from the outside to the inner ear through the auditory meatus air embolism / eər embəliz(ə)m/ noun a blockage caused by bubbles of air, that stops the flow of blood in vessels air passage / eə p sid / noun any tube which takes air to the lungs, e.g. the nostrils, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi airsickness / eəsiknəs/ noun a queasy feeling, usually leading to vomiting, caused by the movement of an aircraft airway / eəwei/ noun a passage through which air passes, especially the trachea akathisia / eikə θisiə/ noun restlessness akinesia / eiki ni ziə/ noun a lack of voluntary movement, as in Parkinsons disease akinetic / eiki netik/ adjective without movement alacrima /ei l krimə/ noun same as xerosis alactasia / eil k teiziə/ noun a condition in which there is a deficiency of lactase in the intestine, making the patient incapable of digesting lactose, the sugar in milk alalia /ei leiliə/ noun a condition in which a person completely loses the ability to speak alanine / ləni n/ noun an amino acid alanine aminotransferase / ləni n ə mi nəυ tr nsfəreiz/ noun an enzyme which is found in the liver and can be monitored as an indicator of liver damage. Abbreviation ALT alar cartilage / eilə kɑ tilid / noun cartilage in the nose Albees operation / ɔ lbi z ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to fuse two or more verailment air bed airborne infection | air conduction | air embolism air passage airsickness airway akathisia | akinesia | akinetic | alacrima | alactasia | alalia | alanine alanine aminotransferase | | alar cartilage Albees operation | aldosterone tebrae [After Frederick Houdlett Albee (1876 1945), US surgeon.] albinism albinism / lbiniz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which a person lacks the pigment melanin and so has pink skin and eyes and white hair. It is hereditary and cannot be treated. vitiligo albino / l bi nəυ/ noun a person who is deficient in melanin and has little or no pigmentation in the skin, hair or eyes albuginea oculi / lbjυd iniə ɒkjυlai/ noun same as sclera albumin / lbjυmin/ noun a common protein, which is soluble in water, found in plant and animal tissue and digested in the intestine albuminuria / lbjυmi njυəriə/ noun a condition in which albumin is found in the urine, usually a sign of kidney disease, but also sometimes of heart failure albumose / lbjυməυz/ noun an intermediate product in the digestion of protein alcohol / lkəhɒl/ noun a pure colourless liquid which is formed by the action of yeast on sugar solutions and forms part of drinks such as wine and whisky alcohol abuse / lkəhɒl ə bju s/ noun the excessive use of alcohol adversely affecting a persons health alcohol addiction / lkəhɒl ə dikʃən/ noun a condition in which a person is dependent on the use of alcohol alcohol-fast / lkəhɒl fɑ st/ adjective referring to an organ stained for testing which is not discoloured by alcohol alcoholic / lkə hɒlik/ adjective containing alcohol í noun a person who is addicted to drinking alcohol and shows changes in behaviour and personality alcoholic cirrhosis / lkəhɒlik si rəυsis/ noun cirrhosis of the liver caused by alcoholism Alcoholics Anonymous / lkəhɒliks ə nɒniməs/ noun an organisation of former alcoholics which helps people to overcome their dependence on alcohol by encouraging them to talk about their problems in group therapy. Abbreviation AA alcoholism / lkəhɒliz(ə)m/ noun excessive drinking of alcohol which becomes addictive alcohol poisoning / lkəhɒl pɔiz(ə)niŋ/ noun poisoning and disease caused by excessive drinking of alcohol alcoholuria / lkəhɒ ljυəriə/ noun a condition in which alcohol is present in the urine albino | albuginea oculi albumin albuminuria | albumose alcohol alcohol abuse | alcohol addiction | alcohol-fast alcoholic | alcoholic cirrhosis | Alcoholics Anonymous | alcoholism alcohol poisoning alcoholuria | (NOTE: The level of alcohol in the urine is used as a test for drivers who are suspected of driving while drunk.) aldosterone / l dɒstərəυn/ noun a hormone aldosterone | secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, which regulates the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and the amount of body fluid Nursing.fm Page 10 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM aldosteronism 10 aldosteronism aldosteronism / l dɒst(ə)rəniz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which a person produces too much aldosterone, so that there is too much salt in the blood. This causes high blood pressure and the need to drink a lot of liquids. aleukaemic / eilu ki mik/ adjective referring to a state where leukaemia is not present Alexander technique / li zɑ ndə tek ni k/ noun a method of improving the way a person stands and moves, by making them much more aware of how muscles behave alexia /ei leksiə/ noun a condition in which the patient cannot understand printed words. Also called word blindness alfacalcidol / lfə k lsidɒl/ noun a substance related to vitamin D, used by the body to maintain the right levels of calcium and phosphate, and also as a drug to help people who do not have enough vitamin D algesimeter / ld i simitə/ noun an instrument to measure the sensitivity of the skin to pain -algia / ld iə/ suffix a word ending that indicates a painful condition algid / ld id/ adjective referring to a stage in a disease that causes fever during which the body becomes cold alienation / eiliə neiʃ(ə)n/ noun a psychological condition in which a person develops the feeling of not being part of the everyday world, and as a result often becomes hostile to other people alignment /ə lainmənt/ noun the arrangement of something in a straight line, or in the correct position in relation to something else alimentary / li ment(ə)ri/ adjective providing food, or relating to food or nutrition alimentary canal / li ment(ə)ri kə n l/ noun a tube in the body going from the mouth to the anus and including the throat, stomach and intestine, through which food passes and is digested | aleukaemic | Alexander technique | | alexia | alfacalcidol | algesimeter | -algia algid alienation | alignment | alimentary | alimentary canal | | COMMENT: The alimentary canal is formed of the mouth, throat, oesophagus stomach and small and large intestines. Food is broken down by digestive juices in the mouth, stomach and small intestine, water is removed in the large intestine, and the remaining matter is passed out of the body as faeces. alimentation / limen teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act alimentation | of providing food or nourishment aliquot / likwɒt/ noun a part of a larger thing, especially a sample of something which is taken to be examined alkalaemia / lkə li miə/ noun an excess of alkali in the blood alkali / lkəlai/ noun one of many substances which neutralise acids and form salts (NOTE: The aliquot alkalaemia | alkali plural is alkalis.) alkaline / lkəlain/ adjective containing more alkaline alkali than acid alkalinity alkalinity / lkə liniti/ noun the level of alkali in a body Hyperventilation causes fluctuating carbon dioxide levels in the blood, resulting in an increase of blood alkalinity. alkaloid / lkəlɔid/ noun one of many poisonous substances found in plants and used as medicines, e.g. atropine, morphine or quinine alkalosis / lkə ləυsis/ noun a condition in which the alkali level in the body tissue is high, producing cramps alkaptonuria / lk ptə njυəriə/ noun a hereditary condition where dark pigment is present in the urine allantois /ə l ntəυis/ noun one of the membranes in the embryo, shaped like a sac, which grows out of the embryonic hindgut allele /ə li l/ noun one of two or more alternative forms of a gene, situated in the same area on each of a pair of chromosomes and each producing a different effect allergen / ləd ən/ noun a substance which produces hypersensitivity allergenic agent / ləd enik eid ənt/ noun a substance which produces an allergy allergic /ə l d ik/ adjective having an allergy to something She is allergic to cats. Im allergic to penicillin. allergy / ləd i/ noun an unusual sensitivity to some substances such as pollen or dust, which cause a physical reaction such as sneezing or a rash in someone who comes into contact with them She has an allergy to household dust. He has a penicillin allergy. (NOTE: You have an | alkaloid alkalosis | alkaptonuria | allantois | allele | allergen allergenic agent allergic | allergy allergy or you are allergic to something.) allergy bracelet / ləd i breislət/ noun ‘ allergy bracelet medical alert bracelet allied health professional allied health professional / laid helθ prə feʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ noun a professional working in medicine who is not a doctor or nurse, e.g. a physiotherapist or paramedic allo- / ləυ/ prefix different allocation / lə keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the way an amount of something is divided among the various departments of an organisation, or the amount which is received by a particular department allodynia / lə diniə/ noun pain of the skin caused by something such as clothing which usually does not cause pain allograft / ləυ rɑ ft/ noun same as hom- | allo- allocation | allodynia | allograft ograft allopathy allopathy /ə lɒpəθi/ noun the treatment of a condition using drugs which produce opposite symptoms to those of the condition. Compare | homeopathy allopurinol allopurinol / ləυ pjυərinɒl/ noun a drug which helps to stop the body producing uric acid, used in the treatment of gout | Nursing.fm Page 11 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 11 all or none law all or none law / ɔ l ɔ n n lɔ / noun the rule that the heart muscle either contracts fully or does not contract at all allylestrenol / lail estrənɒl/ noun a steroid used to encourage pregnancy alopecia / lə pi ʃə/ noun a condition in which hair is lost. Compare hypotrichosis alopecia areata / ləpi ʃə ri eitə/ noun a condition in which the hair falls out in patches alpha / lfə/ noun the first letter of the Greek alphabet alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist / lfə ə dri nəυri septə n t ənist/, alpha-adrenoceptor blocker / lfə blɒkə/ noun a drug which can relax smooth muscle, used to treat urinary retention and hypertension. Also called allylestrenol | alopecia | alopecia areata | alpha alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist | | | alpha blocker amentia into which a tooth fits. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is alveoli.) Alzheimer plaque / ltshaimə pl k/ noun a Alzheimer plaque disc-shaped plaque of amyloid found in the brain in people who have Alzheimers disease Alzheimers disease / ltshaiməz di zi z/ noun a disease where a person experiences progressive dementia due to nerve cell loss in specific brain areas, resulting in loss of mental faculties including memory [Described 1906. After Alzheimers disease | Alois Alzheimer (18641915), Bavarian physician.] amalgam /ə m l əm/ noun a mixture of metamalgam | als, based on mercury and tin, used by dentists to fill holes in teeth amaurosis / mɔ rəυsis/ noun blindness caused by disease of the optic nerve amaurotic familial idiocy / mɔ rɒtik fə miliəl idiəsi/, amaurotic family idiocy / mɔ rɒtik f m(ə)li idiəsi/ noun same as amaurosis | amaurotic familial idiocy alpha-fetoprotein alpha-fetoprotein / lfə fi təυ prəυti n/ noun a protein produced by the liver of the human | fetus, which accumulates in the amniotic fluid. A high or low concentration is tested for by amniocentesis in the antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida or Downs syndrome, respectively. Alports syndrome / ɔ lpɔ ts sindrəυm/ noun a genetic disease of the kidneys which sometimes causes a person to lose his or her hearing and sight alprostadil / l prɒstədil/ noun a drug which makes blood vessels wider, used to treat impotence, prevent coagulation, and maintain babies with congenital heart conditions ALT abbreviation alanine aminotransferase alternative medicine /ɔ l t nətiv med(ə)sin/ noun the treatment of illness using therapies such as homoeopathy or naturopathy which are not considered part of conventional Western medicine. complementary medicine altitude sickness / ltitju d siknəs/ noun a condition caused by reduced oxygen in the air above altitudes of 7000 to 8000 feet (3600 metres). Symptoms include headaches, breathlessness, fatigue, nausea and swelling of the face, hands and feet. Also called high-altitude sickAlports syndrome alprostadil | ALT alternative medicine | altitude sickness ness, mountain sickness | | | | alveolitis | alveolus | | amb- ambi- ambidextrous | referring to a person who can use both hands equally well and who is not right- or left-handed ambisexual / mbi sekʃuəl/ adjective, noun same as bisexual amblyopia / mbli əυpiə/ noun a lack of normal vision without a structural cause. A common example is squint and other forms may be caused by the cyanide in tobacco smoke or by drinking methylated spirits. amblyopic / mbli ɒpik/ adjective affected by amblyopia amblyoscope / mbliəυskəυp/ noun an instrument for measuring the angle of a squint and how effectively someone uses both their eyes together. Also called orthoptoscope ambulatory / mbju leit(ə)ri/ adjective referring to a patient who is not confined to bed but is able to walk ambulatory care / mbju leit(ə)ri keə/ noun treatment of a patient which does not involve staying in hospital during the night amelia /ə mi liə/ noun the absence of a limb from birth, or a condition in which a limb is short from birth amelioration /ə mi liə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of getting better ameloblastoma / miləυbl stəυmə/ noun a tumour in the jaw, usually in the lower jaw amenorrhoea / eimenə ri ə/ noun the absence of one or more menstrual periods, usual during pregnancy and after the menopause amentia /ei menʃə/ noun the fact of being mentally underdeveloped ambisexual | amblyopia | amblyopic | amblyoscope ambulatory | | aluminium hydroxide / lə miniəm hai drɒksaid/ noun a chemical substance used as an antacid to treat indigestion. Formula: Al(OH)3 or Al2O3.3H2O. alveolar / lvi əυlə, l vi ələ/ adjective referring to the alveoli alveolar duct / lvi əυlə d kt/ noun a duct in the lung which leads from the respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement alveolitis / lviə laitis/ noun inflammation of an alveolus in the lungs or the socket of a tooth alveolus / lvi əυləs, l vi ələs/ noun a small cavity, e.g. an air sac in the lungs or the socket alveolar duct Tay-Sachs disease amb- / mb/ prefix same as ambi- (used before vowels) ambi- / mbi/ prefix both ambidextrous / mbi dekstrəs/ adjective ambulatory care aluminium hydroxide alveolar | | amelia | amelioration | | ameloblastoma | amenorrhoea | amentia | Nursing.fm Page 12 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ametropia 12 ametropia ametropia / mi trəυpiə/ noun a condition in which the eye cannot focus light correctly onto the retina, as in astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia. Compare emmetropia amfetamine / m fetəmi n/ noun an addictive drug, similar to adrenaline, used to give a feeling of wellbeing and wakefulness. Also called | amfetamine | amphetamine amikacin / mi keisin/ noun a type of antibiamikacin | otic used to treat infections caused by aerobic bacteria amiloride /ə miləraid/ noun a drug which helps to increase the production of urine and preserve the bodys supply of potassium amino acid /ə mi nəυ sid/ noun a chemical compound which is broken down from proteins in the digestive system and then used by the body to form its own protein aminobutyric acid /ə mi nəυbjυtirik sid/ amiloride | amino acid | aminobutyric acid | noun ‘ gamma aminobutyric acid aminoglycoside /ə mi nəυ laikəsaid/ noun aminoglycoside | | a drug used to treat many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacterial infections (NOTE: Aminoglycosides include drugs with names ending in -cin: gentamicin.) aminophylline / mi nɒfili n/ noun a drug aminophylline | that makes the bronchial tubes wider, used in the treatment of asthma amiodarone / mi ɒdərəυn/ noun a drug that makes the blood vessels wider, used in the treatment of irregular heartbeat amitosis / mi təυsis/ noun the multiplication of a cell by splitting of the nucleus amitriptyline / mi triptili n/ noun a sedative drug used to treat depression and persistent pain amlodipine / m lɒdipi n/ noun a drug that helps to control the movement of calcium ions through cell membranes. It is used to treat hypertension and angina. ammonia /ə məυniə/ noun a gas with a strong smell, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is a usual product of human metabolism amnesia / m ni ziə/ noun loss of memory amnihook / mnihυk/ noun a hooked instrument used to induce labour by pulling on the amniotic sac amniocentesis / mniəυsen ti sis/ noun a procedure which involves taking a test sample of the amniotic fluid during pregnancy using a hollow needle and syringe amnion / mniən/ noun the thin sac containing the amniotic fluid which covers an unborn baby in the uterus. Also called amniotic sac amnioscope / mniəskəυp/ noun an instrument used to examine a fetus through the cervical channel, before the amniotic sac is broken amnioscopy / mni ɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the amniotic fluid during pregnancy amiodarone | amitosis | amitriptyline | amlodipine | ammonia | amnesia | amnihook amniocentesis | amnion amnioscope amnioscopy | amniotic amniotic / mni ɒtik/ adjective relating to the amnion amniotic fluid / mniɒtik flu id/ noun the fluid contained in the amnion which surrounds an unborn baby amniotomy / mni ɒtəmi/ noun a puncture of the amnion to help induce labour amoeba /ə mi bə/ noun a form of animal life, made up of a single cell (NOTE: The plural is | amniotic fluid amniotomy | amoeba | amoebae.) amoebiasis amoebiasis / mi baiəsis/ noun an infection caused by amoebae which can result in amoebic dysentery in the large intestine (intestinal amoebiasis) and sometimes affects the lungs (pulmonary amoebiasis) amoebic /ə mi bik/ adjective relating to or caused by amoebae amorphous /ə mɔ fəs/ adjective with no regular shape amoxicillin /ə mɒksisilin/ noun an antibiotic Amoxil /ə mɒksil/ a trade name for amoxicillin amphetamine / m fetəmi n/ noun same as | amoebic | amorphous | amoxicillin | Amoxil | amphetamine | amfetamine amphiarthrosis amphiarthrosis / mfiɑ θrəυsis/ noun a joint which only has limited movement, e.g. one of the joints in the spine amphotericin / mfəυ terisin/ noun an antifungal agent, used against Candida ampicillin / mpi silin/ noun a type of penicillin, used as an antibiotic ampoule / mpu l/, ampule / mpju l/ noun a small glass container, closed at the neck, used to contain sterile drugs for use in injections ampulla / m pυlə/ noun a swelling of a canal or duct, shaped like a bottle (NOTE: The plural is | amphotericin | ampicillin | ampoule ampulla | ampullae.) amputation amputation / mpjυ teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of a limb or part of a limb amputee / mpjυ ti / noun someone who has had a limb or part of a limb removed in a surgical operation amygdala /ə mi dələ/ noun an almond-shaped body in the brain, at the end of the caudate nucleus of the thalamus. Also called amygdaloid | amputee | amygdala | body amygdaloid body amygdaloid body /ə mi dəlɔid bɒdi/ noun same as amygdala amyl- / m(ə)l/ prefix referring to starch amylase / mileiz/ noun an enzyme which converts starch into maltose amyl nitrate / m(ə)l naitreit/ noun a drug used to reduce blood pressure (NOTE: Amyl nitrate | amyl- amylase amyl nitrate is also used as a recreational drug.) amyloid amyloid / milɔid/ noun a waxy protein that forms in some tissues during the development of various diseases, e.g. forming disc-shaped plaques in the brain in Alzheimers disease Nursing.fm Page 13 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 13 amyloid disease amyloid disease / milɔid di zi z/ noun same as amyloidosis amyloidosis / milɔi dəυsis/ noun a disease of the kidneys and liver, where amyloid develops in the tissues. Also called amyloid disease amylopsin / mi lɒpsin/ noun an enzyme which converts starch into maltose amylose / miləυz/ noun a carbohydrate of starch amyotonia / eimaiə təυniə/ noun a lack of muscle tone amyotonia congenita / eimaiətəυniə kən d enitə/ noun a congenital disease of children in which the muscles lack tone. Also called floppy | amyloidosis | amylopsin | amylose amyotonia | amyotonia congenita | baby syndrome amyotrophia /ei maiə trəυfiə/ noun a condiamyotrophia | | tion in which a muscle wastes away amyotrophic lateral sclerosis /ei maiətrɒfik l tər(ə)l sklə rəυsis/ noun a motor neurone disease in which the limbs twitch and the muscles gradually waste away. Also called Gehrigs disease. Abbreviation ALS amyotrophy /ei mai ɒtrəfi/ same as amyoamyotrophic lateral sclerosis | | amyotrophy | | trophia anastomose anaesthetic anaesthetic / nəs θetik/ adjective inducing loss of feeling í noun a substance given to someone to remove feeling, so that he or she can undergo an operation without pain anaesthetic induction / nəsθetik in d kʃən/ noun a method of inducing anaesthesia in a patient anaesthetic risk / nəsθetik risk/ noun the risk that an anaesthetic may cause serious unwanted side effects anaesthetise /ə ni sθətaiz/, anaesthetize verb to produce a loss of feeling in a person or in part of the persons body anaesthetist /ə ni sθətist/ noun a spet who administers anaesthetics anal / ein(ə)l/ adjective relating to the anus analeptic / nə leptik/ noun a drug used to make someone regain consciousness or to stimulate a patient analgesia / n(ə)l d i ziə/ noun a reduction of the feeling of pain without loss of consciousness analgesic / n(ə)l d i zik/ adjective relating to analgesia í noun a painkilling drug which produces analgesia and reduces pyrexia anally / ein(ə)li/ adverb through the anus The patient is not able to pass faeces anally. analyse / nəlaiz/ verb to examine something in detail The laboratory is analysing the blood When the food was analysed it was samples. found to contain traces of bacteria. analysis /ə n ləsis/ noun an examination of a substance to find out what it is made of (NOTE: | anaesthetic induction | anaesthetic risk anaesthetise | anaesthetist | anal analeptic | analgesia | analgesic | anally an- an- / n/ prefix same as ana- (used before vowels) analyse ana- ana- / nə/ prefix without or lacking anabolic / nə bɒlik/ adjective referring to a substance which synthesises protein anabolic steroid / nə bɒlik stiərɔid/ noun a drug which encourages the synthesis of new living tissue, especially muscle, from nutrients anabolism / n bəliz(ə)m/ noun the process of building up complex chemical substances on the basis of simpler ones anacrotism /ə n krətiz(ə)m/ noun a second stroke in the pulse anaemia /ə ni miə/ noun a condition in which the level of red blood cells is less than usual or where the haemoglobin is less, making it more difficult for the blood to carry oxygen. The symptoms are tiredness and pale colour, especially pale lips, nails and the inside of the eyelids. The condition can be fatal if not treated. anaemic /ə ni mik/ adjective having anaemia anaerobe / nərəυb, n eərəυb/ noun a microorganism which lives without oxygen, e.g. the tetanus bacillus anaerobic / nə rəυbik/ adjective 1. not needing oxygen for metabolism anaerobic bacteria 2. without oxygen anaerobic conditions anaesthesia / nəs θi ziə/ noun 1. a state, deliberately produced in a patient by a medical procedure, in which he or she can feel no pain, either in a part or in the whole of the body 2. a loss of feeling caused by damage to nerves (NOTE: anabolic | anabolic steroid | anabolism | anacrotism | anaemia | anaemic | anaerobe | anaerobic | anaesthesia | The US spelling is anesthesia.) analysis | The plural is analyses.) analyst / nəlist/ noun a person who examines analyst samples of substances or tissue, to find out what they are made of anaphase / nəfeiz/ noun a stage in cell division, after the metaphase and before the telophase anaphylactic / nəfi l ktik/ adjective relating to or caused by extreme sensitivity to a substance anaphylactic shock / nəfil ktik ʃɒk/ noun a sudden severe reaction, which can be fatal, to something such as an injected substance or a bee sting anaphylaxis / nəfi l ksis/ noun 1. extreme sensitivity to a substance introduced into the body 2. same as anaphylactic shock anaplasia / nə pleisiə/ noun the loss of a cells typical characteristics, caused by cancer anaplastic / nə pl stik/ adjective referring to anaplasia anarthria / n ɑ θriə/ noun the loss of the ability to speak words properly anasarca / nə sɑ kə/ noun the presence of fluid in the body tissues. oedema anastomose /ə n stəməυz/ verb to join two blood vessels or tubular structures together anaphase anaphylactic | anaphylactic shock anaphylaxis | anaplasia | anaplastic | anarthria | anasarca | anastomose | Nursing.fm Page 14 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM anastomosis 14 anastomosis anastomosis /ə n stə məυsis/ noun a connection made between two blood vessels or tubular structures, either naturally or by surgery anatomical / nə tɒmik(ə)l/ adjective relating to the anatomy the anatomical features of a fetus anatomy /ə n təmi/ noun 1. the structure, especially the internal structure, of the body 2. the branch of science that studies the structure of the bodies of humans, animals and plants They are studying anatomy. ancillary worker / n siləri w kə/ noun someone who does a job for patients such cooking or cleaning which is supplementary to medical care anconeus / ŋ kəυniəs/ noun a small triangular muscle at the back of the elbow Ancylostoma / nsilə stəυmə/ noun a parasitic worm in the intestine which holds onto the wall of the intestine with its teeth and lives on the blood and protein of the carrier ancylostomiasis / nsiləυstə maiəsis/ noun a disease of which the symptoms are weakness and anaemia, caused by a hookworm which lives on the blood of the carrier. In severe cases the person may die. androgen / ndrəd ən/ noun a male sex hormone, testosterone or androsterone, which increases the male characteristics of the body androgenic / ndrə d enik/ adjective producing male characteristics andrology / n drɒləd i/ noun the study of male sexual characteristics and subjects such as impotence, infertility and the male menopause androsterone / n drɒstərəυn/ noun one of the male sex hormones anencephalous / nen kefələs/ adjective having no brain anencephaly / nen kefəli/ noun the absence of a brain, which causes a fetus to die a few hours after birth anergy / nəd i/ noun a state of severe weakness and lack of energy aneurine /ə njυərin/ noun same as Vitamin B1 aneurysm / njəriz(ə)m/ noun a swelling caused by the weakening of the wall of a blood vessel angi- / nd i/ prefix same as angio- (used | | anatomical | anatomy | ancillary worker | anconeus | Ancylostoma | ancylostomiasis | androgen androgenic | andrology | androsterone | anencephalous | anencephaly | anergy aneurine | aneurysm angi- angiectasis nd i ektəsis/ noun a swelling of the blood vessels angiitis / nd i aitis/ noun an inflammation of a blood vessel angina / n d ainə/ noun a pain in the chest following exercise or eating, which is caused by an inadequate supply of blood to the heart muscles because of narrowing of the arteries. It is com| angiitis | | angina pectoris | angio- angiocardiogram | angiocardiography | | angiodysplasia | angiogenesis | angiogram angiography | angiology | angioma | angioneurotic oedema | | | angiopathy | angioplasty | angiosarcoma | angiospasm angiotensin angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor | before vowels) angiectasis / angina monly treated with nitrates or calcium channel blocker drugs. angina pectoris / n d ainə pektəris/ noun same as angina angio- / nd iəυ/ prefix referring to a blood vessel angiocardiogram / nd iəυ kɑ diə r m/ noun a series of pictures resulting from angiocardiography angiocardiography / nd iəυkɑ di ɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the cardiac system after injection with an opaque dye so that the organs show up clearly on the film angiodysplasia / nd iəυdis pleiziə/ noun a condition where the blood vessels in the colon dilate, resulting in loss of blood angiogenesis / nd iəυ d enəsis/ noun the formation of new blood vessels, e.g. in an embryo or as a result of a tumour angiogram / nd iəυ r m/ noun an X-ray picture of blood vessels angiography / nd i ɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of blood vessels after injection with an opaque dye so that they show up clearly on the film angiology / nd i ɒləd i/ noun the branch of medicine which deals with blood vessels and the lymphatic system angioma / nd i əυmə/ noun a benign tumour formed of blood vessels, e.g. a naevus angioneurotic oedema / nd iəυnjυ rɒtik i di mə/ noun a sudden accumulation of liquid under the skin, similar to nettle rash angiopathy / nd i ɒpəθi/ noun a disease of vessels such as blood and lymphatic vessels angioplasty / nd iəυ pl sti/ noun plastic surgery to repair a blood vessel, e.g. a narrowed coronary artery angiosarcoma / nd iəυsɑ kəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour in a blood vessel angiospasm / nd iəυsp z(ə)m/ noun a spasm which constricts blood vessels angiotensin / nd iəυtensin/ noun a polypeptide which affects blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction and increasing extracellular volume angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor / nd iəυtensin kən v tiŋ enzaim in hibitə/ noun a drug which inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which constricts arteries, used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Also called ACE inhibitor | (NOTE: ACE inhibitors have names ending in -pril: captopril.) angle-closure glaucoma / ŋ əl kləυ ə lɔ kəυmə/ noun an unusually high pressure of angle-closure glaucoma | fluid inside the eyeball caused by pressure of the Nursing.fm Page 15 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 15 iris against the lens, trapping the aqueous humour. Also called acute glaucoma angular vein / ŋ jυlə vein/ noun a vein which continues the facial vein at the side of the nose anhedonia / nhi dəυniə/ noun a psychological condition in which a person is unable to enjoy all the experiences that most people enjoy anhidrosis / nhi drəυsis/ noun a condition in which sweating by the body is reduced or stops completely anhidrotic / nhi drɒtik/ adjective referring to a drug which reduces sweating anhydraemia / nhai dri miə/ noun a lack of sufficient fluid in the blood anhydrous / n haidrəs/ adjective referring to compounds or crystals that contain no water anidrosis / ni drəυsis/ noun same as anhidangular vein anhedonia | anhidrosis | anhidrotic | anhydraemia | anhydrous | anidrosis | rosis aniridia aniridia / ni ridiə/ noun a congenital absence of the iris anisocytosis / naisəυsai təυsis/ noun a variation in size of red blood cells anisomelia / naisəυ mi liə/ noun a difference in length of the legs anisometropia / naisəυmə trəυpiə/ noun a state where the refraction in the two eyes is different ankle / ŋkəl/ noun the part of the body where the foot is connected to the leg ankyloblepharon / ŋkiləυ blefərɒn/ noun a state where the edges of the eyelids are stuck together ankylosing spondylitis / ŋkiləυziŋ spɒndi laitis/ noun a condition occurring more frequently in young men, in which the vertebrae and sacroiliac joints are inflamed and become stiff ankylosis / ŋki ləυsis/ noun a condition in which the bones of a joint fuse together Ankylostoma / ŋkil stəυmə/ noun same as | anisocytosis | anisomelia | anisometropia | ankle ankyloblepharon | ankylosing spondylitis | ankylosis | Ankylostoma | Ancylostoma ankylostomiasis ankylostomiasis / ŋkiləυstə maiəsis/ noun same as ancylostomiasis annular / njυlə/ adjective shaped like a ring annulus / njυləs/ noun a structure shaped like | annular annulus a ring ano- / nəυ/ prefix referring to the anus anodyne / nədain/ noun a drug which reduces pain, e.g. aspirin or codeine í adjective referring to drugs that bring relief from pain or discomfort anomalous /ə nɒmələs/ adjective different from what is usual anomaly /ə nɒməli/ noun something which is different from the usual ano- anodyne anomalous | anomaly | anteflexion anomie anomie / nəmi/ noun a psychological condition in which a person develops the feeling of not being part of the everyday world, and behaves as though they do not have any supporting social or moral framework anonychia / nə nikiə/ noun a congenital absence of one or more nails anopheles /ə nɒfəli z/ noun a mosquito which carries the malaria parasite anoplasty / einəυpl sti/ noun surgery to repair the anus, as in treating haemorrhoids anorchism / n ɔ kiz(ə)m/ noun a congenital absence of testicles anorectal / einəυ rekt(ə)l/ adjective referring to both the anus and rectum anorexia / nə reksiə/ noun loss of appetite anorexia nervosa / nəreksiə n vəυsə/ noun a psychological condition, usually found in girls and young women, in which a person refuses to eat because of a fear of becoming fat anosmia / n ɒzmiə/ noun the lack of the sense of smell anovular / n ɒvjυlə/ adjective without an ovum anovular bleeding / n ɒvjυlə bli diŋ/ noun bleeding from the uterus when ovulation has not taken place anovulation / n ɒvjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which a women does not ovulate and is therefore infertile anoxaemia / nɒk si miə/ noun a reduction of the amount of oxygen in the blood anoxia / nɒksiə/ noun a lack of oxygen in body tissue anoxic / n ɒksik/ adjective referring to anoxia or lacking oxygen antacid / nt sid/ adjective preventing too much acid forming in the stomach or altering the amount of acid in the stomach í noun a substance that stops too much acid forming in the stomach, used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal conditions such as ulcers, e.g. calcium carbonate or magnesium trisilicate antagonist / n t ənist/ adjective 1. referring to a muscle which opposes another muscle in a movement 2. referring to a substance which opposes another substance í noun a substance which acts through specific receptors to block the action of another substance, but which has no observable physiological effect itself Atropine is a cholinergic antagonist and blocks the effects of acetylcholine. ante- / nti/ prefix before ante cibum / nti tʃibəm, nti si bəm/ adverb full form of a.c. anteflexion / nti flekʃən/ noun the curving forward of an organ, e.g. the usual curvature of the uterus anonychia | anopheles | anoplasty anorchism | anorectal | anorexia | anorexia nervosa | anosmia | anovular | anovular bleeding | anovulation | | anoxaemia | anoxia | anoxic | antacid | antagonist | ante- ante cibum anteflexion | Nursing.fm Page 16 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM antemortem 16 antemortem antemortem / nti mɔ təm/ noun the period before death antenatal / nti neit(ə)l/ adjective during the period between conception and childbirth antenatal clinic / nti neit(ə)l klinik/ noun a clinic where expectant mothers are taught how to look after babies, do exercises and have medical checkups. Also called maternity clinic antenatal diagnosis / nti neit(ə)l daiə nəυsis/ noun a medical examination of a pregnant woman to see if the fetus is developing in the usual way. Also called prenatal diagnosis antepartum / nti pɑ təm/ noun the period of three months before childbirth í adjective referring to the three months before childbirth antepartum haemorrhage / ntipɑ təm hemərid / noun bleeding from the vagina before labour. Abbreviation APH anterior / n tiəriə/ adjective in front. Opposite | antenatal | antenatal clinic | antenatal diagnosis | | antepartum | antepartum haemorrhage | anterior | posterior anterior aspect anterior aspect / n tiəriə spekt/ noun a view of the front of the body, or of the front of part of the body. See illustration at ANATOMICAL | TERMS in Supplement anterior fontanelle / n tiəriə fɒntə nel/ noun the cartilage at the top of the head where the frontal bone joins the two parietals anterior nares / n tiəriə neəri z/ plural noun the two nostrils. Also called external nares anterograde amnesia / ntərəυ reid m ni ziə/ noun a brain condition in which the person cannot remember things which happened recently anteversion / nti v ʃ(ə)n/ noun the tilting forward of an organ, whether usual, as of the uterus, or unusual anthelmintic / nθel mintik/ noun a substance which removes worms from the intestine í adjective removing worms from the intestine anthracosis / nθrə kəυsis/ noun a lung disease caused by breathing coal dust anthrax / nθr ks/ noun a disease of cattle and sheep which can be transmitted to humans anthrop- / nθrəp/ prefix referring to human beings anthropology / nθrə pɒləd i/ noun the study of human beings as a species, especially their culture or development. It differs from sociology in taking a more historical and comparative approach. anthropometry / nθrə pɒmətri/ noun the study of human body measurements (NOTE: The anterior fontanelle | | anterior nares | anterograde amnesia | anteversion | anthelmintic | anthracosis | anthrax anthrop- anthropology | anthropometry | uses of anthropometry include the design of ergonomic furniture and the examination and comparison of populations.) anti- anti- / nti/ prefix against antiarrhythmic antiarrhythmic / ntiei riðmik/ adjective referring to a drug which corrects an irregular heartbeat antiasthmatic / nti s m tik/ adjective referring to a drug that is used to treat asthma antibacterial / ntib k tiəriəl/ adjective destroying bacteria antibiotic / ntibai ɒtik/ adjective stopping the spread of bacteria í noun a drug which is developed from living substances and which stops the spread of bacteria, e.g. penicillin He was given a course of antibiotics. Antibiotics have no effect against viral diseases. antibody / ntibɒdi/ noun a protein that is stimulated by the body to produce foreign substances such as bacteria, as part of an immune reaction Tests showed that he had antibodies in his blood. antibody-negative / ntibɒdi ne ətiv/ adjective showing none of a particular antibody in the blood The donor tested antibody-negative. antibody-positive / ntibɒdi pɒzitiv/ adjective showing the presence of particular antibodies in the blood The patient is HIV antibody-positive. anticholinergic / ntikəυli n d ik/ adjective blocking nerve impulses which are part of the stress response í noun one of a group of drugs which are used to control stress anticholinesterase / ntikəυlin estəreiz/ noun a substance which blocks nerve impulses by reducing the activity of the enzyme cholinesterase anticoagulant / ntikəυ jυlənt/ adjective slowing or stopping the clotting of blood í noun a drug which slows down or stops the clotting of blood, used to prevent the formation of a thrombus (NOTE: Anticoagulants have names ending | antiasthmatic | antibacterial | antibiotic | antibody antibody-negative antibody-positive anticholinergic | anticholinesterase | | anticoagulant | in -parin: heparin.) anticonvulsant anticonvulsant / ntikən v ls(ə)nt/ adjective acting to control convulsions í noun a drug used to control convulsions, as in the treatment of epilepsy, e.g. carbamazepine anti-D / nti di/, anti-D gamma-globulin mə lɒbjυlin/ noun Rh D immu/ nti di noglobulin, used to treat pregnant women who develop antibodies when the mother is Rh-negative and the fetus is Rh-positive antidepressant / ntidi pres(ə)nt/ adjective acting to relieve depression í noun a drug used to relieve depression by stimulating the mood of a depressed person. Examples are tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. anti-D immunoglobulin / nti di imjυnəυ lɒbjυlin/ noun immunoglobulin administered to Rh-negative mothers after the birth of an Rhpositive baby, to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn in the next pregnancy | anti-D antidepressant | anti-D immunoglobulin | Nursing.fm Page 17 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 17 antidiuretic antidiuretic / ntidaijυ retik/ noun a substance which stops the production of excessive amounts of urine hormones which have an antidiuretic effect on the kidneys í adjective preventing the excessive production of urine antidote / ntidəυt/ noun a substance which counteracts the effect of a poison There is no satisfactory antidote to cyanide. antiembolic / ntiem bɒlik/ adjective preventing embolism antiemetic / ntii metik/ noun a drug which prevents vomiting í adjective acting to prevent vomiting antiepileptic drug / ntiepi leptik dr / noun a drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions, e.g. carbamazepine antifibrinolytic / ntifaibrinə litik/ adjective acting to reduce fibrosis antifungal / nti f ŋ əl/ adjective referring to a substance which kills or controls fungal and yeast infections, e.g. candida and ringworm | antidote antiembolic | antiemetic | antiepileptic drug | antifibrinolytic | antifungal | (NOTE: Antifungal drugs have names ending in -conazole: fluconazole.) antigen / ntid ən/ noun a substance that antigen stimulates the body to produce antibodies, e.g. a protein on the surface of a cell or microorganism antigenic / nti d enik/ adjective referring to a substance which stimulates the formation of antibodies antihaemophilic factor / ntihi mə filik f ktə/ noun factor VIII, used to encourage blood-clotting in haemophiliacs. Abbreviation antigenic | antihaemophilic factor | AHF antihelminthic antihelminthic / ntihel minθik/ noun a drug used in the treatment of worm infections such as threadworm, hookworm or roundworm antihistamine / nti histəmi n/ noun a drug used to control the effects of an allergy which releases histamine, or reduces gastric acid in the stomach for the treatment of gastric ulcers (NOTE: | antihistamine | Antihistamines have names ending in -tidine: loratidine for allergies, cimetidine for gastric ulcers.) antihypertensive / ntihaipə tensiv/ adjective acting to reduce blood pressure í noun a antihypertensive | drug used to reduce high blood pressure anti-inflammatory / nti in fl mət(ə)ri/ adjective referring to a drug which reduces inflammation antilymphocytic serum / ntilimfəυ sitik siərəm/ noun a serum used to produce immunosuppression in people undergoing transplant operations. Abbreviation ALS antimalarial / ntimə leəriəl/ noun a drug used to treat malaria and in malarial prophylaxis í adjective treating or preventing malaria antimetabolite / ntimə t bəlait/ noun a substance which can replace a cell metabolism, but which is not active anti-inflammatory | antilymphocytic serum | antimalarial | antimetabolite | | antitetanus serum antimicrobial antimicrobial / ntimai krəυbiəl/ adjective acting against microorganisms that cause disease antimigraine / nti mai rein/ noun a drug used in the treatment of migraine antimitotic / ntimai tɒtik/ adjective preventing the division of a cell by mitosis antimuscarinic / ntim skə rinik/ adjective referring to a drug which blocks acetylcholine receptors found on smooth muscle in the gut and eye antimycotic / ntimai kɒtik/ adjective destroying fungi antinauseant / nti nɔ ziənt/ adjective referring to a drug which helps to suppress nausea antioxidant / nti ɒksid(ə)nt/ noun a substance which makes oxygen less damaging, e.g. in the body or in foods or plastics antioxidant vitamins antiperistalsis / ntiperi st lsis/ noun a movement in the oesophagus or intestine which causes their contents to move in the opposite direction to usual peristalsis, so leading to vomiting antiperspirant / nti p sp(ə)rənt/ noun a substance which prevents sweating í adjective preventing sweating antipruritic / ntiprυ ritik/ noun a substance which prevents itching í adjective preventing itching antipsychotic / ntisai kɒtik/ noun a neuroleptic or major tranquilliser drug which calms disturbed people without causing sedation or confusion by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain antipyretic / ntipai retik/ noun a drug which helps to reduce a fever í adjective reducing fever anti-Rh body / nti ɑ r eitʃ bɒdi/ noun an antibody formed in a mothers blood in reaction to a Rhesus antigen in the blood of the fetus antisepsis / nti sepsis/ noun a procedure intended to prevent sepsis antiseptic / nti septik/ adjective preventing harmful microorganisms from spreading She gargled with an antiseptic mouthwash. í noun a substance which prevents germs growing or spreading The nurse painted the wound with antiseptic. antiserum / nti siərəm/ noun ‘ serum | antimigraine | antimitotic | antimuscarinic | antimycotic | antinauseant | antioxidant | antiperistalsis | antiperspirant | antipruritic | antipsychotic | antipyretic | anti-Rh body antisepsis | antiseptic | antiserum | (NOTE: The plural is antisera.) antisocial antisocial / nti səυʃ(ə)l/ adjective referring to behaviour which is harmful to other people antispasmodic / ntisp z mɒdik/ noun a drug used to prevent spasms antitetanus serum / nti tetənəs siərəm/ noun a serum which protects a patient against tetanus. Abbreviation ATS | antispasmodic | antitetanus serum | Nursing.fm Page 18 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM antithrombin 18 antithrombin antithrombin / nti θrɒmbin/ noun a substance present in the blood which prevents clotting antitoxic serum / ntitɒksik siərəm/ noun an immunising agent, formed of serum taken from an animal which has developed antibodies to a disease, used to protect a person from that disease antitoxin / nti tɒksin/ noun an antibody produced by the body to counteract a poison in the body antitragus / nti trei əs/ noun a small projection on the outer ear opposite the tragus antitussive / nti t siv/ noun a drug used to reduce coughing antivenin / nti venin/, antivenom / nti venəm/, antivenene / ntivə ni n/ noun a substance which helps the body to fight the effects of a particular venom from a snake or insect bite antiviral / nti vairəl/ adjective referring to a drug or treatment which stops or reduces the damage caused by a virus í noun same as antiviral | antitoxic serum antitoxin | antitragus | antitussive | antivenin | | | antiviral | drug antiviral drug antiviral drug / nti vairəl dr / noun a drug which is effective against a virus (NOTE: Antiviral | drugs have names ending in -ciclovir.) antral antral / ntrəl/ adjective referring to an antrum antrectomy / n trektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of an antrum in the stomach to prevent gastrin being formed antroscopy / n trɒskəpi/ noun an examination of an antrum antrostomy / n trɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the maxillary sinus to drain an antrum antrum / ntrəm/ noun any cavity inside the body, especially one in bone (NOTE: The plural is antrectomy | antroscopy | antrostomy | antrum antra.) anuria anuria / n jυəriə/ noun a condition in which the patient does not make urine, either because of a deficiency in the kidneys or because the urinary tract is blocked anus / einəs/ noun a short passage after the rectum at the end of the alimentary canal, leading outside the body between the buttocks and through which faeces are passed. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement, UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement (NOTE: For | anus other terms referring to the anus, see anal and words beginning with ano-.) anvil anvil / nvil/ noun same as incus anxiety / ŋ zaiəti/ noun the state of being very worried and afraid anxiety disorder / ŋ zaiəti dis ɔ də/ noun a mental disorder where someone is very worried and afraid, e.g. a phobia anxiety | anxiety disorder | | anxiety neurosis anxiety neurosis / ŋ zaiəti njυ rəυsis/ noun a neurotic condition where the patient is anxious and has morbid fears anxiolytic / ŋksiə litik/ noun a drug used in the treatment of anxiety í adjective treating anxiety aorta /ei ɔ tə/ noun the main artery in the body, which sends blood containing oxygen from the heart to other blood vessels around the body. See illustration at HEART in Supplement aortic /ei ɔ tik/ adjective relating to the aorta aortic aneurysm /ei ɔ tik njə riz(ə)m/ noun a serious aneurysm of the aorta, associated with atherosclerosis aortitis / eiɔ taitis/ noun inflammation of the aorta aortography / eiɔ tɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the aorta after an opaque substance has been injected into it apathetic / pə θetik/ adjective referring to a person who takes no interest in anything apathy / pəθi/ noun the condition of not being interested in anything, or of not wanting to do anything aperient /ə piəriənt/ noun a substance which causes a bowel movement, e.g. a laxative or purgative í adjective causing a bowel movement aperistalsis / eiperi st lsis/ noun a lack of the peristaltic movement in the bowel Aperts syndrome / p ts sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which the skull grows tall and the lower part of the face is underdeveloped aperture / pətʃə/ noun a hole apex / eipeks/ noun 1. the top of the heart or lung 2. the end of the root of a tooth Apgar score / p ɑ skɔ / noun a method of judging the condition of a newborn baby in which the baby is given a maximum of two points on each of five criteria: colour of the skin, heartbeat, breathing, muscle tone and reaction to stimuli | | anxiolytic | aorta | aortic | aortic aneurysm | | aortitis | aortography | apathetic | apathy aperient | aperistalsis | Aperts syndrome aperture apex Apgar score [Described 1952. After Virginia Apgar (1909 74), US anaesthesiologist.] APH abbreviation antepartum haemorrhage aphagia /ei feid iə/ noun a condition in which APH aphagia | a person is unable to swallow aphakia /ei feikiə/ noun the absence of the crystalline lens in the eye aphakic /ei feikik/ adjective referring to aphakia aphasia /ei feiziə/ noun a condition in which a person is unable to speak or write, or to understand speech or writing because of damage to the brain centres controlling speech aphonia /ei fəυniə/ noun a condition in which a person is unable to make sounds aphrodisiac / frə dizi k/ noun a substance which increases sexual urges í adjective increasing sexual desire aphakia | aphakic | aphasia | aphonia | aphrodisiac | Nursing.fm Page 19 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 19 aphtha aphtha / fθə/ noun a small white ulcer which appears in groups in the mouth in people who have the fungal condition thrush (NOTE: The plural is apthae.) aqueous humour appendiceal appendiceal / pən disiəl/ adjective relating to the appendix There is a risk of appendiceal infection. appendicectomy /ə pendi sektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of an appendix appendicitis /ə pendi saitis/ noun inflammation of the vermiform appendix appendicular / pən dikjυlə/ adjective 1. referring to body parts which are associated with the arms and legs 2. relating to the appendix appendicular skeleton / pen dikjυlə skelit(ə)n/ noun part of the skeleton, formed of the pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle and the bones of the arms and legs. Compare axial skeleton appendix /ə pendiks/ noun 1. a small tube attached to the caecum which serves no function but can become infected, causing appendicitis. Also called vermiform appendix. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement 2. any small tube or sac hanging from an organ apperception / pə sepʃ(ə)n/ noun the conscious recognition of a stimulus appetite / pitait/ noun the feeling of wanting food applanation tonometry / plə neiʃ(ə)n tə nɒmətri/ noun the measuring of the thickness of the cornea appliance /ə plaiəns/ noun a piece of apparatus used on the body He was wearing a surgical appliance to support his neck. applicator / plikeitə/ noun an instrument for applying a substance apposition / pə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the relative positioning of two things 2. cell growth in which layers of new material are deposited on existing ones appraisal /ə preiz(ə)l/ noun a judgment or opinion on something or somebody, especially one which decides how effective or useful they are apprehension / pri henʃ(ə)n/ noun a feeling of anxiety or fear that something bad or unpleasant will happen apraxia /ei pr ksiə/ noun a condition in which someone is unable to make proper movements apyrexia / eipai reksiə/ noun the absence of fever apyrexial / eipai reksiəl/ adjective no longer having any fever aqua / kwə/ noun water aqueduct / kwid kt/ noun a tube which carries fluid from one part of the body to another aqueous / eikwiəs, kwiəs/ adjective referring to a solution made with water í noun a fluid in the eye between the lens and the cornea aqueous humour / eikwiəs hju mə/ noun same as aqueous. See illustration at EYE in Supplement | appendicectomy | aphthous stomatitis aphthous stomatitis / fθəs stəυmə taitis/ noun canker sores which affect the mucous membrane in the mouth apical / pik(ə)l/ adjective situated at the top or tip of something apical abscess / pik(ə)l bses/ noun an abscess in the socket around the root of a tooth apicectomy / pi sektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the root of a tooth aplasia /ei pleiziə/ noun a lack of growth of tissue aplastic /ei pl stik/ adjective unable to develop new cells or tissue aplastic anaemia /ei pl stik ə ni miə/ noun anaemia caused by the bone marrow failing to form red blood cells apnea / p ni ə/ noun US same as apnoea apnoea / p ni ə/ noun the stopping of breathing (NOTE: The US spelling is apnea.) apnoeic / p ni ik/ adjective where breathing has stopped apocrine / pəkrain/ adjective referring to apocrine glands apocrine gland / pəkrain l nd/ noun a gland producing body odour where parts of the glands cells break off with the secretions, e.g. a sweat gland apocrinitis / pəkri naitis/ noun the formation of abscesses in the sweat glands apomorphine / pəυ mɔ fi n/ noun a substance that comes from morphine, used to make a person cough, sleep or be sick (NOTE: It is admin| apical apical abscess apicectomy | aplasia | aplastic | aplastic anaemia | | apnea | apnoea | apnoeic | apocrine apocrine gland apocrinitis | apomorphine | istered under the skin and is used to treat drug overdose, accidental poisoning and Parkinsons disease.) aponeurosis / pəυnjυ rəυsis/ noun a band aponeurosis | of tissue which attaches muscles to each other apophyseal / pə fiziəl/ adjective referring to apophysis apophysis / pɒfəsis/ noun a growth of bone, not at a joint apophysitis / pəfi saitis/ noun inflammation of an apophysis apoplexy / pəpleksi/ noun same as cereapophyseal | apophysis | apophysitis | apoplexy brovascular accident (dated ) apoptosis /ə pɒptəsis/ noun a form of cell apoptosis | death that is necessary both to make room for new cells and to remove cells whose DNA has been damaged and which may become cancerous appendage /ə pendid / noun a part of the body or piece of tissue which hangs down from another part appendage | | appendicitis | | appendicular | appendicular skeleton | appendix | apperception | appetite applanation tonometry | appliance | applicator apposition | appraisal | apprehension | apraxia | apyrexia | apyrexial | aqua aqueduct aqueous aqueous humour | Nursing.fm Page 20 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM AR 20 AR AR abbreviation attributable risk arachidonic acid /ə r kidɒnik sid/ noun an essential fatty acid arachnodactyly /ə r knəυ d ktili/ noun a congenital condition in which the fingers and toes are long and thin arachnoid /ə r knɔid/ noun the middle of th dura three membranes covering the brain. arachidonic acid | arachnodactyly | | arachnoid | mater arachnoiditis arachnoiditis /ə r knɔi daitis/ noun inflammation of the arachnoid arachnoid mater /ə r knɔid meitə/, arachnoid membrane /ə r knɔid membrein/ noun same as arachnoid arachnoid villi /ə r knɔid vilai/ plural noun villi in the arachnoid which absorb cerebrospinal fluid arborisation / ɑ bərai zeiʃ(ə)n/, arborization noun the branching ends of some nerve fibres, of a motor nerve in muscle fibre or of venules, capillaries and arterioles arbovirus / ɑ bəvairəs/ noun a virus transmitted by blood-sucking insects arc /ɑ k/ noun a nerve pathway ARC abbreviation AIDS-related complex or AIDS-related condition arch /ɑ tʃ/ noun a curved part of the body, especially under the foot arch- /ɑ tʃ/ prefix chief, most important arcuate / ɑ kjuət/ adjective arched arcuate artery / ɑ kjuət ɑ təri/ noun a curved artery in the foot or kidney arcuate ligaments / ɑ kjuət ɑ təri/ plural noun three ligaments forming a fibrous arch to which the diaphragm is attached arcus / ɑ kəs/ noun an arch arcus senilis / ɑ kəs sə nailis/ noun an opaque circle around the cornea of the eye which can develop in old age ARDS /ɑ dz/ abbreviation adult respiratory distress syndrome areola /ə ri ələ/ noun the coloured part round a nipple areolar tissue /ə ri ələ tiʃu / noun a type of connective tissue arginine / ɑ d ini n/ noun an amino acid which helps the liver form urea Argyll Robertson pupil /ɑ ail rɒbətsən pju p(ə)l/ noun a condition of the eye, in which the lens is able to focus but the pupil does not react to light. It is a symptom of tertiary syphilis or of locomotor ataxia. ariboflavinosis /ei raibəυfleivi nəυsis/ noun a condition caused by not having enough vitamin B2. The symptoms are very oily skin and hair and small cuts in the mouth. | | arachnoid mater | | arachnoid villi | arborisation | arbovirus arc ARC arch arch- arcuate arcuate artery arcuate ligaments arcus arcus senilis | ARDS areola | areolar tissue | arginine Argyll Robertson pupil | ariboflavinosis | | Arnold-Chiari malformation Arnold-Chiari malformation / ɑ nəld ki eəri m lfɔ meiʃ(ə)n/ noun a congenital condition in which the base of the skull is malformed, allowing parts of the cerebellum into the spinal canal [Described 1894. After Julius A. Arnold | | (18351915), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Heidelberg, Germany, and Hans von Chiari (18511916), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Strasbourg and later at Prague, Czech Republic.] aromatherapy /ə rəυmə θerəpi/ noun treataromatherapy | | ment to relieve tension and promote wellbeing in which fragrant oils and creams containing plant extracts are massaged into the skin arousal /ə raυz(ə)l/ noun 1. feelings and physical signs of sexual desire 2. the act of waking up from sleep, unconsciousness or a drowsy state arrector pili /ə rektə pailai m s(ə)l/ noun a small muscle which contracts and makes the hair on the skin stand up when someone is cold or afraid arrest /ə rest/ noun the stopping of a bodily function. cardiac arrest arrhythmia /ə riðmiə/ noun a variation in the rhythm of the heartbeat arsenic / ɑ snik/ noun a chemical element which forms poisonous compounds such as arsenic trioxide and which was formerly used in some medicines (NOTE: The chemical symbol is arousal | arrector pili | arrest | arrhythmia | arsenic As.) artefact artefact / ɑ tif kt/ noun something which is made or introduced artificially arter- /ɑ tə/ prefix same as arterio- (used before arter- vowels) arterial arterial /ɑ tiəriəl/ adjective relating to arteries arterial haemorrhage /ɑ tiəriəl hem(ə)rid / noun a haemorrhage of bright red blood from an artery arteriectomy /ɑ tiəri ektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of an artery or part of an artery arterio- /ɑ tiəriəυ/ prefix referring to arteries arteriogram /ɑ tiəriəυ r m/ noun an X-ray photograph of an artery, taken after injection with an opaque dye arteriography /ɑ tiəri ɒ rəfi/ noun the work of taking X-ray photographs of arteries after injection with an opaque dye arteriole /ɑ tiəriəυl/ noun a very small artery arteriopathy /ɑ tiəri ɒpəθi/ noun a disease of an artery arterioplasty /ɑ tiəriəυpl sti/ noun plastic surgery to make good a damaged or blocked artery arteriorrhaphy /ɑ tiəri ɔ rəfi/ noun the act of stitching an artery arteriosclerosis /ɑ tiəriəυsklə rəυsis/ noun the arterial disease atherosclerosis (dated ) | arterial haemorrhage | arteriectomy | | arterio- arteriogram | arteriography | | arteriole | arteriopathy | | arterioplasty | arteriorrhaphy | | arteriosclerosis | | Nursing.fm Page 21 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 21 arteriotomy arteriotomy /ɑ tiəri ɒtəmi/ noun a puncture made in the wall of an artery arteriovenous /ɑ tiəriəυ vi nəs/ adjective referring to both an artery and a vein arteritis / ɑ tə raitis/ noun inflammation of the walls of an artery artery / ɑ təri/ noun a blood vessel taking blood from the heart to the tissues of the body arthr- /ɑ θr/ prefix same as arthro- (used before | | arteriovenous | | arteritis | artery arthr- vowels) arthralgia arthralgia /ɑ θr ld ə/ noun pain in a joint arthrectomy /ɑ θrektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a joint arthritic /ɑ θritik/ adjective affected by or relating to arthritis She has an arthritic hip. í noun a person suffering from arthritis arthritis /ɑ θraitis/ noun a painful inflammation of a joint. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid | arthrectomy | arthritic | arthritis | arthritis arthro- arthro- /ɑ θrəυ/ prefix referring to a joint arthroclasia / ɑ θrəυ klei ə/ noun removal of ankylosis in a joint arthrodesis / ɑ θrəυ di sis/ noun a surgical operation in which a joint is fused in position, so preventing pain from movement arthrodynia / ɑ θrəυ diniə/ noun pain in a joint arthrography /ɑ θrɒ rəfi/ noun X-ray photography of a joint arthrogryposis / ɑ θrəυ ri pəυsis/ noun a group of disorders in which movement becomes progressively restricted arthropathy /ɑ θrɒpəθi/ noun a disease in a joint arthroplasty / ɑ θrəυpl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair or replace a joint arthroscope / ɑ θrəυskəυp/ noun an instrument which is inserted into the cavity of a joint to inspect it arthroscopy /ɑ θrɒskəpi/ noun a procedure to examine the inside of a joint by means of an arthroscope arthrosis /ɑ θrəυsis/ noun the degeneration of a joint arthrotomy /ɑ θrɒtəmi/ noun a procedure that involves cutting into a joint to drain pus articular /ɑ tikjυlə/ adjective referring to joints articular cartilage /ɑ tikjυlə kɑ təlid / noun a layer of cartilage at the end of a bone where it forms a joint with another bone. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement, SYNOVIAL JOINT in Supplement articulate /ɑ tikjυleit/ verb to be linked with another bone in a joint articulation /ɑ tikjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a joint or series of joints arthroclasia | arthrodesis | arthrodynia | arthrography | arthrogryposis | arthropathy | arthroplasty arthroscope arthroscopy | arthrosis | arthrotomy | articular | articular cartilage | articulate | articulation | | ascites artificial artificial / ɑ ti fiʃ(ə)l/ adjective 1. made by humans and not a natural part of the body artificial cartilage artificial kidney artificial leg 2. happening not as a natural process but through action by a doctor or another person or a machine artificial feeding artificial insemination / ɑ tifiʃ(ə)l in semi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the introduction of semen into a womans uterus by artificial means artificial insemination by donor / ɑ tifiʃ(ə)l insemi neiʃ(ə)n bai dəυnə/ noun same as donor insemination. Abbreviation AID artificial insemination by husband / ɑ tifiʃ(ə)l insemi neiʃ(ə)n bai h zbənd/ noun artificial insemination using the semen of the husband. Abbreviation AIH artificial lung / ɑ tifiʃ(ə)l l ŋ/ noun a machine through which a persons deoxygenated blood is passed to absorb oxygen to take back to the bloodstream artificial respiration / ɑ tifiʃ(ə)l respi reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a way of reviving someone who has stopped breathing, e.g. mouth-to-mouth resuscitation artificial rupture of membranes / ɑ tifiʃ(ə)l r ptʃər əv membreinz/ noun the breaking of the amniotic sac with an amnihook, so releasing the amniotic fluid arytenoid / ri ti nɔid/ adjective located at the back of the larynx arytenoid cartilage / ri ti nɔid kɑ tilid / noun a small cartilage at the back of the larynx arytenoidectomy / ri ti nɔid ektəmi/ noun an operation to remove the arytenoid cartilage asbestosis / sbe stəυsis/ noun a disease of the lungs caused by inhaling asbestos dust ascariasis / skə raiəsis/ noun a disease of the intestine and sometimes the lungs, caused by infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides Ascaris lumbricoides / skəris l mbri kɔidi z/ noun a type of large roundworm which is a parasite in the human intestine ascending aorta /ə sendiŋ ei ɔ tə/ noun the first section of the aorta as it leaves the heart and turns upwards. Compare descending aorta ascending colon /ə sendiŋ kəυlɒn/ noun the first part of the colon which goes up the right side of the body from the caecum. Compare descending colon. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement Aschoff nodules / ʃɒf nɒdju lz/, Aschoffs nodules / ʃɒfs nɒdju lz/ plural noun nodules which are formed mainly in or near the heart in rheumatic fever ascites /ə saiti z/ noun an unusual accumulation of fluid from the blood in the peritoneal cavity, occurring in heart and kidney failure or as a result of malignancy | artificial insemination | | artificial insemination by donor | artificial insemination by husband | artificial lung artificial respiration | artificial rupture of membranes arytenoid | arytenoid cartilage | arytenoidectomy | | asbestosis | ascariasis | Ascaris lumbricoides | ascending aorta | ascending colon | Aschoff nodules ascites | | Nursing.fm Page 22 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ascorbic acid 22 ascorbic acid ascorbic acid /ə skɔ bik aspirin ASD acetylsalicylic acid -ase assay sid/ noun same as Vitamin C ASD abbreviation autistic spectrum disorders -ase /eiz, eis/ suffix enzyme asepsis /ei sepsis/ noun the absence of micro| asepsis | organisms which cause infection, usually achieved by sterilisation aseptic /ei septik/ adjective sterilised, or involving sterilisation, and therefore without infection aseptic technique /ei septik tek ni ks/ noun a method of doing something using sterilised equipment asexual /ei sekʃuəl/ adjective not sexual, not involving sexual intercourse Asian flu / ei (ə)n flu / noun ‘ flu -asis /əsis/ ‘ -iasis asparagine /ə sp rəd i n/ noun an amino acid aspartame /ə spɑ teim/ noun a protein produced from aspartic acid, used to make substances sweeter aspartate aminotransferase / spɑ teit ə mi nəυ tr nsfəreiz/ noun an enzyme found in heart muscle, liver cells, skeletal muscle cells and some other tissues. It is used in the diagnosis of liver disease and heart attacks. aspartic acid /ə spɑ tik sid/ noun an amino acid aspect / spekt/ noun a direction from which the body is viewed, e.g. the view from above is the superior aspect Aspergers syndrome / sp d əz sindrəυm/ noun a developmental disorder characterised by difficulty in social interaction and a restricted range of interests, more common in boys than girls [Described 1944. After Hans aseptic | aseptic technique | | asexual | Asian flu -asis asparagine | aspartame | aspartate aminotransferase | | | aspartic acid | aspect Aspergers syndrome Asperger (190680), Austrian psychiatrist.] aspergillosis / sp d i ləυsis/ noun infecaspergillosis | tion of the lungs with the fungus Aspergillus aspermia /ei sp miə/ noun the absence of sperm in semen asphyxia / s fiksiə/ noun a condition in which someone is prevented from breathing, e.g. by strangulation or breathing poisonous gas, and therefore cannot take oxygen into the bloodstream asphyxiation /əs fiksi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the state of being prevented from breathing, or the act of preventing someone from breathing. suffocaaspermia | asphyxia | asphyxiation | | tion aspiration aspiration / spi reiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of removing fluid from a cavity in the body, often using a hollow needle 2. same as vacuum suc| tion aspirator aspirator / spireitə/ noun an instrument used to suck fluid out of a cavity such as the mouth or the site of an operation aspirin / sprin/ noun a common pain-killing drug, or a tablet containing this drug. Also called assay / sei, ə sei/ noun the testing of a substance. bioassay, immunoassay assessment /ə sesmənt/ noun 1. a judgment about something Further treatment will be based on your doctors assessment of your condition. 2. a method of deciding whether a student is continuous learning and progressing well assessment assimilation /ə simi leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the action of assimilating food substances assisted suicide /ə sistid su isaid/ noun the suicide of someone who is terminally ill with the help of a doctor or friend at the request of the person who is dying associate /ə səυsieit/ verb to be related to or connected with something side effects which may be associated with the drug The condition is often associated with diabetes. associate nurse /ə səυsiət n s/ noun a nurse who assists a primary nurse by carrying out agreed care for someone based on a plan designed by a primary nurse asthenia / s θi niə/ noun a condition in which someone is weak and does not have any strength asthenic / s θenik/ adjective referring to a general condition in which someone has no strength and no interest in things asthenopia / sθi nəυpiə/ noun same as eye| assessment | assimilation | | assisted suicide | associate | associate nurse | asthenia | asthenic | asthenopia | strain asthma asthma / smə/ noun a lung condition characterised by narrowing of the bronchial tubes, in which the muscles go into spasm and the person has difficulty breathing. cardiac asthma asthmatic / s m tik/ adjective having the lung disease asthma, or relating to asthma He has an asthmatic attack every spring. í noun a person who has asthma asthmaticus / s m tikəs/ adjective ‘ status asthmatic | asthmaticus | asthmaticus astigmatism astigmatism /ə sti mətiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the eye cannot focus vertical and horizontal lines simultaneously, leading to blurring of vision astringent /ə strind ənt/ noun a substance which makes the skin tissues contract and harden í adjective referring to an astringent astrocyte / strəsait/ noun a star-shaped cell of the connective tissue of the nervous system astrocytoma / strəsai təυmə/ noun a type of brain tumour which develops slowly in the connective tissue of the nervous system asymmetric / si metrik/ adjective shaped or arranged so that the two sides do not match or balance each other | astringent | astrocyte astrocytoma | asymmetric | Nursing.fm Page 23 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 23 asymmetry asymmetry / simətri/ noun a state in which the two sides of the body or of an organ do not resemble each other asymptomatic / eisimptə m tik/ adjective not showing any symptoms of disease asynclitism / siŋklitiz(ə)m/ noun in childbirth, a situation in which the head of the baby enters the vagina at an angle asynergia / si n d ə/, asynergy / sinəd i/ noun awkward movements and bad coordination, caused by a disorder of the cerebellum. Also called dyssynergia asystole /ei sistəli/ noun a state in which the heart has stopped beating ataractic / tə r ktik/ noun a drug which has a calming effect í adjective calming ataraxia / tə r ksiə/, ataraxis / tə r ksis/ noun the state of being calm and not worrying ataraxic / tə r ksik/ noun, adjective same as | asymptomatic | asynclitism | asynergia | | asystole | ataractic | ataraxia | | ataraxic | ataractic ataxia /ə t ksiə/ noun a failure of the brain to ataxia | control movements ataxic /ə t ksik/ adjective having ataxia, or relating to ataxia ataxic gait /ə t ksik eit/ noun a way of walking in which the person walks unsteadily due to a disorder of the nervous system ataxy /ə t ksi/ noun same as ataxia atelectasis / tə lektəsis/ noun the failure of a lung to expand properly atenolol /ə tenəlɒl/ noun a drug used in controlling blood pressure and angina ateriovenous malformation /ɑ tiəriəυ vi nəs m lfɔ meiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which the arteries and veins in the brain are not properly formed, leading to strokes or epilepsy. Abbreviation AVM atherogenic / θərəυ d enik/ adjective referring to something which may produce atheroma atheroma / θə rəυmə/ noun thickening of the walls of an artery by deposits of a fatty substance such as cholesterol atheromatous / θə rɒmətəs/ adjective referring to atheroma atherosclerosis / θərəυsklə rəυsis/ noun a condition in which deposits of fats and minerals form on the walls of an artery, especially the aorta or one of the coronary or cerebral arteries, and prevent blood from flowing easily atherosclerotic / θərəυsklə rɒtik/ adjective referring to atherosclerosis athetosis / θə təυsis/ noun repeated slow movements of the limbs, caused by a brain disorder such as cerebral palsy athletes foot / θli ts fυt/ noun an infectious skin disorder between the toes, caused by a fungus. Also called tinea pedis ataxic | ataxic gait | ataxy | atelectasis | atenolol | ateriovenous malformation | | atherogenic | atheroma | atheromatous | atherosclerosis | atherosclerotic | athetosis | athletes foot | atrophy atlas atlas / tləs/ noun the top vertebra in the spine, which supports the skull and pivots on the axis or second vertebra atom / təm/ noun the smallest part into which an element can be divided and still keep its properties. It consists of a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons. atomiser / təmaizə/ noun an instrument which sprays liquid in the form of very small drops like mist. Also called nebuliser atony / təni/ noun a lack of tone or tension in the muscles atopen / təpen/ noun an allergen which causes an atopy atopic eczema /ei tɒpik eksimə/, atopic dermatitis /ei tɒpik d mə taitis/ noun a type of eczema often caused by a hereditary allergy atopy / təpi/ noun a hereditary allergic reaction ATP abbreviation adenosine triphosphate atracurium / trə kjυəriəm/ noun a drug used as a relaxant atresia /ə tri ziə/ noun an unusual closing or absence of a tube in the body atretic /ə tretik/ adjective referring to atresia atri- /eitri/ prefix referring to an atrium atrial / eitriəl/ adjective referring to one or both of the atria of the heart atrial fibrillation / eitriəl faibri leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a rapid uncoordinated fluttering of the atria of the heart, which causes an irregular heartbeat atrioventricular / eitriəυven trikjυlə/ adjective referring to the atria and ventricles atrioventricular bundle / eitriəυven trikjυlə b nd(ə)l/ noun a bundle of modified cardiac muscle which conducts impulses from the atrioventricular node to the septum and then divides to connect with the ventricles. Also called atom atomiser atony atopen atopic eczema | | | atopy ATP atracurium | atresia | atretic | atri- atrial atrial fibrillation | atrioventricular | atrioventricular bundle | AV bundle, bundle of His atrioventricular node atrioventricular node / triəυven trikjυlə nəυd/ noun a mass of conducting tissue in the right atrium of the heart, which continues as the atrioventricular bundle and passes impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Also called AV node at-risk /ət risk/ adjective exposed to danger or harm of some kind at-risk children atrium / eitriəm/ noun one of the two upper chambers in the heart. See illustration at HEART in Supplement atrophic cirrhosis / trɒfik si rəυsis/ noun advanced portal cirrhosis in which the liver has become considerably smaller and clumps of new cells are formed on the surface of the liver where fibrous tissue has replaced damaged liver cells. Also called hobnail liver atrophy / trəfi/ noun the wasting of an organ or part of the body í verb (of an organ or part of the body) to waste away | at-risk atrium atrophic cirrhosis | atrophy | Nursing.fm Page 24 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM atropine 24 atropine atropine / trəpi n/ noun an alkaloid substance derived from the poisonous plant belladonna and used, among other things, to enlarge the pupil of the eye, to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions during anaesthesia and as a muscarinic antagonist ATS abbreviation antitetanus serum attack /ə t k/ noun a sudden occurrence of an illness He had an attack of fever. She had two attacks of laryngitis during the winter. attention deficit disorder /ə tenʃən defisit dis ɔ də/ noun a condition in which a person is unable to concentrate, does things without considering their actions properly and has little confidence. It occurs mainly in children. Abbreviation ADD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder /ə tenʃən defisit haipər k tiviti dis ɔ də/ noun a condition in which a child has an inability to concentrate and shows disruptive behaviour. Abbreviation ADHD attention deficit syndrome /ə tenʃən defisit sindrəυm/ noun same as attention ATS attack | attention deficit disorder | | attention deficit hyperactivity disorder | | | attention deficit syndrome | deficit disorder audit audit / ɔ dit/ noun a check on figures, scientific data or procedures a medical audit regarding the outpatient appointment system audit commission / ɔ dit kə miʃ(ə)n/ noun a government body which examines the accounts of public bodies such as hospital trusts to ensure that public money is being spent wisely audit cycle / ɔ dit saik(ə)l/ noun the cycle in which medical topics are selected for review, observation and comparison with agreed standards and changes are decided on auditory / ɔ dit(ə)ri/ adjective relating to hearing auditory acuity / ɔ dit(ə)ri ə kju iti/ noun the ability to hear sounds clearly auditory canals / ɔ dit(ə)ri kə n lz/ plural noun the external and internal passages of the ear auditory nerve / ɔ dit(ə)ri n v/ noun the eighth cranial nerve which governs hearing and balance. See illustration at EAR in Supplement. Also called vestibulocochlear nerve auditory ossicles / ɔ dit(ə)ri ɒsik(ə)lz/ plural noun the three little bones, the malleus, incus and stapes, in the middle ear Auerbachs plexus / aυərbɑ ks pleksəs/ noun a group of nerve fibres in the intestine wall audit commission | audit cycle auditory auditory acuity | auditory canals | auditory nerve auditory ossicles Auerbachs plexus attenuation attenuation /ə tenju eiʃ(ə)n/ noun a reduction in the effect or strength of something such as a virus, either because of environmental conditions or as a result of a laboratory procedure atticotomy / ti kɒtəmi/ noun the removal of the wall in the inner ear. Also called cortical | | atticotomy | mastoidectomy attitude attitude / titju d/ noun 1. an opinion or general feeling about something a positive attitude towards the operation 2. a way of standing or sitting attributable risk /ə tribjυtəb(ə)l risk/ noun a measure of the excess risk of disease due to exposure to a particular risk. The excess risk of bacteriuria in oral contraceptive users attributable to the use of oral contraceptives is 1,566 per 100,000. Abbreviation AR atypical /ei tipik(ə)l/ adjective not usual or expected an atypical renal cyst audio- /ɔ diəυ/ prefix referring to hearing or sound audiogram / ɔ diə r m/ noun a graph drawn by an audiometer audiologist / ɔ di ɒləd ist/ noun a spet who deals in the treatment of hearing disorders audiology / ɔ di ɒləd i/ noun the scientific study of hearing, especially for diagnosing and treating hearing loss audiometer / ɔ di ɒmitə/ noun an apparatus for testing hearing, especially for testing the range of sounds that the human ear can detect audiometry / ɔ di ɒmətri/ noun the science of testing hearing attributable risk | atypical | audio- audiogram audiologist | audiology | audiometer | audiometry | [Described 1862. After Leopold Auerbach (182897), Professor of Neuropathology at Breslau, now in Poland.] aura / ɔ rə/ noun a warning sensation which is aura experienced before an attack of epilepsy, migraine or asthma aural / ɔ rəl/ adjective referring to the ear auricle / ɔ rik(ə)l/ noun the tip of each atrium in the heart auricular /ɔ rikjυlə/ adjective referring to the ear auricular vein /ɔ rikjυlə vein/ noun a vein which leads into the posterior facial vein auriscope / ɔ riskəυp/ noun an instrument for examining the ear and eardrum. Also called otoaural auricle auricular | auricular vein | auriscope scope auscultation auscultation / ɔ skəl teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of listening to the sounds of the body using a stethoscope auscultatory /ɔ sk ltət(ə)ri/ adjective referring to auscultation Australia antigen /ɔ streiliə ntid ən/ noun an antigen produced on the surface of liver cells infected with the hepatitis B virus autism / ɔ tiz(ə)m/ noun a condition developing in childhood, characterised by difficulty in social interaction, language and communication problems, learning difficulties and obsessional repetitive behaviour (NOTE: Autism is more com| auscultatory | Australia antigen | autism mon in boys than in girls.) autistic autistic /ɔ tistik/ adjective affected by, or relating to, autism | Nursing.fm Page 25 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 25 autistic spectrum disorders autistic spectrum disorders /ɔ tistik spektrəm dis ɔ dəz/ plural noun autism in all its different forms and degrees of severity. Abbreviation ASD auto- /ɔ təυ/ prefix self autoantibody / ɔ təυ ntibɒdi/ noun an antibody formed to attack antigens in the bodys own cells autoclave / ɔ təυkleiv/ noun equipment for sterilising surgical instruments using heat under high pressure í verb to sterilise equipment using heat under high pressure Autoclaving is the best method of sterilisation. autogenous /ɔ tɒd ənəs/, autogenic / ɔ təυ d enik/ adjective produced either in the persons body, or using tissue from the persons own body an autogenous vein graft autograft / ɔ tə rɑ ft/ noun a transplant made using parts of the persons own body autoimmune / ɔ təυi mju n/ adjective referring to an immune reaction in a person against antigens in their own cells autoimmune disease / ɔ təυi mju n di zi z/ noun a disease in which the persons own cells are attacked by autoantibodies Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to be an autoimmune disease. autoimmunisation / ɔ təυ imjυnai zeiʃ(ə)n/, autoimmunization noun the process leading to an immune reaction in a person to antigens produced in their own body autoimmunity / ɔ təυi mju niti/ noun a condition in which a persons own cells are attacked by autoantibodies autoinfection / ɔ təυin fekʃ(ə)n/ noun an infection by a microorganism already in the body, or infection of one part of the body by another part autointoxication / ɔ təυintɒksi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the poisoning of the body by toxins produced in the body itself autologous /ɔ tɒlə əs/ adjective referring to a graft or other material coming from the same source autolysis /ɔ tɒləsis/ noun a situation in which cells destroy themselves with their own enzymes automatism /ɔ tɒmətiz(ə)m/ noun a state in which a person acts without consciously knowing that he or she is acting autonomic / ɔ tə nɒmik/ adjective governing itself independently autonomic nervous system / ɔ tənɒmik n vəs sistəm/ noun the nervous system formed of ganglia linked to the spinal column. It regulates the automatic functioning of the main organs such as the heart and lungs and works when a person is asleep or even unconscious. | | auto- autoantibody | autoclave autogenous | | autograft autoimmune | autoimmune disease | | autoimmunisation | | azathioprine parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system autonomy /ɔ tɒnəmi/ noun the state of being autonomy | free to act as one wishes autoplasty / ɔ təυpl sti/ noun the repair of someones body using tissue taken from another part of their body autopsy / ɔ tɒpsi/ noun the examination of a dead body by a pathologist to find out the cause of The autopsy showed that he had been death poisoned. Also called post mortem autosomal / ɔ təυ səυm(ə)l/ adjective referring to an autosome autosome / ɔ təυsəυm/ noun a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome autotransfusion / ɔ təυtr ns fju (ə)n/ noun an infusion into a person of their own blood avascular /ei v skjυlə/ adjective with no blood vessels, or with a deficient blood supply AV bundle / ei vi b nd(ə)l/ noun same as autoplasty autopsy autosomal | autosome autotransfusion | avascular | AV bundle atrioventricular bundle aversion therapy /ə v ʃ(ə)n θerəpi/ noun a aversion therapy | treatment by which someone is cured of a type of behaviour by making him or her develop a great dislike for it avitaminosis /ei vitəmi nəυsis/ noun a disorder caused by a lack of vitamins AVM abbreviation arteriovenous malformation AV node / ei vi nəυd/ noun same as atriovenavitaminosis | | AVM AV node tricular node autoimmunity | autoinfection | autointoxication | autologous | autolysis | automatism | autonomic | autonomic nervous system AVPU AVPU / ei vi pi ju / noun a method of rating if a person is conscious: A = alert; V = verbal, responding to verbal commands; P = pain, responding to pain; U = unconscious avulsion /ə v lʃən/ noun an act of pulling away tissue or a body part by force avulsion fracture /ə v lʃ(ə)n fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture in which a tendon pulls away part of the bone to which it is attached axial / ksiəl/ adjective referring to an axis axial skeleton / ksiəl skelit(ə)n/ noun the bones that make up the vertebral column and the skull. Compare appendicular skeleton axillary / k siləri/ adjective referring to the armpit axis / ksis/ noun 1. an imaginary line through the centre of the body 2. a central vessel which divides into other vessels 3. the second vertebra on which the atlas sits (NOTE: The plural is axes.) axon / ksɒn/ noun a nerve fibre which sends impulses from one neurone to another, linking with the dendrites of the other neurone. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement azathioprine / eizə θaiəpri n/ noun a drug which suppresses the immune response, used after transplant surgery to prevent rejection avulsion | avulsion fracture | axial axial skeleton axillary | axis axon azathioprine | Nursing.fm Page 26 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM -azepam 26 -azepam -azepam / zip m/ suffix used in names of benzodiazepines diazepam azidothymidine / eizidəυ θaimidi n/ noun a drug used in the treatment of AIDS. Abbreviation AZT. Also called zidovudine azo- /eizəυ/ prefix containing a nitrogen group azoospermia /eizəυə sp miə/ noun the absence of sperm azidothymidine | azo- azoospermia | azoturia azoturia / eizəυ tjυəriə/ noun the presence of urea or other nitrogen compounds in the urine, caused by kidney disease AZT abbreviation azidothymidine azygous / zi əs/ adjective single, not one of a pair azygous vein / zi əs vein/ noun a vein which brings blood back into the vena cava from the abdomen | AZT azygous azygous vein Nursing.fm Page 27 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM B Babinski reflex Babinski reflex /bə binski ri fleks/, Babinskis reflex /bə binskiz ri fleks/ noun an unusual curling upwards of the big toe when a finger is lightly run across the sole of the foot, while the others turn down and spread out, a sign of hemiplegia and pyramidal tract disease. Compare | | plantar reflex [Described 1896. After Joseph François Felix Babinski (18571932), Frenchborn son of Polish refugees. A pupil of Charcot, he was head of the Neurological clinic at Hôpital de la Pitié, 18901927.] Babinski test Babinski test /bə binski test/ noun a test for a Babinski reflex baby / beibi/ noun a very young child who is not yet old enough to talk or walk Babies start to walk when they are about 12 months old. (NOTE: | baby If you do not know the sex of a baby you can refer to the child as it: The baby was sucking its thumb) baby blues / beibi blu z/ plural noun same as postnatal depression (informal ) bacillaemia bacillaemia / b si li miə/ noun an infection of the blood by bacilli bacillary /bə siləri/ adjective referring to bacilli bacille Calmette-Guérin /b si l k lmet er n/ noun full form of BCG [After A. Cal| bacillary | bacille Calmette-Guérin | mette (18631933) and C. Guérin (18721961), French bacteriologists.] bacilluria bacilluria / b si ljυəriə/ noun the presence of bacilli in the urine bacillus /bə siləs/ noun a bacterium shaped like a rod (NOTE: The plural is bacilli.) back /b k/ noun 1. the part of the body from the neck downwards to the waist, which is made up of the spine and the bones attached to it (NOTE: For | bacillus | back other terms referring to the back, see dorsal and words beginning with dorsi-, dorso-.) 2. the other side from the front She has a swelling on the back of her hand. dorsum backache / b keik/ noun pain in the back, often without a specific cause backbone / b kbəυn/ noun a series of bones, the vertebrae, linked together to form a flexible column running from the pelvis to the skull. Also called rachis, spine backbone background carboxyhaemoglobin level / b k raυnd kɑ bɒksi hi mə ləυbin lev(ə)l/ noun the level of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood of a person who is not exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide back pain / b k pein/ noun pain in the back, especially long-lasting or severe pain backside / b ksaid/ noun someones buttocks | | back pain backside (informal ) back strain back strain / b k strein/ noun a condition in which the muscles or ligaments in the back have been strained bacteraemia / b ktə ri miə/ noun the fact of having bacteria in the blood. Bacteraemia is not necessarily a serious condition. Compare septibacteraemia | caemia bacteria bacteria /b k tiəriə/ plural of bacterium bacterial /b k tiəriəl/ adjective relating to bacteria or caused by bacteria Children with sickle-cell anaemia are susceptible to bacterial infection. bacterial plaque /b k tiəriəl pl k/ noun a hard smooth bacterial deposit on teeth bactericidal /b k tiəri saidəl/ adjective referring to a substance which destroys bacteria bactericide /b k tiərisaid/ noun a substance which destroys bacteria bacteriological /b ktiəriə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to bacteriology bacteriologist /b k tiəri ɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in the study of bacteria bacteriology /b k tiəri ɒləd i/ noun the scientific study of bacteria bacteriolysin /b k tiəri ɒlisin/ noun a protein, usually an immunoglobulin, which destroys bacterial cells bacteriolysis /b k tiəri ɒlisis/ noun the destruction of bacterial cells bacteriolytic /b k tiəriə litik/ adjective referring to a substance which can destroy bacteria bacteriophage /b k tiəriəfeid / noun a virus which affects bacteria | bacterial | baby blues backache background carboxyhaemoglobin level bacterial plaque | bactericidal | | bactericide | bacteriological | bacteriologist | | bacteriology | | bacteriolysin | | bacteriolysis | | bacteriolytic | bacteriophage | | Nursing.fm Page 28 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM bacteriostatic 28 bacteriostatic bacteriostatic /b k tiəriəυ st tik/ adjective referring to a substance which does not kill bacteria but stops them from multiplying bacterium /b k tiəriəm/ noun a microscopic organism. Some types are permanently present in the gut and can break down food tissue, but many can cause disease. (NOTE: The plural is bacteria.) | | bacterium | COMMENT: Bacteria can be shaped like rods (bacilli), like balls (cocci) or have a spiral form (spirochaetes). Bacteria, especially bacilli and spirochaetes, can move and reproduce very rapidly. bacteriuria /b k tiəri jυəriə/ noun a condibacteriuria | | tion in which bacteria are present in the urine Bactrim / b ktrim/ a trade name for co-trimoxazole Baghdad boil / b d d bɔil/, Baghdad sore / b d d sɔ / noun a skin disease of tropical countries caused by the parasite Leishmania. Also called Oriental sore BAHA abbreviation bone anchored hearing aid Bakers cyst / beikəz sist/ noun a swelling filled with synovial fluid, at the back of the knee, caused by weakness of the joint membrane Bactrim Baghdad boil BAHA Bakers cyst [Described 1877. After William Morrant Baker (183896), member of staff at St Bartholomews Hospital, London, UK] bakers itch / beikəz itʃ/, bakers dermatitis / beikəz d mə taitis/ noun an irritation of the bakers itch | skin caused by handling yeast BAL abbreviation British anti-lewisite balanced diet / b lənst daiət/ noun a diet which provides all the nutrients needed in the correct proportions balanitis / b lə naitis/ noun inflammation of the glans of the penis balanoposthitis / b lənəυpɒs θaitis/ noun inflammation of the foreskin and the end of the penis balantidiasis / b lənti daiəsis/ noun an infestation of the large intestine by a parasite Balantidium coli, which causes ulceration of the wall of the intestine, leading to diarrhoea and finally dysentery balanus / b lənəs/ noun the round end of the penis. glans bald /bɔ ld/ adjective with no hair, especially on the head baldness / bɔ ldnəs/ noun the state of not having any hair BAL balanced diet balanitis | balanoposthitis | balantidiasis | balanus bald baldness COMMENT: Baldness in men is hereditary; it can also occur in both men and women as a reaction to an illness or to a drug. Balkan frame / bɔ lkən freim/, Balkan beam / bɔ lkən bi m/ noun a frame fitted above Balkan frame a bed to which a leg in plaster can be attached. Pearson bed ball and cage valve ball and cage valve / bɔ l ən keid v lv/ noun an artificial heart valve, formed of a silicon ball which moves inside a metal cage to open and shut the valve ball and socket joint / bɔ l ənd sɒkit d ɔint/ noun a joint where the round end of a long bone is attached to a cup-shaped hollow in another bone in such a way that the long bone can move in almost any direction. Compare ginglyball and socket joint mus balloon balloon /bə lu n/ noun a bag of light material inflated with air or a gas, used to unblock arteries balloon angioplasty /bə lu n nd iə pl sti/ noun same as percutaneous angi| balloon angioplasty | | oplasty ballottement ballottement /bə lɒtmənt/ noun a method of examining the body by tapping or moving a part, especially during pregnancy balneotherapy / b lniəυ θerəpi/ noun the treatment of diseases by bathing in hot water or water containing beneficial natural chemicals balsam / bɔ ls(ə)m/ noun a mixture of resin and oil, used to rub on sore joints or to put in hot water and use as an inhalant. friars balsam ban /b n/ verb to say that something is not permitted Smoking is banned throughout the building. Use of this drug has been banned. bandage / b ndid / noun a piece of cloth which is wrapped around a wound or an injured limb His head was covered with bandages. í verb to wrap a piece of cloth around a wound She bandaged his leg. His arm is bandaged up. Bandls ring / b nd(ə)lz riŋ/ same as retrac| balneotherapy | balsam ban bandage Bandls ring tion ring [After Ludwig Bandl (184292), German obstetrician.] Bankarts operation / b ŋkɑ ts ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun an operation to repair a recurrent dislocation of the shoulder [First performed 1923. After Arthur Sydney Blundell Bankart (18791951), first orthopaedic surgeon at the Middlesex Hospital, London, UK] Bantis syndrome / b ntiz sindrəυm/, Bantis disease / b ntiz di zi z/ noun same as splenic anaemia [Described 1882. After Guido Banti (18521925), Florentine pathologist and physician.] Barbados leg /bɑ beidɒs le / noun a form Bankarts operation | Bantis syndrome | Barbados leg | of elephantiasis, a large swelling of the leg due to a Filaria worm barbers itch / bɑ bəz itʃ/, barbers rash / bɑ bəz r ʃ/ noun same as sycosis barbae barbiturate /bɑ bitʃυrət/ noun a sedative drug barbotage / bɑ bə tɑ / noun a method of spinal analgesia by which cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn and then injected back barium / beəriəm/ noun a chemical element, forming poisonous compounds, used as a contrast medium when taking X-ray photographs of soft tissue (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Ba.) barbers itch barbiturate | barbotage | barium Nursing.fm Page 29 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 29 barium enema Beck inventory of depression base barium enema / beəriəm enimə/ noun a liquid solution containing barium sulphate which is put into the rectum to increase the contrast of an X-ray of the lower intestine barium meal / beəriəm mi l/, barium solution / beəriəm sə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a liquid solution containing barium sulphate which someone drinks to increase the contrast of an X-ray of the alimentary tract Barlows disease / bɑ ləυz di zi z/ noun scurvy in children, caused by a lack of vitamin C base /beis/ noun 1. the bottom part the base of the spine 2. the main ingredient of an ointment, as opposed to the active ingredient 3. a substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt í verb to use something as a base Basedows disease / b zidəυz di zi z/ noun a form of hyperthyroidism [Described [Described 1882. After Sir Thomas Barlow (18451945), physician at various London hospitals and to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII and King George V.] Barlows sign / bɑ ləυz sain/ noun a test for lium basilar / b zilə/ adjective referring to a base basilic vein /bə zilik vein/ noun a large vein running along the inside of the arm basophil / beisəfil/ noun a type of white blood cell which has granules in its cytoplasm and contains histamine and heparin basophilia / beisə filiə/ noun an increase in the number of basophils in the blood basophilic granulocyte / beisəfilik r njυləsait/ noun same as basophil Battens disease / b t(ə)nz di zi z/ noun a hereditary disease which affects the enzymes of the brain, causing cells in the brain and eye to die battered baby syndrome / b təd beibi sindrəυm/, battered child syndrome / b təd tʃaild sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which a baby or small child is frequently beaten, usually by one or both of its parents, sustaining injuries such as multiple fractures battledore placenta / b t(ə)ldɔ plə sentə/ noun a placenta where the umbilical cord is attached at the edge and not at the centre Bazins disease / beizinz di zi z/ noun same as erythema induratum [Described 1861. After barium meal | Barlows disease | Barlows sign congenital dislocation of the hip, in which a sudden movement is felt and sometimes a sound is heard when the joint is manipulated baroreceptor / b rəυri septə/ noun one of a group of nerves near the carotid artery and aortic arch, which senses changes in blood pressure barotrauma / b rəυ trɔ mə/ noun an injury caused by a sharp increase in pressure Barr body / bɑ bɒdi/ noun a dense clump of chromatin found only in female cells, which can be used to identify the sex of a baby before birth baroreceptor | barotrauma | Barr body [Described 1949. After Murray Llewellyn Barr (190895), head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Western Ontario, Canada.] Barré-Guillain syndrome / b rei i j n sindrəυm/ noun ‘ Guillain-Barré syndrome barrel chest / b rəl tʃest/ noun a chest Barré-Guillain syndrome barrel chest formed like a barrel, caused by asthma or emphysema barrier cream / b riə kri m/ noun a cream put on the skin to prevent the skin coming into contact with irritating substances barrier nursing / b riə n siŋ/ noun the nursing of someone who has an infectious disease. It involves keeping them away from other patients and making sure that faeces and soiled bedclothes do not carry the infection to other patients. bartholinitis / bɑ θəli naitis/ noun inflammation of the Bartholins glands Bartholins glands / bɑ θəlinz l ndz/ plural noun two glands at the side of the vagina and between it and the vulva, which secrete a lubricating substance. Also called greater vestibular barrier cream barrier nursing bartholinitis | Bartholins glands glands [After Caspar Bartholin (16551748), Danish anatomist.] basal / beis(ə)l/ adjective located at the bottom basal of something, or forming its base basal metabolic rate / beisik metə bɒlik reit/ noun the amount of energy used by the body in exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide when at rest. It was formerly used as a way of testing thyroid gland activity. Abbreviation BMR basal metabolic rate | Basedows disease | 1840. After Carl Adolph Basedow (17991854), general practitioner in Mersburg, Germany.] basement membrane / beismənt mem brein/ noun a membrane at the base of an epithebasement membrane | basilar basilic vein | basophil basophilia | basophilic granulocyte Battens disease | battered baby syndrome battledore placenta | Bazins disease | Pierre Antoine Ernest Bazin (180778), dermatologist at Hôpital St Louis, Paris, France. He was an expert in parasitology associated with skin conditions.] BC abbreviation bone conduction BCC abbreviation Breast Cancer Campaign B cell / bi sel/ noun same as beta cell BCG / bi si d i v ksi n/, BCG vaccine noun a vaccine which immunises against tuberculosis. Full form bacille Calmette-Guérin BCh abbreviation Bachelor of Surgery BDA abbreviation British Dental Association bearing down / beəriŋ daυn/ noun a stage in BC BCC B cell BCG BCh BDA bearing down childbirth when the woman starts to push out the baby from the uterus bearing-down pain / beəriŋ daυn pein/ noun pain felt in the uterus during the second stage of labour (NOTE: Bearing-down pain is also bearing-down pain associated with uterine prolapse.) Beck inventory of depression Beck inventory of depression / bek invənt(ə)ri əv di preʃ(ə)n/ noun one of the rating scales for depression, in which a series of 21 | Nursing.fm Page 30 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM beclomethasone 30 questions refers to attitudes frequently shown by people suffering from depression beclomethasone / beklə meθəsəυn/ noun a steroid drug usually used in an inhaler to treat asthma or hay fever becquerel / bekərel/ noun an SI unit of measurement of radiation. Abbreviation Bq (NOTE: beclomethasone | becquerel Now used in place of the curie.) bed bath / bed bɑ θ/ noun an act of washing the bed bath whole body of someone who is unable to get up to wash. Also called blanket bath bed blocking / bed blɒkiŋ/ noun the fact of people being kept in hospital because other forms of care are not available, which means that other people cannot be treated bedbug / bedb / noun a small insect which lives in dirty bedclothes and sucks blood bed occupancy / bed ɒkjυpənsi/ noun the percentage of beds in a hospital which are occupied bedpan / bedp n/ noun a dish into which someone can urinate or defecate without getting out of bed bed rest / bed rest/ noun a period of time spent in bed in order to rest and recover from an illness bedridden / bed rid(ə)n/ adjective referring to someone who has been too ill to get out of bed over a long period of time bedside manner / bedsaid m nə/ noun the way in which a doctor behaves towards a patient, especially a patient who is in bed a good bedside manner the ability to make patients feel comforted and reassured bedsore / bedsɔ / noun an inflamed patch of skin on a bony part of the body, which develops into an ulcer, caused by pressure of the part on the mattress after lying for some time in one position. Special beds such as air beds, ripple beds and water beds are used to try to prevent the formation of bedsores. Also called pressure sore, decubibed blocking bedbug bed occupancy bedpan bed rest bedridden | bedside manner bedsore tus ulcer behaviour should be studied to discover their psychological problems behaviourist /bi heivjərist/ noun a psychologist who follows behaviourism behaviour therapy /bi heivjə θerəpi/ noun a form of psychiatric treatment in which someone learns how to improve their condition Behçets syndrome / beisets sindrəυm/ noun a chronic condition of the immune system with no known cause, experienced as a series of attacks of inflammation of small blood vessels accompanied by mouth ulcers and sometimes genital ulcers, skin lesions and inflamed eyes behaviourist | behaviour therapy | Behçets syndrome [Described 1937. After Halushi Behçet (1889 1948), Turkish dermatologist.] behind behind /bi haind/ noun same as buttock | (informal ) bejel bejel / bed əl/ noun a non-venereal form of syphilis which is endemic among children in some areas of the Middle East and elsewhere and is caused by a spirochaete strain of bacteria belch /beltʃ/ noun the action of allowing air in the stomach to come up through the mouth í verb to allow air in the stomach to come up through the mouth belching / beltʃiŋ/ noun the action of allowing air in the stomach to come up through the mouth. Also called eructation belladonna / belə dɒnə/ noun 1. a poisonous plant with berries containing atropine. Also called deadly nightshade 2. a form of atropine extracted from the belladonna plant belle indifférence / bel n diferɑ ns/ noun an excessively calm state in a person, in a situation which would usually produce a show of emotion Bellocqs cannula /be lɒks k njυlə/, Bellocqs sound /be lɒks saυnd/ noun an instrument used to control a nosebleed [After Jean belch belching belladonna | belle indifférence | Bellocqs cannula | | Jacques Bellocq (17321807), French surgeon.] Bells mania bedstate bedstate / bedsteit/ noun a record of the current level of occupancy of beds in a hospital or care unit, updated as admissions and discharges occur bedwetting / bedwetiŋ/ noun same as nocturbedwetting nal enuresis (NOTE: This term is used mainly about children.) Beers knife / biəz naif/ noun a knife with a triangular blade, used in eye operations [After George Joseph Beer (17631821), German ophthalmologist.] behaviour /bi heivjə/ noun a way of acting Beers knife behaviour | His behaviour was very aggressive. behavioural /bi heivjərəl/ adjective relating to behaviour behaviourism /bi heivjəriz(ə)m/ noun a psychological theory proposing that only someones behavioural | behaviourism | Bells mania / belz meiniə/ noun a form of acute mania with delirium [After Luther Vose Bell (180662), American physiologist.] Bells palsy Bells palsy / belz pɔ lzi/ noun paralysis of the facial nerve on one side of the face, preventing one eye being closed. Also called facial paralysis [Described 1821. After Sir Charles Bell (17741842), Scottish surgeon. He ran anatomy schools, first in Edinburgh and then in London. Professor of Anatomy at the Royal Academy.] belly belly / beli/ noun 1. same as abdomen 2. the fatter central part of a muscle Bence Jones protein / bens d əυnz prəυti n/ noun a protein found in the urine of people who have myelomatosis, lymphoma, leukaemia and some other cancers [Described 1848. Bence Jones protein After Henry Bence Jones (181473), physician at St Georges Hospital, London, UK] Nursing.fm Page 31 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 31 bends /bendz/ plural noun the bends ‘ caisson disease Benedicts solution / benidikts sə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a solution used to carry out Benedicts test Benedicts test / benidikts test/ noun a test to see if sugar is present in the urine [Described 1915. After Stanley Rossiter Benedict (1884 1936), physiological chemist at Cornell University, New York, USA.] benign /bə nain/ adjective generally harmless benign growth /bə nain rəυθ/ noun same as benign tumour benign pancreatic disease /bə nain p ŋkri tik di zi z/ noun chronic pancreatitis benign prostatic hypertrophy /bi nain prɒ st tik hai p trəfi/ noun a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate. Abbreviation BPH benign tumour /bə nain tju mə/ noun a bends Benedicts solution | Benedicts test benign | benign growth | benign pancreatic disease | | | benign prostatic hypertrophy | | | benign tumour | tumour which will not grow again or spread to other parts of the body if it is removed surgically, but which can be fatal if not treated. Also called benign growth. Opposite malignant tumour Bennetts fracture / benits fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture of the first metacarpal, the bone between the thumb and the wrist [Described 1886. After Bennetts fracture Edward Halloran Bennett (18371907), Irish anatomist, later Professor of Surgery at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.] benzocaine / benzəkein/ noun a drug with benzocaine anaesthetic properties used in some throat lozenges and skin creams benzodiazepine / benzəυdai zəpi n/ noun a drug which acts on receptors in the central nervous system to relieve symptoms of anxiety and insomnia, although prolonged use is to be avoided benzodiazepine | (NOTE: Benzodiazepines have names ending in -azepam: diazepam.) benzoin / benzəυin/ noun a resin used to make benzoin friars balsam benzyl benzoate / benzil benzəυeit/ noun a colourless oily liquid which occurs naturally in balsams, used in medicines and perfumes bereavement /bi ri vmənt/ noun the loss of someone, especially a close relative or friend, through death beriberi / beri beri/ noun a disease of the nervous system caused by lack of vitamin B1 berylliosis /bə rili əυsis/ noun poisoning caused by breathing in particles of the poisonous chemical compound beryllium oxide Besniers prurigo / benieiz prυ rai əυ/ noun an itchy skin rash on the backs of the knees and the insides of the elbows [After Ernest Besbenzyl benzoate bereavement | beriberi | berylliosis | | Besniers prurigo | nier (18311909), French dermatologist.] beta / bi tə/ noun the second letter of the Greek beta alphabet beta-adrenergic receptor / bi tə drə n d ik/ noun one of two types of nerve endings beta-adrenergic receptor | bifocal that respond to adrenaline by speeding up the heart rate or dilating the bronchi beta blocker / bi tə blɒkə/ noun a drug which reduces the activity of the heart (NOTE: Beta beta blocker blockers have names ending in -olol: atenolol, propranolol hydrochloride.) beta cell / bi tə sel/ noun a type of cell found in beta cell the islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas, which produces insulin. Also called B cell Betadine / bi tədi n/ noun a trade name for a form of iodine betamethasone / bi tə meθəsəυn/ noun a very strong corticosteroid drug betaxolol /bi t ksəlɒl/ noun a beta blocker drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure and glaucoma bethanechol /be θ nikɒl/ noun an agonist drug used to increase muscle tone after surgery Betnovate / betnəveit/ noun a trade name for an ointment containing betamethasone bi- /bai/ prefix two or twice bias / baiəs/ noun a systematic error in the design or conduct of a study which could explain the results bicarbonate of soda /bai kɑ bənət əv səυdə/ noun same as sodium bicarbonate bicellular /bai seljυlə/ adjective having two cells biceps / baiseps/ noun any muscle formed of two parts joined to form one tendon, especially the muscles in the front of the upper arm (biceps brachii) and the back of the thigh (biceps femoris). triceps (NOTE: The plural is biceps.) bicipital /bai sipit(ə)l/ adjective referring to a biceps muscle biconcave /bai kɒŋkeiv/ adjective referring to a lens which is concave on both sides biconvex /bai kɒnveks/ adjective referring to a lens which is convex on both sides bicornuate /bai kɔ njuət/ adjective divided into two parts (NOTE: The word is sometimes Betadine betamethasone | betaxolol | bethanechol | Betnovate bi- bias bicarbonate of soda | bicellular | biceps bicipital | biconcave | biconvex | bicornuate | applied to a malformation of the uterus.) bicuspid bicuspid /bai k spid/ adjective with two points í noun a premolar tooth bicuspid valve / bai k spid v lv/ noun same as mitral valve. See illustration at HEART in Supplement b.i.d. adverb (used on prescriptions) twice daily. Full form bis in die bidet / bi dei/ noun an object for washing the genital and anal areas. It looks like a low toilet. bifid / baifid/ adjective in two parts bifocal /bai fəυk(ə)l/ adjective referring to lenses made with two sections which have different focal lengths, one for looking at things which are near, the other for looking at things which are far away | bicuspid valve | b.i.d. bidet bifid bifocal | Nursing.fm Page 32 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM bifocal glasses 32 bifocal glasses bifocal glasses /bai fəυk(ə)l lɑ siz/, bifocal lenses /bai fəυk(ə)l lenziz/, bifocals /bai fəυk(ə)lz/ plural noun spectacles with lenses which have two types of lens combined in the same piece of glass, the top part being used for seeing at a distance and the lower part for reading bifurcate adjective /bai f keit/ separating or branching off into two parts í verb / baifəkeit/ to split or branch off into two parts bifurcation / baifə keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a place where something divides into two parts bigeminy /bai d emini/ noun same as pulsus | | | bifurcate | bifurcation | bigeminy | bigeminus big toe / bi Billings method Billings method / biliŋz meθəd/ noun a method of birth control which uses the colour and consistency of the cervical mucus as guides to whether ovulation is taking place Billroths operations / bilrɒθs ɒpə reiʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun surgical operations in which the lower part of the stomach is removed and the part which is left is linked to the duodenum (Billroth I) or jejunum (Billroth II) Billroths operations | [Described 1881. After Christian Albert Theodore Billroth (182994), Prussian surgeon.] bimanual /bai m njuəl/ adjective done with bimanual | two hands, or needing both hands to be done binary / bainəri/ adjective made of two parts binary fission / bainəri fiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of splitting into two parts in some types of cell division binaural /bain ɔ rəl/ adjective using, or relating to, both ears binder / baində/ noun a bandage which is wrapped round a limb to support it Binets test / bineiz test/ noun an intelligence test for children [Originally described 1905 but binary big toe təυ/ noun the largest of the five toes, on the inside of the foot. Also called great toe biguanide biguanide /bai wɑ naid/ noun a drug which lowers blood sugar, used in the treatment of Type II diabetes bilateral /bai l t(ə)rəl/ adjective affecting both sides bilateral pneumonia /bai l t(ə)rəl nju məυniə/ noun pneumonia affecting both lungs bile /bail/ noun a thick bitter brownish yellow fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder and used to digest fatty substances and neutralise acids (NOTE: For other terms referring to | bilateral | bilateral pneumonia | | bile bile, see words beginning with chol-.) bilharzia /bil hɑ tsiə/ noun 1. a fluke which bilharzia | enters the bloodstream and causes bilharziasis. Also called Schistosoma 2. same as bilharziasis (NOTE: Although strictly speaking, bilharzia is the name of the fluke, it is also generally used for the name of the disease: bilharzia patients; six cases of bilharzia.) bilharziasis / bilhɑ tsaiəsis/ noun a tropical bilharziasis | disease caused by flukes in the intestine or bladder. Also called bilharzia, schistosomiasis bili- /bili/ prefix referring to bile (NOTE: For bili- other terms referring to bile, see words beginning with chol-, chole-.) biliary / biliəri/ adjective referring to bile biliary colic / biliəri kɒlik/ noun pain in the biliary biliary colic abdomen caused by gallstones in the bile duct or by inflammation of the gall bladder bilious / biliəs/ adjective 1. referring to bile 2. referring to nausea (informal ) biliousness / biliəsnəs/ noun a feeling of indigestion and nausea (informal ) bilirubin / bili ru bin/ noun a red pigment in bile bilirubinaemia / biliru bi ni miə/ noun an excess of bilirubin in the blood biliuria / bili jυəriə/ noun the presence of bile in the urine. Also called choluria biliverdin / bili v din/ noun a green pigment in bile, produced by oxidation of bilirubin bilious biliousness bilirubin | bilirubinaemia | biliuria | biliverdin | binary fission binaural | binder Binets test later modified at Stanford University, California, USA. After Alfred Binet (18571911), French psychologist and physiologist.] binocular /bi nɒkjυlə/ adjective referring to binocular | the two eyes binovular /bi nɒvjυlə/ adjective referring to twins who develop from two different ova bio- /baiəυ/ prefix referring to living organisms bioassay / baiəυə sei/ noun a test of the strength of a drug, hormone, vitamin or serum, by examining the effect it has on living animals or tissue bioavailability / baiəυəveilə biliti/ noun the extent to which a nutrient or medicine can be taken up by the body biochemistry / baiəυ kemistri/ noun the chemistry of living tissues biocide / baiəυsaid/ noun a substance which kills living organisms biodegradable / baiəυdi reidəb(ə)l/ adjective easily decomposed by organisms such as bacteria or by the effect of sunlight, the sea, etc. biofeedback / baiəυ fi db k/ noun the control of the autonomic nervous system by someones conscious thought, as he or she sees the results of tests or scans biohazard / baiəυ h zəd/ noun a danger to human beings or their environment, especially one from a poisonous or infectious agent biological / baiə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to biology biological parent / baiə lɒd ik(ə)l peərənt/ noun a parent who was physically involved in producing a child binovular | bio- bioassay | bioavailability | biochemistry | biocide biodegradable | biofeedback | biohazard | biological | biological parent | Nursing.fm Page 33 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 33 biologist biologist /bai ɒləd ist/ noun a scientist who spees in biology biology /bai ɒləd i/ noun the study of living organisms biomaterial / baiəυmə tiəriəl/ noun a synthetic material which can be used as an implant in living tissue biometry /bai ɒmətri/ noun the science which applies statistics to the study of living things biometry of a fetus the measurement of the key parameters of growth of a fetus by ultrasound bionic ear /bai ɒnik iə/ noun a cochlear implant (informal ) bionics /bai ɒniks/ noun the process of applying knowledge of biological systems to mechanical and electronic devices biophysical profile / baiəυfizik(ə)l prəυfail/ noun a profile of a fetus, based on such things as its breathing movement and body movement biopsy / baiɒpsi/ noun the process of taking a small piece of living tissue for examination and diagnosis The biopsy of the tissue from the growth showed that it was benign. biorhythm / baiəυrið(ə)m/ noun a regular process of change which takes place within living organisms, e.g. sleeping, waking or the reproductive cycle (NOTE: Some people believe that bio| biology | biomaterial | biometry | bionic ear | bionics | biophysical profile biopsy biorhythm rhythms affect behaviour and mood.) biostatistics / baiəυstə tistiks/ plural noun biostatistics | statistics used in medicine and the study of disease biotechnology / baiəυtek nɒləd i/ noun 1. the use of biological processes in industrial production, e.g. in the production of drugs 2. same as biotechnology | genetic modification biotin biotin / baiətin/ noun a type of vitamin B found in egg yolks, liver and yeast BiPAP / baip p/ noun a breathing apparatus that allows air delivered through a mask to be set at one pressure for inhaling and another for exhaling, maximising breathing efficiency and minimising natural muscular effort. Full form bi-level BiPAP positive airway pressure biparietal / baipə raiət(ə)l/ adjective referring biparietal | to the two parietal bones biparous / bipərəs/ adjective producing twins bipennate /bai peneit/ adjective referring to a muscle with fibres which rise from either side of the tendon bipolar /bai pəυlə/ adjective with two poles. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement bipolar disorder / baipəυlə dis ɔ də/ noun a psychological condition in which someone moves between mania and depression and experiences delusion. Also called manic-depressive illbiparous bipennate | bipolar | bipolar disorder | ness, manic depression bite wing bipolar neurone bipolar neurone /bai pəυlə njυərəυn/ noun a nerve cell with two processes, a dendrite and an axon, found in the retina. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement. Compare multipolar neu| rone, unipolar neurone birth /b θ/ noun the act of being born birth canal / b θ kə n l/ noun the uterus, birth birth canal | vagina and vulva birth control / b θ kən trəυl/ noun same as birth control | contraception birth control pill birth control pill / b θ kən trəυl pil/ noun same as oral contraceptive birthing chair / b θiŋ tʃeə/ noun a special chair in which a woman sits to give birth birthing pool / b θiŋ pu l/ noun a special large bath in which pregnant women can relax before and when giving birth birthmark / b θmɑ k/ noun an unusual coloured or raised area on the skin which someone has from birth. Also called naevus birth mother / b θ m ðə/ noun the woman who gave birth to a child birth parent / b θ peərənt/ noun one of the parents that physically produced a child birth plan / b θ pl n/ noun a list of a pregnant womans wishes about how the birth of her baby should take place, e.g. whether she wants a natural birth and what pain relief she should be given birth rate / b θ reit/ noun the number of births per year, shown per thousand of the population a birth rate of 15 per thousand There has been a severe decline in the birth rate. birth trauma / b θ trɔ mə/ noun an injury caused to a baby during delivery birth weight / b θ weit/ noun the weight of a baby at birth bisacodyl / baisə kəυdil/ noun a laxative drug bisexual /bai sekʃuəl/ adjective referring to a person who is sexually attracted to both males and females bisexuality / baisekʃu liti/ noun the state of being sexually attracted to both males and females bis in die / bis in di ei/ adverb full form of | birthing chair birthing pool birthmark birth mother birth parent birth plan birth rate birth trauma birth weight bisacodyl | bisexual | bisexuality | bis in die b.i.d. bismuth bismuth / bizməθ/ noun a chemical element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Bi.) bistoury / bistəri/ noun a sharp thin surgical bistoury knife bite /bait/ verb 1. to cut into something with the teeth He bit a piece out of the apple. 2. (of an insect) to puncture someones skin í noun 1. the action of biting or of being bitten 2. a place or mark where someone has been bitten a dog bite an insect bite bite wing / bait wiŋ/ noun a holder for dental X-ray film, which a person clenches between the bite bite wing Nursing.fm Page 34 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM Bitots spots 34 teeth, so allowing an X-ray of both upper and lower teeth to be taken Bitots spots / bi təυz spɒts/ plural noun small white spots on the conjunctiva, caused by vitamin A deficiency [Described 1863. After Bitots spots Pierre A. Bitot (182288), French physician.] bivalve bivalve / baiv lv/ noun an organ which has two valves í adjective referring to a bivalve organ black eye / bl k ai/ noun bruising and swelling of the tissues round an eye, usually caused by a blow blackhead / bl khed/ noun same as comedo black eye blackhead (informal ) black heel black heel / bl k hi l/ noun a haemorrhage inside the heel, characterised by black spots black out / bl k aυt/ verb to have sudden loss of consciousness I suddenly blacked out and I cant remember anything more blackout / bl kaυt/ noun a sudden loss of conShe must have had a sciousness (informal ) blackout while driving. Also called fainting fit blackwater fever / bl kwɔ tə fi və/ noun a form of malaria where haemoglobin from red blood cells is released into plasma and makes the urine dark bladder / bl də/ noun any sac in the body, especially the sac where the urine collects before being passed out of the body He is suffering from bladder trouble. She is taking antibiotics for a bladder infection. Blalocks operation / bleilɒks ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/, Blalock-Taussig operation / bleilɒk tɔ si ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to connect the pulmonary artery to the subclavian artery, in order to increase blood flow to the lungs of someone who has tetralogy of Fallot bland /bl nd/ adjective referring to food which is not spicy, irritating or acid blanket bath / bl ŋkit bɑ θ/ noun same as black out blackout blackwater fever bladder Blalocks operation | | bland blanket bath bed bath blast /blɑ st/ noun 1. a wave of air pressure from an explosion which can cause concussion 2. blast an immature form of a cell before distinctive characteristics develop -blast /bl st/ suffix referring to a very early stage in the development of a cell blasto- /bl stəυ/ prefix referring to a germ cell blastocoele / bl stəυsi l/ noun a cavity filled with fluid in a morula blastocyst / bl stəυsist/ noun an early stage in the development of an embryo Blastomyces / bl stəυ maisi z/ noun a type of parasitic fungus which affects the skin blastomycosis / bl stəυmai kəυsis/ noun an infection caused by Blastomyces blastula / bl stjυlə/ noun the first stage of the development of an embryo in animals bleb /bleb/ noun a blister. Compare bulla -blast blasto- blastocoele blastocyst Blastomyces | blastomycosis | blastula bleb bleeder bleeder / bli də/ noun 1. a blood vessel which bleeds during surgery 2. a person who has haemophilia (informal ) bleeding / bli diŋ/ noun an unusual loss of blood from the body through the skin, through an orifice or internally bleeding time / bli diŋ taim/ noun a test of the clotting ability of someones blood, by timing the length of time it takes for the blood to congeal blennorrhagia / blenəυ reid ə/ noun the discharge of mucus blennorrhoea / blenə ri ə/ noun the discharge of watery mucus bleomycin / bli əυ maisin/ noun an antibiotic used to treat forms of cancer such as Hodgkins disease blephar- /blefər/ prefix same as blepharobleeding bleeding time blennorrhagia | blennorrhoea | bleomycin | blephar- (used before vowels) blepharitis / blefə raitis/ noun inflammation blepharitis | of the eyelid blepharo- /blefərəυ/ prefix referring to the eyelid blepharoconjunctivitis / blefərəυkən d ŋkti vaitis/ noun inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyelids blepharon / blefərɒn/ noun an eyelid blepharospasm / blefərəυsp z(ə)m/ noun a sudden contraction of the eyelid, as when a tiny piece of dust gets in the eye blepharotosis / blefərəυ təυsis/ noun a condition in which the upper eyelid is half closed because of paralysis of the muscle or nerve blind /blaind/ adjective not able to see blind loop syndrome / blaind lu p sindrəυm/ noun a condition which occurs in cases of diverticulosis or of Crohns disease, with steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and megaloblastic anaemia blindness / blaindnəs/ noun the fact of not being able to see blind spot / blaind spɒt/ noun the point in the retina where the optic nerve joins it, which does not register light blind study / blaind st di/ noun an investigation to test an intervention such as giving a drug, in which a person does not know if he or she has taken the active medicine or the placebo blister / blistə/ noun a swelling on the skin containing serum from the blood, caused by rubbing, burning or a disease such as chickenpox í verb to produce blisters bloated / bləυtid/ adjective experiencing the uncomfortable sensation of a very full stomach block /blɒk/ noun 1. the stopping of a function 2. a large piece of something A block of wood fell on his foot. 3. a period of time The training is in two three-hour blocks. í verb to fill the space in something and stop other things passing blepharo- blepharoconjunctivitis | | blepharon blepharospasm blepharotosis | blind blind loop syndrome blindness blind spot blind study blister bloated block Nursing.fm Page 35 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 35 through it The artery was blocked by a clot. He swallowed a piece of plastic which blocked his oesophagus. blocking / blɒkiŋ/ noun a psychiatric disorder, in which someone suddenly stops one train of thought and switches to another blood /bl d/ noun a red liquid moved around the body by the pumping action of the heart (NOTE: blocking blood For other terms referring to blood, see words beginning with haem-, haemo-, haemato-.) blood bank / bl d b ŋk/ noun a section of a blood bank hospital or a special centre where blood given by donors is stored for use in transfusions blood blister / bl d blistə/ noun a swelling on the skin with blood inside, caused by nipping the flesh blood-borne virus / bl d bɔ n vairəs/ noun a virus carried by the blood blood-brain barrier / bl d brein b riə/ noun the process by which some substances, which in other parts of the body will diffuse from capillaries, are held back by the endothelium of cerebral capillaries, preventing them from coming into contact with the fluids round the brain blood clot / bl d klɒt/ noun a soft mass of coagulated blood in a vein or an artery. Also called thrombus blood count / bl d kaυnt/ noun a test to count the number and types of different blood cells in a sample of blood, in order to give an indication of the condition of the persons blood as a whole blood donor / bl d dəυnə/ noun a person who gives blood which is then used in transfusions to other people blood dyscrasia / bl d dis kreiziə/ noun any unusual blood condition such as a low cell count or platelet count blood gas / bl d s/ noun oxygen and carbon dioxide that are naturally present in blood, an imbalance of which may indicate a respiratory disorder blood-glucose level / bl d lu kəυz lev(ə)l/ noun the amount of glucose present in the blood. The usual blood-glucose level is about 60100 mg of glucose per 100 ml of blood. blood group / bl d ru p/ noun one of the different groups into which human blood is classified. Also called blood type blood blister blood-borne virus blood-brain barrier blood clot blood count blood donor blood dyscrasia | blood gas blood-glucose level blood group COMMENT: Blood is classified in various ways. The most common classifications are by the agglutinogens (factors A and B) in red blood cells and by the Rhesus factor. Blood can therefore have either factor (Group A and Group B) or both factors (Group AB) or neither (Group O) and each of these groups can be Rhesus negative or positive. blood grouping / bl d ru piŋ/ noun the blood grouping process of classifying people according to their blood groups blurred vision blood-letting blood-letting / bl d letiŋ/ noun same as phlebotomy blood loss blood loss / bl d lɒs/ noun loss of blood from the body by bleeding blood pigment / bl d pi mənt/ noun same as haemoglobin blood pressure / bl d preʃə/ noun the pressure, measured in millimetres of mercury, at which the blood is pumped round the body by the heart blood relationship / bl d ri leiʃ(ə)nʃip/ noun a relationship between people who come from the same family and have the same parents, grandparents or ancestors, as opposed to a relationship by marriage blood sample / bl d sɑ mpəl/ noun a sample of blood, taken for testing bloodshot / bl dʃɒt/ adjective referring to an eye with small specks of blood in it from a small damaged blood vessel blood sugar / bl d ʃυ ə/ noun glucose present in the blood blood sugar level / bl d ʃυ ə lev(ə)l/ noun the amount of glucose in the blood, which is higher after meals and in people with diabetes blood test / bl d test/ noun a laboratory test of a blood sample to analyse its chemical composition The patient will have to have a blood test. blood transfusion / bl d tr ns fju (ə)n/ noun a procedure in which blood given by another person or taken from the patient at an earlier stage is transferred into the patients vein blood type / bl d taip/ noun same as blood blood pigment blood pressure blood relationship | blood sample bloodshot blood sugar blood sugar level blood test blood transfusion | blood type group blood typing blood typing / bl d taipiŋ/ noun the analysis of blood for transfusion factors and blood group blood vessel / bl d ves(ə)l/ noun any tube which carries blood round the body, e.g. an artery, vein or capillary (NOTE: For other terms referring blood vessel to blood vessels, see words beginning with angi-, angio-.) blood volume blood volume / bl d vɒlju m/ noun the total amount of blood in the body blot test / blɒt test/ noun ‘ Rorschach test blue baby / blu beibi/ noun a baby who has congenital cyanosis, born either with a congenital heart condition or with a collapsed lung, which prevents an adequate supply of oxygen reaching the tissues, giving the babys skin a slight blue colour (informal ) blue litmus / blu litməs/ noun treated paper which indicates the presence of acid by turning red blurred vision / bl d vi (ə)n/ noun a condition in which someone does not see objects clearly blot test blue baby blue litmus blurred vision Nursing.fm Page 36 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM blush 36 blush blush /bl ʃ/ noun a rush of red colour to the skin of the face, caused by emotion í verb to go red in the face because of emotion BM abbreviation Bachelor of Medicine BMA abbreviation British Medical Association BMI abbreviation body mass index BMR abbreviation basal metabolic rate BNF abbreviation British National Formulary body fluid / bɒdi flu id/ noun a liquid in the body, e.g. water, blood or semen body image / bɒdi imid / noun the mental image which a person has of their own body. Also called body schema body language / bɒdi l ŋ wid / noun the expression on your face, or the way you hold your body, interpreted by other people as unconsciously revealing your feelings body odour / bɒdi əυdə/ noun an unpleasant smell caused by perspiration body scan / bɒdi sk n/ noun an examination of the whole of the body using ultrasound or other scanning techniques body schema / bɒdi ski mə/ noun same as BM BMA BMI BMR BNF body fluid body image body language body odour body scan body schema body image body substance isolation body substance isolation / bɒdi s bstəns aisə leiʃ(ə)n/ noun making sure that a trauma victim is kept isolated from the possibility of infection from moist body substances body temperature / bɒdi tempritʃə/ noun the internal temperature of the human body, usually about 37°C Boecks disease / beks di zi z/, Boecks sarcoid / beks sɑ kɔid/ noun same as sar| body temperature Boecks disease | coidosis [Described 1899. After Caesar Peter Moeller Boeck (18451913), Professor of Dermatology at Oslo, Norway.] Bohns nodules / bɔ nz nɒdju lz/, Bohns epithelial pearls / bɔ nz epi θi liəl p lz/ plural noun tiny cysts found in the mouths of healthy Bohns nodules | infants boil /bɔil/ noun a tender raised mass of infected tissue and skin, usually caused by infection of a hair follicle by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Also called furuncle bolus / bəυləs/ noun 1. a mass of food which has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed 2. a mass of food passing along the intestine bonding / bɒndiŋ/ noun the process by which a psychological link is formed between a baby and its mother In autistic children bonding is difficult. bone /bəυn/ noun 1. calcified connective tissue 2. one of the calcified pieces of connective tissue which make the skeleton There are several small bones in the human ear. See illustration at boil bolus bonding bone in Supplement bone-anchored hearing aid / bəυn SYNOVIAL JOINT bone-anchored hearing aid ŋkəd hiəriŋ eid/ noun a hearing aid that is fitted sur- gically into the skull, usually behind the ear. Abbreviation BAHA bone marrow / bəυn m rəυ/ noun soft tissue in cancellous bone (NOTE: For other terms referbone marrow ring to bone marrow, see words beginning with myel-, myelo-.) bone marrow transplant / bəυn m rəυ tr nsplɑ nt/ noun the transplant of marrow bone marrow transplant from a donor to a recipient bone scan / bəυn sk n/ noun a scan which tracks a radioactive substance injected into the body to find areas where a bone is breaking down or repairing itself Bonneys blue / bɒniz blu / noun a blue dye used as a disinfectant [After William Francis Vicbone scan Bonneys blue tor Bonney (18721953), British gynaecologist.] bony bony / bəυni/ adjective relating to bones, or made of bone bony labyrinth / bəυni l bərinθ/ noun a hard part of the temporal bone surrounding the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Also called bony labyrinth osseous labyrinth boob /bu b/ noun a womans breast (informal ) booster / bu stər in d ekʃ(ə)n/, booster injection noun a repeat injection of vaccine given boob booster | some time after the first injection to maintain the immunising effect boracic acid /bə r sik sid/ noun a soluble white powder used as a general disinfectant. Also called boric acid borax / bɔ r ks/ noun a white powder used as a household cleaner and disinfectant borborygmus / bɔ bə ri məs/ noun a rumbling noise in the abdomen, caused by gas in the intestine (NOTE: The plural is borborygmi.) borderline / bɔ dəlain/ adjective 1. not clearly belonging to either one of two categories a borderline case 2. referring to a medical condition likely to develop in someone unless an effort is made to prevent it 3. characterised by emotional instability and self-destructive behaviour a borderline personality Bordetella / bɔ də telə/ noun a bacterium of the family Brucellaceae (NOTE: Bordetella perboracic acid | borax borborygmus | borderline Bordetella | tussis causes whooping cough.) boric acid / bɔ rik sid/ noun same as boracic acid boron / bɔ rɒn/ noun a chemical element which boric acid boron is present in borax, and essential for healthy plant growth (NOTE: The chemical symbol is B.) bosom / bυz(ə)m/ noun a womans chest or breasts bottom / bɒtəm/ noun 1. the part of the body on which you sit. buttock 2. the anus (informal ) bottom shuffling / bɒtəm ʃ f(ə)liŋ/ noun the process by which a baby who cannot yet walk moves around by moving itself along on its hands and buttocks bosom bottom bottom shuffling Nursing.fm Page 37 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 37 botulinum toxin botulinum toxin / bɒtjυ lainəm tɒksin/ noun a poison produced by the bacterium | Clostridium botulinum and used, in small doses, to treat muscular cramps and spasms botulism / bɒtʃυliz(ə)m/ noun a type of food poisoning, often fatal, caused by a toxin of Clostridium botulinum in badly canned or preserved food. Symptoms include paralysis of the muscles, vomiting and hallucinations. bougie / bu i / noun a thin tube which can be inserted into passages in the body such as the oesophagus or rectum, either to allow liquid to be introduced or to dilate the passage bovine spongiform encephalopathy / bəυvain sp nd ifɔ m en kefə lɒpəθi/ noun a fatal brain disease of cattle. Abbreviation BSE. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Also called mad botulism bougie bovine spongiform encephalopathy | | cow disease brachiocephalic artery / breikiəυsə f lik ɑ təri/ noun the largest branch of the arch of the aorta, which continues as the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries brachiocephalic vein / breikiəυsə f lik vein/ noun one of a pair of large veins on opposite sides of the neck that join to form the superior vena cava. Also called innominate vein brachium / breikiəm/ noun an arm, especially the upper arm between the elbow and the shoulder | brachiocephalic vein | brachium (NOTE: The plural is brachia.) brachy- /br ki/ prefix short brachycephaly / br ki sefəli/ noun a condibrachy- brachycephaly | tion in which the skull is shorter than usual brachytherapy / br ki θerəpi/ noun a radioactive treatment in which the radioactive material actually touches the tissue being treated Bradfords frame / br dfədz freim/ noun a frame of metal and cloth, used to support a patient brachytherapy | Bradfords frame bowel bowel / baυəl/ noun the intestine, especially the large intestine (NOTE: Bowel is often used in the plural in everyday language.) bowel movement / baυəl mu vmənt/ noun 1. an act of passing faeces out of the body through bowel movement the anus The patient had a bowel movement this morning. Also called motion. defecation 2. the amount of faeces passed through the anus bowels / baυəlz/ plural noun same as bowel Bowens disease / bəυinz di zi z/ noun a form of carcinoma, appearing as red plaques on the skin bow legs / bəυ le z/ noun a state where the ankles touch and the knees are apart when a person is standing straight. Also called genu varum Bowmans capsule / bəυmənz k psju l/ noun the expanded end of a renal tubule, surrounding a glomerular tuft in the kidney, which filters plasma in order to reabsorb useful foodstuffs and eliminate waste. Also called Malbowels Bowens disease | bow legs Bowmans capsule pighian glomerulus, glomerular capsule [Described 1842. After Sir William Paget Bowman (181692), surgeon in Birmingham and later in London, who was a pioneer in work on the kidney and in ophthalmology.] BP abbreviation 1. blood pressure 2. British BP Pharmacopoeia BPH abbreviation benign prostatic hypertrophy Bq symbol becquerel brace /breis/ noun any type of splint or appliance worn for support, e.g. a metal support used on childrens legs to make the bones straight or on She wore a teeth which are forming badly brace on her front teeth. brachi- /breiki/ prefix same as brachio- (used BPH Bq brace brachi- before vowels) brachial brachial / breikiəl/ adjective referring to the arm, especially the upper arm brachialis muscle / breiki eilis m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle that causes the elbow to bend brachio- /breikiəυ/ prefix referring to the arm brachialis muscle | brachio- brain scan brachiocephalic artery [After Edward Hickling Bradford (18481926), US orthopaedic surgeon.] brady- /br di/ prefix slow bradycardia / br di kɑ diə/ noun a slow rate brady- bradycardia | of heart contraction, shown by a slow pulse rate of less than 70 beats per minute bradykinesia / br dikai ni ziə/ noun a condition in which the someone walks slowly and makes slow movements because of disease bradykinin / br di kainin/ noun a chemical produced in the blood when tissues are injured, that plays a role in inflammation. kinin bradypnoea / br dip ni ə/ noun unusually slow breathing Braille /breil/ noun a system of writing using raised dots on the paper to indicate letters which a blind person can read by passing their fingers over the page The book has been published in Braille. [Introduced 182930. After Louis Braille bradykinesia | bradykinin | bradypnoea | Braille (180952), blind Frenchman and teacher of the blind; he introduced the system which had originally been proposed by Charles Barbier in 1820.] brain /brein/ noun the part of the central nervous brain system situated inside the skull. Also called encephalon. See illustration at BRAIN in Supple- ment brain damage / brein d mid / noun damage brain damage caused to the brain as a result of oxygen and sugar deprivation, e.g. after a haemorrhage, accident, or though disease brain death / brein deθ/ noun a condition in which the nerves in the brain stem have died, and the person can be certified as dead, although the heart may not have stopped beating brain haemorrhage /brein hem(ə)rid / noun same as cerebral haemorrhage brain scan / brein sk n/ noun an examination of the inside of the brain, made by passing X-rays brain death brain haemorrhage brain scan Nursing.fm Page 38 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM brain stem through the head, using a scanner, and reconstituting the images on a computer monitor brain stem / brein stem/ noun the lower narrow part of the brain which connects the brain to the spinal cord brain tumour / brein tju mə/ noun a tumour which grows in the brain bran /br n/ noun the outside covering of the wheat seed, removed when making white flour, but an important source of roughage in the diet branchia / br ŋkiə/ noun a breathing organ similar to the gill of a fish found in human embryos in the early stages of development brain stem brain tumour bran branchia (NOTE: The plural is branchiae.) branchial / br ŋkiəl/ adjective referring to the branchial branchiae branchial cyst / br ŋkiəl sist/ noun a cyst on the side of the neck of an embryo branchial pouch / br ŋkiəl paυtʃ/ noun a pouch on the side of the neck of an embryo Brauns frame / braυnz freim/, Brauns splint / braυnz splint/ noun a metal splint and frame to which pulleys are attached, used for holding up a fractured leg while the person is lying in bed [After Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm branchial cyst branchial pouch Brauns frame Braun (18621934), German surgeon.] Braxton-Hicks contractions Braxton-Hicks contractions / br kstən hiks kən tr kʃənz/ plural noun contractions of the uterus which occur throughout a pregnancy and become more frequent and stronger towards the end [After Dr Braxton-Hicks, 19th century | British physician.] breakbone fever breakbone fever / breikbəυn fi və/ noun same as dengue break down / breik daυn/ verb 1. to experience a sudden physical or psychological illness (informal ) After she lost her husband, her health broke down. 2. to start to cry and become She broke down as she upset (informal ) described the symptoms to the doctor. 3. to split or cause to split into smaller chemical components, as in the digestion of food breast /brest/ noun one of two glands in a woman which secrete milk. Also called mamma break down breast (NOTE: For other terms referring to breasts, see words beginning with mamm-, mammo-, mast-, masto-.) breastbone / brestbəυn/ noun a bone which is breastbone in the centre of the front of the thorax and to which the ribs are connected. Also called sternum breast cancer breast cancer / brest k nsə/ noun a malignant tumour in a breast breast-fed / brest fed/ adjective referring to a baby which is fed from the mothers breasts She was breast-fed for the first two months. breast implant / brest implɑ nt/ noun a sac containing silicone, implanted to improve the appearance of a breast breast-fed breast implant 38 breast milk breast milk / brest milk/ noun the milk produced by a woman who has recently had a baby breast palpation / brest p l peiʃ(ə)n/ noun feeling a breast to see if a lump is present which might indicate breast cancer breast pump / brest p mp/ noun an instrument for taking milk from a breast breast reconstruction / brest ri kən str kʃ(ə)n/ noun the construction of a new breast for a woman who has had a breast removed because of cancer breath /breθ/ noun air which goes in and out of the body when you breathe He ran so fast he was out of breath. Stop for a moment to get your breath back. She took a deep breath and dived into the water. breathe /bri ð/ verb to take air in and blow air out through the nose or mouth The patient has begun to breathe normally. breath-holding attack / breθ həυldiŋ ə t k/ noun a period when a young child stops breathing, usually because he or she is angry breathing / bri ðiŋ/ noun same as respiration If breathing is difficult or has stopped, begin artificial ventilation immediately. (NOTE: For breast palpation | breast pump breast reconstruction | breath breathe breath-holding attack | breathing other terms referring to breathing see words beginning with pneum-, pneumo-, pneumat-, pneumato-.) breathlessness / breθləsnəs/ noun difficulty breathlessness in breathing enough air breech /bri tʃ/ noun the buttocks, especially of a baby í adjective describes a birth in which the baby is delivered buttocks first, not in the normal head first position, or describes a buttocks-first presentation breech birth / bri tʃ b θ/, breech delivery / bri tʃ di liv(ə)ri/ noun a birth in which the babys buttocks appear first rather than its head breech presentation /bri tʃ prez(ə)n teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a position of the baby in the uterus in which the buttocks will appear first during childbirth bregma / bre mə/ noun the point at the top of the head where the soft gap between the bones of a babys skull hardens bretylium tosylate /brə tiliəm tɒsileit/ noun an agent used to block adrenergic transmitter release bridge /brid / noun 1. the top part of the nose where it joins the forehead 2. an artificial tooth or set of teeth which is joined to natural teeth which hold it in place 3. a part joining two or more other parts Brights disease / braits di zi z/ noun inflammation of the kidneys, characterised by albuminuria and high blood pressure. Also called breech breech birth | breech presentation | bregma bretylium tosylate | bridge Brights disease | glomerulonephritis [Described 1836. After Richard Bright (17891858), physician at Guys Hospital, London, UK] Nursing.fm Page 39 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 39 British anti-lewisite bronchopneumonia British anti-lewisite / britiʃ nti lu isait/ noun an antidote for gases which cause blistering, bromism also used to treat cases of poisoning such as mercury poisoning. Abbreviation BAL British Dental Association / britiʃ dent(ə)l əsəυsi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun in the UK, a professional association of dentists. Abbreviation bromocriptine | British Dental Association | | bronch- BDA British Medical Association British Medical Association / britiʃ medik(ə)l əsəυsi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun in the UK, a professional association of doctors. Abbreviation | BMA British National Formulary British National Formulary / britiʃ n ʃ(ə)nəl fɔ mjυləri/ noun a book listing key information on the prescribing, dispensing and administration of prescription drugs used in the UK. Abbreviation BNF British Pharmacopoeia / britiʃ fɑ məkə pi ə/ noun a book listing drugs approved in the UK and their dosages. Abbreviation BP brittle bone disease / brit(ə)l bəυn di zi z/ noun 1. same as osteogenesis imperfecta 2. same as osteoporosis broad /brɔ d/ adjective wide in relation to length Broadbents sign / brɔ dbents sain/ noun a movement of someones left side near the lower ribs at each beat of the heart, indicating adhesion between the diaphragm and pericardium in cases of pericarditis [After Sir William Henry BroadBritish Pharmacopoeia | brittle bone disease | broad Broadbents sign bent (18351907), British physician.] broad-spectrum antibiotic broad-spectrum antibiotic / brɔ d spektrəm ntibai ɒtik/ noun an antibiotic used to control many types of microorganism Brocas aphasia / brəυkəz ə feiziə/ noun a condition in which someone is unable to speak or write, as a result of damage to Brocas area Brocas area / brəυkəz eəriə/ noun an area on the left side of the brain which governs the motor aspects of speaking [Described 1861. After | Brocas aphasia | Brocas area Pierre Henri Paul Broca (182480), French surgeon and anthropologist. A pioneer of neurosurgery, he also invented various instruments, described muscular dystrophy before Duchenne, and recognised rickets as a nutritional disorder before Virchow.] Brodies abscess Brodies abscess / brəυdiz bses/ noun an abscess of a bone, caused by staphylococcal osteomyelitis [Described 1832. After Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (17831862), British surgeon.] bromhidrosis / brɒmhi drəυsis/ noun a conbromhidrosis | dition in which body sweat has an unpleasant smell bromide / brəυmaid/ noun a bromine salt bromide (NOTE: Bromides are used as sedatives.) bromine / brəυmi n/ noun a chemical element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Br.) bromine bromism / brəυmiz(ə)m/ noun chronic ill health caused by excessive use of bromides bromocriptine / brəυməυ kripti n/ noun a drug which functions like dopamine, used to treat excessive lactation, breast pain, some forms of infertility, growth disorder and Parkinsons disease bronch- /brɒŋk/, bronchi- /brɒŋki/ prefix same as broncho- (used before vowels) bronchi / brɒŋkai/ plural of bronchus bronchial / brɒŋkiəl/ adjective referring to the bronchi bronchial breath sounds / brɒŋkiəl breθ saυndz/ plural noun distinctive breath sounds from the lungs which help diagnosis bronchiectasis / brɒŋki ektəsis/ noun a disorder of the bronchi which become wide, infected and filled with pus (NOTE: Bronchiectasis can bronchi bronchial bronchial breath sounds bronchiectasis | lead to pneumonia.) bronchio- bronchio- /brɒŋkiəυ/ prefix referring to the bronchioles bronchiolar / brɒŋki əυlə/ adjective referring to the bronchioles bronchiole / brɒŋkiəυl/ noun a very small air tube in the lungs leading from a bronchus to the alveoli. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement bronchiolitis / brɒŋkiəυ laitis/ noun inflammation of the bronchioles, usually in small children bronchitic /brɒŋ kitik/ adjective referring to bronchitis bronchitis /brɒŋ kaitis/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi broncho- /brɒŋkəυ/ prefix referring to the windpipe bronchoconstrictor / brɒŋkəυkən striktə/ noun a drug which narrows the bronchi bronchodilator / brɒŋkəυdai leitə/ noun a drug which makes the bronchi wider, used in the treatment of asthma and allergy (NOTE: Bronbronchiolar | bronchiole bronchiolitis | bronchitic | bronchitis | broncho- bronchoconstrictor | | bronchodilator | chodilators usually have names ending in -terol; however, the most common bronchodilator is salbutamol.) bronchography /brɒŋ kɒ rəfi/ noun an Xbronchography | ray examination of the lungs after an opaque substance has been put into the bronchi bronchomediastinal trunk / brɒŋkəυ mi diə stain(ə)l tr ŋk/ noun the set of lymph nodes draining part of the chest bronchomycosis / brɒŋkəυmai kəυsis/ noun an infection of the bronchi by a fungus bronchophony /brɒŋ kɒfəni/ noun vibrations of the voice heard over the lungs, indicating solidification in the lungs bronchopleural / brɒŋkəυ plυərəl/ adjective referring to a bronchus and the pleura bronchopneumonia / brɒŋkəυnju məυniə/ noun an infectious inflammation of the bronchibronchomediastinal trunk | | bronchomycosis | | bronchophony | bronchopleural | bronchopneumonia | | Nursing.fm Page 40 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM bronchopulmonary 40 oles, which may lead to general infection of the lungs bronchopulmonary / brɒŋkəυ p lmən(ə)ri/ adjective referring to the bronchi and the lungs bronchorrhoea / brɒŋkəυ ri ə/ noun the secretion of mucus by the bronchi bronchoscope / brɒŋkəυskəυp/ noun an instrument which is passed down the trachea into the lungs, which a doctor can use to inspect the inside passages of the lungs bronchoscopy /brɒŋ kɒskəpi/ noun an examination of a persons bronchi using a bronchoscope bronchospasm / brɒŋkəυsp z(ə)m/ noun a tightening of the bronchial muscles which causes the tubes to contract, as in asthma bronchospirometry / brɒŋkəυspai rɒmitri/ noun a procedure for measuring the volume of the lungs bronchostenosis / brɒŋkəυste nəυsis/ noun an unusual constriction of the bronchial tubes bronchotracheal / brɒŋkəυtrə ki əl/ adjective referring to the bronchi and the trachea bronchus / brɒŋkəs/ noun one of the two air passages leading from the trachea into the lungs, where they split into many bronchioles. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement (NOTE: The plubronchopulmonary | bronchorrhoea | bronchoscope bronchoscopy | bronchospasm bronchospirometry | | bronchostenosis | | bronchotracheal | bronchus bruised bruised /bru zd/ adjective painful after a blow or showing the marks of a bruise a badly bruised leg bruising / bru ziŋ/ noun an area of bruises The baby has bruising on the back and legs. bruit /bru t/ noun an unusual noise heard through a stethoscope Brunners glands / brυnəz l ndz/ plural noun glands in the duodenum and jejunum bruising bruit Brunners glands [Described 1687. After Johann Konrad Brunner (16531727), Swiss anatomist at Heidelberg, then at Strasbourg.] bruxism bruxism / br ksiz(ə)m/ noun the action of grinding the teeth, as a habit BSE abbreviation bovine spongiform encephalopathy bubo / bju bəυ/ noun a swelling of a lymph node in the groin or armpit bubonic plague /bju bɒnik plei / noun a usually fatal infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis in the lymph system, transmitted to humans by fleas from rats buccal / b k(ə)l/ adjective referring to the cheek or mouth buccinator / b ksineitə/ noun a cheek muscle which helps the jaw to move when chewing BuddChiari syndrome / b d ki eəri sindrəυm/ noun a disease of the liver, where thrombosis has occurred in the hepatic veins BSE bubo bubonic plague | buccal buccinator BuddChiari syndrome ral is bronchi.) | bronze diabetes bronze diabetes / brɒnz daiə bi ti z/ noun same as haemochromatosis Broviac catheter / brəυvi k k θitə/ noun a type of thin catheter used to insert into a vein brow /braυ/ noun same as eyebrow brown fat / braυn f t/ noun dark-coloured body fat that can easily be converted to energy and helps to control body temperature Brown-Séquard syndrome / braυn seikɑ sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which the spinal cord has been partly severed or compressed, with the result that the lower half of the body is paralysed on one side and loses feeling in the other side [Described 1851. After Charles Edouard | Broviac catheter brow brown fat Brown-Séquard syndrome Brown-Séquard (181794), French physiologist.] brucellosis / bru si ləυsis/ noun a disease brucellosis | which can be caught from cattle or goats or from drinking infected milk, spread by a species of the bacterium Brucella. The symptoms include tiredness, arthritis, headache, sweating, irritability and swelling of the spleen. Also called abortus fever, Malta fever, mountain fever, undulant fever bruise /bru z/ noun a dark painful area on the bruise skin, where blood has escaped under the skin following a blow. black eye í verb to cause a bruise on part of the body She bruised her knee on the corner of the table. she bruises easily even a soft blow will give her a bruise [Described 1845. After George Budd (180882), Professor of Medicine at Kings College Hospital, London; Hans von Chiari (18511916), Viennese pathologist who was Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Strasbourg and later at Prague.] budesonide budesonide /bju desənaid/ noun a corticosteroid drug taken by inhalation or in tablets, used in the treatment of hay fever and nasal polyps Buergers disease / b əz di zi z/ noun same as thromboangiitis obliterans [Described | Buergers disease | 1908. After Leo Buerger (18791943), New York physician of Viennese origin.] buffer buffer / b fə/ noun a substance that keeps a constant balance between acid and alkali í verb to prevent a solution from becoming acid buffer action / b fər kʃən/ noun the balancing process between acid and alkali buffered / b fəd/ adjective prevented from becoming acid buffered aspirin bug /b / noun an infectious disease (informal ) He caught a bug on holiday. Half the staff have got a stomach bug. bulb /b lb/ noun a round part at the end of an organ or bone bulbar / b lbə/ adjective 1. referring to a bulb 2. referring to the medulla oblongata buffer action buffered bug bulb bulbar Nursing.fm Page 41 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 41 bulbospongiosus muscle bulbospongiosus muscle / b lbəυsp nd i əυsəs m səl/ noun a muscle in the perineum behind the penis bulbourethral gland / b lbəυjυ ri θrəl l nd/ noun one of two glands at the base of the penis which secrete into the urethra. gland bulimia /bu limiə/, bulimia nervosa /bu limiə nə vəυsə/ noun a psychological condition in which a person eats too much and is incapable of controlling his or her eating. The eating is followed by behaviour designed to prevent weight gain, e.g. vomiting, use of laxatives or excessive exercise. bulla / bυlə/ noun a large blister (NOTE: The plu| | bulbourethral gland | bulimia | | | bulla ral is bullae.) bumetanide bumetanide /bju metənaid/ noun a drug which helps a patient to produce urine, used in the treatment of swelling caused by fluid accumulating in the tissues bumper fracture / b mpə fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture in the upper part of the tibia (NOTE: It has | bumper fracture this name because it can be caused by a blow from the bumper of a car.) bundle branch block / b nd(ə)l brɑ ntʃ blɒk/ noun an unusual condition of the hearts bundle branch block conduction tissue bundle of His / b nd(ə)l əv his/ noun same as bundle of His atrioventricular bundle [Described 1893. After Ludwig His (18631934), Professor of Anatomy successively at Leipzig, Basle, Göttingen and Berlin.] bunion / b njən/ noun an inflammation and bunion swelling of the big toe, caused by tight shoes which force the toe sideways so that a callus develops over the joint between the toe and the metatarsal buphthalmos /b f θ lməs/ noun a type of congenital glaucoma occurring in infants bupivacaine /bju pivəkein/ noun a powerful local anaesthetic, used in epidural anaesthesia buprenorphine /bju prenəfi n/ noun an opiate drug used in the relief of moderate to severe pain, and as an opioid substitute in treating drug addiction buphthalmos | bupivacaine | buprenorphine | byssinosis Burkitts tumour Burkitts tumour / b kits tju mə/, Burkitts lymphoma / b kits lim fəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour, usually on the maxilla, found especially in children in Africa [Described 1957. | After Denis Parsons Burkitt (191193), formerly Senior Surgeon, Kampala, Uganda; later a member of the Medical Research Council (UK).] burn /b n/ noun an injury to skin and tissue burn caused by light, heat, radiation, electricity or chemicals í verb to harm or destroy something She burnt her hand on the hot frying by fire pan. Most of his hair or his skin was burnt off. (NOTE: burning burnt or burned) burning / b niŋ/ adjective referring to a feelburning ing similar to that of being hurt by fire She had a burning pain or in her chest. burr /b / noun a bit used with a drill to make holes in a bone such as the cranium or in a tooth bursa / b sə/ noun a sac containing fluid, forming part of the usual structure of a joint such as the knee and elbow, where it protects against frequent pressure and rubbing (NOTE: The plural is burburr bursa sae.) bursitis bursitis /b saitis/ noun the inflammation of a bursa, especially in the shoulder Buscopan / b skəp n/ a trade name for a form of hyoscine butobarbitone / bju təυ bɑ bitəυn/ noun a barbiturate drug used as a sedative and hypnotic buttock / b tək/ noun one of the two fleshy parts below the back, on which a person sits, made up mainly of the gluteal muscles. Also called nates buttonhole surgery / b t(ə)nhəυl s d əri/ noun a surgical operation through a small hole in the body, using an endoscope bypass / baipɑ s/ noun 1. a surgical operation to redirect the blood, usually using a grafted blood vessel and usually performed when one of the persons own blood vessels is blocked 2. a new route for the blood created by a bypass operation byssinosis / bisi nəυsis/ noun a lung disease which is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaling cotton dust | Buscopan butobarbitone | buttock buttonhole surgery bypass byssinosis | Nursing.fm Page 42 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM C c c symbol centiC symbol Celsius CABG abbreviation coronary artery bypass graft cachet / k ʃei/ noun a quantity of a drug wrapped in paper, to be swallowed cachexia /k keksiə/ noun a state of ill health characterised by wasting and general weakness cadaver /kə d və/ noun a dead body, especially one used for dissection cadaveric /kə d vərik/, cadaverous /kə d v(ə)rəs/ adjective referring to a person who is thin or wasting away caecal / si k(ə)l/ adjective referring to the caecum caecosigmoidostomy / si kəυ si mɔi dɒstəmi/ noun an operation to open up a connection between the caecum and the sigmoid colon caecostomy /si kɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the caecum and the abdominal wall to allow faeces to be passed without going through the rectum and anus caecum / si kəm/ noun the wider part of the large intestine in the lower right-hand side of the abdomen at the point where the small intestine joins it and which has the appendix attached to it. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement. Also called cecum (NOTE: The plural is C CABG cachet cachexia | cadaver | cadaveric | | caecal caecosigmoidostomy | | caecostomy | caecum caeca.) caisson disease / keis(ə)n di zi z/ noun a condition in which a person experiences pains in the joints and stomach, and dizziness caused by nitrogen in the blood. Also called the bends, | compressed air sickness, decompression sickness calamine / k ləmain/, calamine lotion / k ləmain ləυʃ(ə)n/ noun a lotion, based on calamine zinc oxide, which helps relieve skin irritation, caused e.g. by sunburn or chickenpox calc- /k lk/ prefix same as calci- (used before calc- vowels) calcaemia calcaemia /k l si miə/ noun a condition in which the blood contains an unusually large amount of calcium calcaneal /k l keiniəl/ adjective referring to the calcaneus calcaneus /k l keiniəs/, calcaneum /k l keiniəm/ noun the heel bone, situated underneath the talus. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement calcareous degeneration /k l keəriəs di d enə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the formation of calcium on bones or at joints in old age calci- /k lsi/ prefix referring to calcium calcification / k lsifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a process of hardening caused by the formation of deposits of calcium salts calcified / k lsifaid/ adjective made hard Bone is calcified connective tissue. calcinosis / k lsi nəυsis/ noun a medical condition where deposits of calcium salts form in joints, muscles and organs calcitonin / k lsi təυnin/ noun a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, which is believed to regulate the level of calcium in the blood. Also called thyrocalcitonin calcium / k lsiəm/ noun a metallic chemical element which is a major component of bones and teeth and which is essential for various bodily processes such as blood clotting (NOTE: The | calcaneal | calcaneus | | calcareous degeneration | | | calci- calcification | calcified calcinosis caesarean caesarean /si zeəriən/, caesarean section /si zeəriən sekʃən/ noun a surgical operation to deliver a baby by cutting through the abdominal wall into the uterus. Compare vaginal delivery caesium / si ziəm/ noun a radioactive element, used in treatment by radiation (NOTE: The chem| | caesium ical symbol is Cs.) caesium-137 / si ziəm w n θri sev(ə)n/ noun a radioactive substance used in radiology café au lait spots / k fei əυ lei spɒts/ plural noun brown spots on the skin, which are an indicaesium-137 café au lait spots cation of von Recklinghausens disease caffeine / k fi n/ noun an alkaloid found in coffee, tea and chocolate, which acts as a stimulant caffeine caisson disease | calcitonin | calcium chemical symbol is Ca.) calcium antagonist / k lsiəm n t ənist/ noun a drug which makes the arteries wider and calcium antagonist | slows the heart rate. It is used in the treatment of angina. Nursing.fm Page 43 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 43 calcium channel blocker calcium channel blocker / k lsiəm tʃ n(ə)l blɒkə/, calcium blocker / k lsiəm blɒkə/ noun a drug which affects the smooth muscle of the cardiovascular system, used in the treatment of angina and hypertension (NOTE: Calcium channel blockers have names ending in -dipine: nifedipine. Not to be used in heart failure as they reduce cardiac function further.) calculosis / k lkjυ ləυsis/ noun a condition calculosis | in which calculi exist in an organ calculus / k lkjυləs/ noun a hard mass like a little piece of stone, which forms inside the body. Also called stone (NOTE: The plural is calculi.) CaldwellLuc operation / kɔ ldwel lu k ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to drain the maxillary sinus by making an incision above the canine tooth [Described 1893. After George calculus CaldwellLuc operation | Walter Caldwell (18341918), US physician; Henri Luc (18551925), French laryngologist.] calibrator / k libreitə/ noun an instrument calibrator used to enlarge a tube or passage caliectasis / keili ektəsis/ noun swelling of the calyces callisthenic / k lis θenik/ adjective relating to callisthenics callisthenics / k lis θeniks/ plural noun energetic physical exercises for improving fitness and muscle tone, including push-ups, sit-ups and star jumps callosity /kə lɒsiti/ noun a hard patch on the skin, e.g. a corn, resulting from frequent pressure or rubbing. Also called callus callus / k ləs/ noun 1. same as callosity 2. tissue which forms round a broken bone as it starts to mend, leading to consolidation Callus formation is more rapid in children and young adults than in elderly people. calor / k lə/ noun heat caloric /kə lɒrik/ adjective referring to calories or to heat calorie / k ləri/ noun 1. a unit of measurement of heat or energy, equivalent to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1°C. Now called joule 2. also Calorie a unit of measurement of energy in food (informal ) a low-calorie diet Now called joule to count calories to be careful about how much you eat calvaria /k l veəriə/, calvarium /k l veəriəm/ noun the top part of the skull calyx / keiliks/ noun a part of the body shaped like a cup especially the tube leading to a renal pyramid. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplecaliectasis | callisthenic | callisthenics | callosity canthoplasty Campylobacter Campylobacter / k mpiləυ b ktə/ noun a bacterium which is a common cause of food poisoning in humans and of spontaneous abortion in farm animals canal /kə n l/ noun a tube along which something flows canaliculitis / k nəlikjυ laitis/ noun inflammation of the tear duct canal canaliculus / k nə likjυləs/ noun a little canal, e.g. a canal leading to the Haversian systems in compact bone, or a canal leading to the lacrimal duct (NOTE: The plural is canaliculi.) cancellous bone / k nsələs bəυn/ noun a light spongy bone tissue which forms the inner core of a bone and also the ends of long bones. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement cancer / k nsə/ noun a malignant growth or tumour which develops in tissue and destroys it, which can spread by metastasis to other parts of the body and which cannot be controlled by the body itself Cancer cells developed in the lymph. She has been diagnosed as having lung cancer or as having cancer of the lung. (NOTE: | canal | canaliculitis | canaliculus | cancellous bone cancer For other terms referring to cancer, see words beginning with carcin-.) cancerophobia / k nsərəυ fəυbiə/ noun a cancerophobia | fear of cancer cancer phobia / k nsə fəυbiə/ noun same as cancer phobia cancerophobia | callus calor caloric | calorie calvaria | | calyx ment (NOTE: The plural is calyces.) CAM / si ei em/ abbreviation complementary CAM and alternative medicine camphor / k mfə/ noun white crystals with a strong smell, made from a tropical tree, used to keep insects away or as a liniment camphor cancrum oris cancrum oris / k ŋkrəm ɔ ris/ noun severe ulcers in the mouth, leading to gangrene. Also called noma candidiasis / k ndi daiəsis/, candidosis / k ndi dəυsis/ noun infection with a species of the fungus Candida canicola fever /kə nikələ fi və/ noun a form of leptospirosis, giving high fever and jaundice canine / keinain/, canine tooth / keinain tu θ/ noun a pointed tooth next to an incisor. See illustration at TEETH in Supplement canities /kə niʃii z/ noun a loss of pigments, which makes the hair turn white cannabis / k nəbis/ noun a drug made from the dried leaves or flowers of the Indian hemp plant. Recreational use of cannabis is illegal and its use to relieve the pain associated with conditions such as multiple sclerosis is controversial. Also called hashish, marijuana cannula / k njυlə/ noun a tube with a trocar or blunt needle inside, inserted into the body to introduce fluids canthal / k nθəl/ adjective referring to the corner of the eye cantholysis /k n θɒləsis/ noun same as cancandidiasis | | canicola fever | canine canities | cannabis cannula canthal cantholysis | thoplasty canthoplasty canthoplasty / k nθəpl sti/ noun 1. an operation to repair the canthus of the eye 2. an opera- Nursing.fm Page 44 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM canthus 44 tion to cut through the canthus to enlarge the groove in the eyelid canthus / k nθəs/ noun a corner of the eye cap /k p/ noun 1. a covering which protects something 2. an artificial hard covering for a damaged or broken tooth CAPD abbreviation continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis capeline bandage / k pəlain b ndid / noun a bandage shaped like a cap, either for the head, or to cover a stump after amputation capillary /kə piləri/ noun a tiny blood vessel between the arterioles and the venules, which carries blood and nutrients into the tissues capita / k pitə/ plural of caput capitate / k piteit/, capitate bone / k piteit bəυn/ noun the largest of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist. See illustration at HAND in canthus cap CAPD capeline bandage capillary | capita capitate Supplement capitellum / k pi teləm/ noun a rounded capitellum | enlarged part at the end of a bone, especially this part of the upper arm bone, the humerus, that forms the elbow joint with one of the lower bones, the radius. Also called capitulum of humerus (NOTE: The plural is capitella.) capitulum /kə pitjυləm/ noun the rounded end capitulum | of a bone which articulates with another bone, e.g. the distal end of the humerus (NOTE: The plural is capitula.) vulsions. It is used in the treatment of epilepsy, pain and bipolar disorder. carbenoxolone / kɑ bə nɒksələυn/ noun a liquorice agent, used to treat stomach ulcers carbidopa / kɑ bi dəυpə/ noun an inhibitor used to enable levodopa to enter the brain in larger quantities in the treatment of Parkinsons disease carbimazole /kɑ biməzəυl/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the formation of thyroid hormones, used in the management of hyperthyroidism carbohydrate / kɑ bəυ haidreit/ noun 1. a biological compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates derive from sugar and are an important source of food and energy. 2. food containing carbohydrates high carbohydrate drinks carbolic acid /kɑ bɒlik sid/ noun same as carbenoxolone | carbidopa | carbimazole | carbohydrate | carbolic acid | phenol carbon carbon / kɑ bən/ noun one of the common nonmetallic elements, an essential component of living matter and organic chemical compounds (NOTE: The chemical symbol is C.) carbon dioxide / kɑ bən dai ɒksaid/ noun a carbon dioxide | colourless gas produced by the bodys metabolism as the tissues burn carbon, and breathed out by the lungs as waste (NOTE: The chemical symbol is CO2.) carbon dioxide snow carbon dioxide snow / kɑ bən dai ɒksaid snəυ/ noun solid carbon dioxide, used in treating skin growths such as warts, or to preserve tissue samples carbonic anhydrase /kɑ bɒnik n haidreiz/ noun an enzyme which acts as a buffer and regulates the bodys water balance, including gastric acid secretion and aqueous humour production carbon monoxide / kɑ bən mə nɒksaid/ noun a poisonous gas found in fumes from car engines, from burning gas and cigarette smoke | capitulum of humerus capitulum of humerus /kə pitjυləm əv hju mərəs/ noun same as capitellum caplet / k plət/ noun a small oblong tablet with a covering that dissolves easily and which usually cannot be broken in two capsular / k psjυlə/ adjective referring to a capsule capsule / k psju l/ noun 1. a membrane round an organ or joint 2. a small hollow digestible case filled with a drug that is taken by swallowing She swallowed three capsules of painkiller. The doctor prescribed the drug in capsule form. capsulectomy / k psjυ lektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the capsule round a joint capsulitis / k psjυ laitis/ noun inflammation of a capsule capsulotomy / k psjυ lɒtəmi/ noun a surgical procedure involving cutting into the capsule around a body part, e.g. cutting into the lens of the eye during the removal of a cataract captopril / k ptəpril/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the arteries from being made narrower by an angiotensin. It is used to control high blood pressure. caput / k pət/ noun the head (NOTE: The plural | caplet capsular capsule capsulectomy | capsulitis | capsulotomy | captopril caput is capita.) carbamazepine carbamazepine / kɑ bə m zəpi n/ noun a drug which reduces pain and helps to prevent con| carbonic anhydrase | | carbon monoxide | (NOTE: The chemical symbol is CO.) carboxyhaemoglobin /kɑ bɒksihi mə ləυbin/ noun a compound of carbon monoxide carboxyhaemoglobin | | | and haemoglobin formed when a person breathes in carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke or car exhaust fumes carboxyhaemoglobinaemia /kɑ bɒksihi mə ləυbi ni miə/ noun the presence of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood carbuncle / kɑ b ŋkəl/ noun a localised staphylococcal infection, which goes deep into the tissue carcin- /kɑ sin/ prefix same as carcino- (used carboxyhaemoglobinaemia | | | carbuncle carcin- before vowels) carcino- carcino- /kɑ sinə/ prefix referring to carcinoma or cancer carcinogen /kɑ sinəd ən/ noun a substance which produces a carcinoma or cancer carcinogen | Nursing.fm Page 45 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 45 carcinogenesis carcinogenesis / kɑ sinə d enəsis/ noun the process of forming a carcinoma in tissue carcinogenic / kɑ sinə d enik/ adjective causing a carcinoma or cancer carcinoid / kɑ sinɔid/, carcinoid tumour / kɑ sinɔid tju mə/ noun an intestinal tumour, especially in the appendix, which causes diarrhoea carcinoma / kɑ si nəυmə/ noun a cancer of the epithelium or glands carcinomatosis / kɑ sinəυmə təυsis/ noun a carcinoma which has spread to many sites in the body carcinomatous / kɑ si nɒmətəs/ adjective referring to carcinoma carcinosarcoma / kɑ sinəυsɑ kəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour containing elements of both a carcinoma and a sarcoma cardia / kɑ diə/ noun an opening at the top of the stomach which joins it to the gullet cardiac / kɑ di k/ adjective referring to the heart cardiac achalasia / kɑ di k kə leiziə/ noun a condition in which the patient is unable to relax the cardia, the muscle at the entrance to the stomach, with the result that food cannot enter the stomach. cardiomyotomy cardiac arrest / kɑ di k ə rest/ noun a condition in which the heart muscle stops beating cardiac asthma / kɑ di k smə/ noun difficulty in breathing caused by heart failure cardiac catheter / kɑ di k k θitə/ noun a catheter passed through a vein into the heart, to take blood samples, to record pressure or to examine the interior of the heart before surgery cardiac catheterisation / kɑ di k k θitərai zeiʃ(ə)n/ noun a procedure which involves passing a catheter into the heart cardiac cirrhosis / kɑ di k si rəυsis/ noun cirrhosis of the liver caused by heart disease cardiac compression / kɑ di k kəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun the compression of the heart by fluid in the pericardium cardiac conducting system / kɑ di k kən d ktiŋ sistəm/ noun the nerve system in the heart which links an atrium to a ventricle, so that the two beat at the same rate cardiac cycle / kɑ di k saik(ə)l/ noun the repeated beating of the heart, formed of the diastole and systole cardiac decompression / kɑ di k di kəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of a haematoma or constriction of the heart cardiac failure / kɑ di k feiljə/ noun same as heart failure cardiac glycoside / kɑ di k laikəsaid/ noun a drug used in the treatment of tachycardia and atrial fibrillation, e.g. digoxin | carcinogenic | carcinoid carcinoma | carcinomatosis | carcinomatous | carcinosarcoma | cardia cardiac cardiac achalasia | cardiac arrest | cardiac asthma cardiac catheter cardiac catheterisation | cardiac cirrhosis | cardiac compression | cardiac conducting system | cardiac cycle cardiac decompression | cardiac failure cardiac glycoside cardiography cardiac index cardiac index / kɑ di k indeks/ noun the cardiac output per square metre of body surface, usually between 3.1 and 3.8l/min/m2 (litres per minute per square metre) cardiac infarction noun same as myocardial cardiac infarction infarction cardiac monitor cardiac monitor / kɑ di k mɒnitə/ noun same as electrocardiograph cardiac murmur / kɑ di k m mə/ noun same as heart murmur cardiac muscle / kɑ di k m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle in the heart which makes the heart beat cardiac neurosis / kɑ di k njυ rəυsis/ noun same as disordered action of the heart cardiac notch / kɑ di k nɒtʃ/ noun 1. a point in the left lung, where the right inside wall is bent. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement 2. a notch at the point where the oesophagus joins the greater curvature of the stomach cardiac orifice / kɑ di k ɒrifis/ noun an opening where the oesophagus joins the stomach cardiac output / kɑ di k aυtpυt/ noun the volume of blood expelled by each ventricle in a specific time, usually between 4.8 and 5.3l/min (litres per minute) cardiac pacemaker / kɑ di k peismeikə/ noun an electronic device implanted on a patients heart, or which a patient wears attached to the chest, which stimulates and regulates the heartbeat cardiac reflex / kɑ di k ri fleks/ noun the reflex which controls the heartbeat automatically cardiac surgery / kɑ di k s d əri/ noun surgery to the heart cardiac tamponade / kɑ di k t mpə neid/ noun pressure on the heart when the pericardial cavity fills with blood. Also called heart tamcardiac murmur cardiac muscle cardiac neurosis | cardiac notch cardiac orifice cardiac output cardiac pacemaker cardiac reflex cardiac surgery cardiac tamponade | ponade cardiac vein cardiac vein / kɑ di k vein/ noun one of the veins which lead from the myocardium to the right atrium cardinal / kɑ din(ə)l n mbə/ adjective most important cardinal ligaments / kɑ din(ə)l li əmənts/ plural noun ligaments forming a band of connective tissue that extends from the uterine cervix and vagina to the pelvic walls. Also called Mackencardinal cardinal ligaments rodts ligaments cardio- /kɑ diəυ/ prefix referring to the heart cardiogenic / kɑ diə d enik/ adjective resultcardio- cardiogenic | ing from activity or disease of the heart cardiogram / kɑ diə r m/ noun a graph showing the heartbeat, produced by a cardiograph cardiograph / kɑ diə rɑ f/ noun an instrument which records the heartbeat cardiography / kɑ di ɒ rəfi/ noun the action of recording the heartbeat cardiogram cardiograph cardiography | Nursing.fm Page 46 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cardiologist 46 cardiologist cardiologist / kɑ di ɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in the study of the heart cardiology / kɑ di ɒləd i/ noun the study of the heart, its diseases and functions cardiomegaly / kɑ diəυ me əli/ noun an enlarged heart cardiomyopathy / kɑ diəυmai ɒpəθi/ noun a disease of the heart muscle cardiomyoplasty / kɑ diəυ maiəυ pl sti/ noun an operation to improve the functioning of the heart, by using the latissimus dorsi as a stimulant cardiomyotomy / kɑ diəυmai ɒtəmi/ noun an operation to treat cardiac achalasia by splitting the ring of muscles where the oesophagus joins the stomach. Also called Hellers operation cardiopathy / kɑ di ɒpəθi/ noun any kind of heart disease cardiophone / kɑ diəfəυn/ noun a microphone attached to a patient to record sounds, usually used to record the heart of an unborn baby cardioplegia / kɑ diəυ pli d iə/ noun the stopping of a patients heart, by chilling it or using drugs, so that heart surgery can be performed cardiopulmonary / kɑ diəυ p lmən(ə)ri/ adjective relating to both the heart and the lungs cardiopulmonary bypass / kɑ diəυ p lmən(ə)ri baipɑ s/ noun a machine or method for artificially circulating the patients blood during open-heart surgery. The heart and lungs are cut off from the circulation and replaced by a pump. cardiopulmonary resuscitation / kɑ diəυ p lmən(ə)ri ri s si teiʃ(ə)n/ noun an emergency technique to make a persons heart start beating again. It involves clearing the airways and then alternately pressing on the chest and breathing into the mouth. Abbreviation CPR cardiopulmonary system / kɑ diəυ p lmən(ə)ri sistəm/ noun the heart and lungs considered together as a functional unit cardioscope / kɑ diəskəυp/ noun an instrument formed of a tube with a light at the end, used to inspect the inside of the heart cardiospasm / kɑ diəυsp z(ə)m/ noun same as cardiac achalasia cardiothoracic / kɑ diəυθɒ r sik/ adjective referring to the heart and the chest region a cardiothoracic surgeon cardiotocography / kɑ diəυtɒ kɒ rəfi/ noun the recording of the heartbeat of a fetus cardiotomy / kɑ di ɒtəmi/ noun an operation that involves cutting the wall of the heart cardiotomy syndrome / kɑ di ɒtəmi sindrəυm/ noun fluid in the membranes round the heart after cardiotomy cardiotoxic / kɑ diəυ tɒksik/ adjective which is toxic to the heart | cardiology | cardiomegaly | cardiomyopathy | cardiomyoplasty | | cardiomyotomy | cardiopathy | cardiophone cardioplegia | cardiopulmonary | cardiopulmonary bypass | cardiopulmonary resuscitation | | | cardiopulmonary system | cardioscope cardiospasm cardiothoracic | cardiotocography | | cardiotomy | cardiotomy syndrome | cardiotoxic | cardiovascular cardiovascular / kɑ diəυ v skjυlə/ adjective referring to the heart and the blood circulation | system cardiovascular disease / kɑ diəυ v skjυlə di zi z/ noun any disease which affects the circulatory system, e.g. hypertension cardiovascular system / kɑ diəυ v skjυlə sistəm/ noun the system of organs and blood vessels by means of which the blood circulates round the body and which includes the heart, arteries and veins cardioversion / kɑ diəυ v ʃ(ə)n/ noun a procedure to correct an irregular heartbeat by applying an electrical impulse to the chest wall. deficardiovascular disease | | cardiovascular system | cardioversion | brillation carditis carditis /kɑ daitis/ noun inflammation of the connective tissue of the heart care pathway / keə pɑ θwei/ noun the entire process of diagnosis, treatment and care that a patient goes through care plan / keə pl n/ noun a plan drawn up by the nursing staff for the treatment of an individual patient caries / keəri z/ noun decay in a tooth or bone carina /kə ri nə/ noun a structure shaped like the bottom of a boat, e.g. the cartilage at the point where the trachea branches into the bronchi cariogenic / keəriəυ d enik/ adjective referring to a substance which causes caries carminative / kɑ minətiv/ noun a substance which relieves colic or indigestion í adjective relieving colic or indigestion carneous mole / kɑ niəs məυl/ noun matter in the uterus after the death of a fetus carotenaemia / k rəti ni miə/ noun an excessive amount of carotene in the blood, usually as a result of eating too many carrots or tomatoes, which gives the skin a yellow colour. Also called xanthaemia carotene / k rəti n/ noun an orange or red pigment in carrots, egg yolk and some oils, which is converted by the liver into vitamin A carotid /kə rɒtid/, carotid artery /kə rɒtid ɑ təri/ noun either of the two large arteries in the neck which supply blood to the head carotid artery thrombosis /kə rɒtid ɑ təri θrɒm bəυsis/ noun the formation of a blood clot in the carotid artery carp- /kɑ p/ prefix same as carpo- (used before | care pathway care plan caries carina | cariogenic | carminative carneous mole carotenaemia | carotene carotid | | carotid artery thrombosis | | carp- vowels) carpal carpal / kɑ p(ə)l/ adjective referring to the wrist carpal bones / kɑ p(ə)l bəυnz/, carpals / kɑ p(ə)lz/ plural noun the eight bones which make up the carpus or wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement carpal tunnel release / kɑ p(ə)l t n(ə)l ri li s/ noun an operation to relieve the compression of the median nerve carpal bones carpal tunnel release | Nursing.fm Page 47 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 47 carpal tunnel syndrome carpal tunnel syndrome / kɑ p(ə)l t n(ə)l sindrəυm/ noun a condition, usually affecting women, in which the fingers tingle and hurt at night. It is caused by compression of the median nerve. carphology /kɑ fɒləd i/ noun the action of pulling at the bedclothes, a sign of delirium in typhoid and other fevers. Also called floccitation carpo- /kɑ pəυ/ prefix referring to the wrist carpometacarpal joint / kɑ pəυmetə kɑ p(ə)l d ɔint/ noun one of the joints between the carpals and metacarpals. Also called CM joint carpopedal spasm / kɑ pəυpi d(ə)l sp z(ə)m/ noun a spasm in the hands and feet caused by lack of calcium carpus / kɑ pəs/ noun the bones by which the lower arm is connected to the hand. Also called wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement carphology | carpo- carpometacarpal joint | | carpopedal spasm carpus (NOTE: The plural is carpi.) carrier / k riə/ noun 1. a person who carries carrier bacteria of a disease in his or her body and who can transmit the disease to others without showing any signs of being infected with it Ten per cent of the population are believed to be unwitting carriers of the bacteria. 2. an insect which carries disease and infects humans 3. a healthy person who carries a chromosome variation that gives rise to a hereditary disease such as haemophilia or Duchenne muscular dystrophy cartilage / kɑ tilid / noun thick connective tissue which lines and cushions the joints and which forms part of the structure of an organ. Cartilage in small children is the first stage in the formation of bones. cartilaginous / kɑ ti l d inəs/ adjective made of cartilage cartilaginous joint / kɑ ti l d inəs d ɔint/ noun 1. primary cartilaginous joint same as cartilage cartilaginous | cartilaginous joint | synchondrosis 2. secondary cartilaginous joint same as symphysis caruncle /kə r ŋkəl/ noun a small swelling cascara /k skɑ rə/, cascara sagrada /k skɑ rə sə rɑ də/ noun a laxative made from caruncle | cascara | | | the bark of a tropical tree case /keis/ noun a single occurrence of a disease There were two hundred cases of cholera in the recent outbreak. caseation / keisi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process by which dead tissue decays into a firm and dry mass. It is characteristic of tuberculosis. case control study /keis kən trəυl st di/ noun an investigation in which a group of patients with a disease are compared with a group without the disease in order to study possible causes case history / keis hist(ə)ri/ noun details of what has happened to a patient undergoing treatment casein / keisiin/ noun one of the proteins found in milk case caseation | case control study | case history casein catarrh caseinogen caseinogen / keisi inəd ən/ noun the main protein in milk, from which casein is formed Caseys model / keisiz mɒd(ə)l/ noun a model for the care of child patients, where the parents are involved in the treatment castor oil / kɑ stər ɔil/ noun a plant oil which acts as a laxative castration /k streiʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of the sexual organs, usually the testicles, in males casualty / k uəlti/ noun 1. a person who has had an accident or who is suddenly ill The fire caused several casualties. The casualties were taken by ambulance to the nearest hospital. 2. also casualty department same as accident The accident and emergency department victim was rushed to casualty. casualty ward / k uəlti wɔ d/ noun same as | Caseys model castor oil castration | casualty casualty ward accident ward CAT /k t/ noun same as computerised axial tomography cata- /k tə/ prefix downwards catabolic / k tə bɒlik/ adjective referring to CAT cata- catabolic | catabolism catabolism /kə t bəliz(ə)m/ noun the process of breaking down complex chemicals into simple chemicals catalase / k təleiz/ noun an enzyme present in the blood and liver which catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen catalepsy / k təlepsi/ noun a condition often associated with schizophrenia, where a person becomes incapable of sensation, the body is rigid and he or she does not move for long periods catalyse / k təlaiz/ verb to act as a catalyst and help make a chemical reaction take place (NOTE: catabolism | catalase catalepsy catalyse The US spelling is catalyze.) catalyst / k təlist/ noun a substance which catalyst produces or helps a chemical reaction without itself changing an enzyme which acts as a catalyst in the digestive process catalytic / k tə litik/ adjective referring to catalysis catamenia / k tə mi niə/ noun menstruation catalytic | catamenia | (technical ) cataplexy cataplexy / k təpleksi/ noun a condition in which a persons muscles become suddenly rigid and he or she falls without losing consciousness, possibly caused by a shock cataract / k tər kt/ noun a condition in which the lens of the eye gradually becomes hard and opaque cataractous lens / k tə r ktəs lenz/ noun a lens on which a cataract has formed catarrh /kə tɑ / noun inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose and throat, creating an excessive amount of mucus cataract cataractous lens | catarrh | Nursing.fm Page 48 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM catatonia 48 catatonia catatonia / k tə təυniə/ noun a condition in which a psychiatric patient is either motionless or shows violent reactions to stimulation catatonic / k tə tɒnik/ adjective referring to behaviour in which a person is either motionless or extremely violent catchment area / k tʃmənt eəriə/ noun an area around a hospital which is served by that hospital catecholamines /k tə kɒləmi nz/ plural noun the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline which are released by the adrenal glands catgut / k t t/ noun a thread made from part of the intestines of sheep, now usually artificially hardened, used to sew up cuts made during surgery catharsis /kə θɑ sis/ noun purgation of the bowels cathartic /kə θɑ tik/ adjective laxative or purgative catheter / k θitə/ noun a tube passed into the body along one of the passages in the body catheterisation / k θitərai zeiʃ(ə)n/, catheterization noun the act of putting a catheter into a patients body CAT scan / k t sk n/, CT scan / si ti sk n/ noun same as CT scan cat-scratch disease / k t skr tʃ di zi z/, cat-scratch fever / k t skr tʃ fi və/ noun an illness in which the patient has a fever and swollen lymph glands, thought to be caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by the scratch of a cat. It may also result from scratching with other sharp points. cauda equina / kɔ də i kwainə/ noun a group of nerves which go from the spinal cord to the lumbar region and the coccyx caudal / kɔ d(ə)l/ adjective (in humans) referring to the cauda equina caudal anaesthetic / kɔ d(ə)l nəs θetik/ noun an anaesthetic, injected into the base of the spine to remove feeling in the lower part of the body. It is often used in childbirth. caudal analgesia / kɔ d(ə)l n(ə)l d i ziə/ noun a method of pain relief that involves injecting an anaesthetic into the base of the spine to remove feeling in the lower part of the body caul /kɔ l/ noun 1. a membrane which sometimes covers a babys head at birth 2. same as | catatonic | catchment area catecholamines | catgut catharsis | cathartic | catheter catheterisation | CAT scan cat-scratch disease | cauda equina | caudal caudal anaesthetic | caudal analgesia | caul omentum causalgia causalgia /kɔ z ld ə/ noun burning pain in a limb, caused by a damaged nerve causal organism / kɔ z(ə)l ɔ əniz(ə)m/ noun an organism that causes a particular disease caustic / kɔ stik/ noun a chemical substance that destroys tissues that it touches í adjective corrosive and destructive | causal organism caustic cauterisation cauterisation / kɔ tərai zeiʃ(ə)n/, cauterizaThe growth tion noun the act of cauterising was removed by cauterisation. cauterise / kɔ təraiz/, cauterize verb to use burning, radiation or laser beams to remove tissue or to stop bleeding cautery / kɔ təri/ noun a surgical instrument used to cauterise a wound cavernous / k vənəs/ adjective hollow cavitation / k vi teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the forming of a cavity cavity / k viti/ noun a hole or space inside the body cc abbreviation cubic centimetre CCU abbreviation coronary care unit CD4 / si di fɔ / noun a compound consisting of a protein combined with a carbohydrate which is found in some cells and helps to protect the body against infection CD4 count a test used to monitor how many CD4 cells have been destroyed in people with HIV CDH abbreviation congenital dislocation of the hip cefaclor / sefəklɔ / noun an antibacterial drug used to treat septicaemia cefotaxime / sefə t ksi m/ noun a synthetic cephalosporin used to treat bacterial infection by pseudomonads -cele /si l/ suffix referring to a swelling cell /sel/ noun a tiny unit of matter which is the base of all plant and animal tissue (NOTE: For | cauterise cautery cavernous cavitation | cavity cc CCU CD4 CDH cefaclor cefotaxime | -cele cell other terms referring to cells, see words beginning with cyt-, cyto-.) cellular / seljυlə/ adjective 1. referring to cells, or formed of cells 2. made of many similar parts cellular connected together cellulite / seljυlait/ noun lumpy deposits of subcutaneous fat, especially in the thighs and buttocks cellulitis / seljυ laitis/ noun a usually bacterial inflammation of connective tissue or of the subcutaneous tissue cellulose / seljυləυs/ noun a carbohydrate which makes up a large percentage of plant matter Celsius / selsiəs/ noun a metric scale of temperature on which 0° is the point at which water freezes and 100° is the point at which water boils under average atmospheric conditions. Also called centigrade. Fahrenheit (NOTE: It is cellulite cellulitis | cellulose Celsius usually written as a C after the degree sign: 52°C (say: fifty-two degrees Celsius).) [Described 1742. After Anders Celsius (1701 44), Swedish astronomer and scientist.] Celsius temperature / selsiəs tempritʃə/ noun temperature as measured on the Celsius Celsius temperature scale CEMACH / si m ʃ/ noun a UK research project investigating the causes of infant deaths and stillCEMACH Nursing.fm Page 49 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 49 births. Full form Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health cement /si ment/ noun 1. an adhesive used in cement | dentistry to attach a crown to the base of a tooth 2. same as cementum cementum /si mentəm/ noun a layer of thick hard material which covers the roots of teeth census / sensəs/ noun a systematic count or survey -centesis /senti sis/ suffix puncture centi- /senti/ prefix one hundredth (10-2). Symbol c centigrade / senti reid/ noun same as Celcementum | census -centesis centi- centigrade sius centile chart centile chart / sentail tʃɑ t/ noun a chart showing the number of babies who fall into each percentage category, as regards, e.g., birth weight centilitre / sentili tə/ noun a unit of measurement of liquid equal to one hundredth of a litre. Symbol cl centimetre / sentimi tə/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one hundredth of a metre. Symbol cm central / sentrəl/ adjective referring to the centre central line / sentrəl lain/ noun a catheter inserted through the neck, used to monitor central venous pressure in conditions such as shock where fluid balance is severely upset central nervous system / sentrəl n vəs sistəm/ noun the brain and spinal cord which link together all the nerves central temperature / sentrəl tempritʃə/ noun the temperature of the brain, thorax and abdomen, which is constant central venous pressure / sentrəl vi nəs preʃə/ noun blood pressure in the right atrium of the heart, which can be measured by means of a catheter centrifugal / sentri fju (ə)l, sen trifjυ (ə)l/ adjective moving away from the centre centrifugation / sentrifju eiʃ(ə)n/, centrifuging / sentrifju d iŋ/ noun the process of separating the components of a liquid in a centrifuge centrifuge / sentrifju d / noun a device to separate the components of a liquid by rapid spinning centriole / sentriəυl/ noun a small structure found in the cytoplasm of a cell, which involved in forming the spindle during cell division centripetal / sentri pi t(ə)l, sen tripit(ə)l/ adjective moving towards the centre centromere / sentrəmiə/ noun a constricted part of a chromosome, seen as a cell divides centrosome / sentrəsəυm/ noun the structure in the cytoplasm of a cell, near the nucleus, and containing the centrioles centilitre centimetre central central line central nervous system central temperature central venous pressure centrifugal | | centrifugation | centrifuge centriole centripetal | centromere centrosome | cerebral infarction centrum centrum / sentrəm/ noun the central part of an organ (NOTE: The plural is centra.) cephal- /sefəl/ prefix same as cephalo- (used cephal- before vowels) cephalalgia cephalalgia / sefə l ld ə/ noun same as | headache cephalexin cephalexin / sefə leksin/ noun an antibiotic used to treat infections of the urinary system or respiratory tract cephalhaematoma / sefəlhi mə təυmə/ noun a swelling found mainly on the head of babies delivered with forceps cephalic /sə f lik/ adjective referring to the head cephalo- /sefələυ/ prefix referring to the head cephalocele / sefələυsi l/ noun a swelling caused by part of the brain passing through a weak point in the bones of the skull cephalogram / sefələυ r m/ noun an X-ray photograph of the bones of the skull cephalometry / sefə lɒmitri/ noun measurement of the head cephalopelvic disproportion / sefələυ pelvik disprə pɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which the pelvic opening of the mother is not large enough for the head of the fetus cephalosporin / sefələυ spɔ rin/ noun a drug used in the treatment of bacterial infection cephradine / sefrədi n/ noun an antibacterial drug used to treat sinusitis and urinary tract infections cerclage /s klɑ / noun the act of tying things together with a ring cerebellar / serə belə/ adjective referring to the cerebellum cerebellar cortex / serəbelə kɔ teks/ noun the outer covering of grey matter which covers the cerebellum cerebellum / serə beləm/ noun a section of the hindbrain, located at the back of the head beneath the back part of the cerebrum. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement cerebr- /serəbr/ prefix same as cerebro- (used | cephalhaematoma | | cephalic | cephalo- cephalocele cephalogram cephalometry | cephalopelvic disproportion | | cephalosporin | cephradine cerclage | cerebellar | cerebellar cortex cerebellum | cerebr- before vowels) cerebral cerebral / serəbrəl/ adjective referring to the cerebrum or to the brain in general cerebral dominance / serəbrəl dɒminəns/ noun the usual condition where the centres for various functions are located in one cerebral hemisphere cerebral haemorrhage / serəbrəl hem(ə)rid / noun bleeding inside the brain from a cerebral artery. Also called brain haemorcerebral dominance cerebral haemorrhage rhage cerebral infarction cerebral infarction / serəbrəl in fɑ kʃən/ noun the death of brain tissue as a result of reduc| tion in the blood supply to the brain Nursing.fm Page 50 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cerebral ischaemia 50 cerebral ischaemia cerebral ischaemia / serəbrəl i ski miə/ noun failure in the blood supply to the brain cervical cerebral palsy cervical canal | cerebral palsy / serəbrəl pɔ lzi/ noun a disorder mainly due to brain damage occurring before birth, or due to lack of oxygen during birth, associated with poor coordination of muscular movements, impaired speech, hearing and sight, and sometimes mental impairment (NOTE: Premature babies are at higher risk.) cerebral peduncle cerebral peduncle / serəbrəl pi d ŋk(ə)l/ noun a mass of nerve fibres connecting the cerebral hemispheres to the midbrain. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement cerebral thrombosis / serəbrəl θrɒm bəυsis/ noun same as cerebrovascular acci| cerebral thrombosis | dent cerebration cerebration / serə breiʃ(ə)n/ noun brain activity cerebro- /serəbrəυ/ prefix referring to the cerebrum cerebrospinal / serəbrəυ spain(ə)l/ adjective referring to the brain and the spinal cord cerebrospinal fever / serəbrəυspain(ə)l fi və/ noun same as meningococcal meningi| cerebro- cerebrospinal | cerebrospinal fever | tis cervical / s vik(ə)l, sə vaik(ə)l/ adjective referring to the neck cervical canal / s vik(ə)l kə n l/ noun a tube running through the cervix, from the point where the uterus joins the vagina to the entrance of the uterine cavity. Also called cervicouterine | | canal cervical cancer cervical cancer / s vik(ə)l k nsə/ noun a cancer of the cervix of the uterus cervical collar / s vik(ə)l kɒlə/ noun a special strong orthopaedic collar to support the head of a person with neck injuries or a condition such as cervical spondylosis cervical erosion / s vik(ə)l i rəυ (ə)n/ noun a condition in which the epithelium of the mucous membrane lining the cervix uteri extends outside the cervix cervical ganglion / s vik(ə)l ŋ liən/ noun one of the bundles of nerves in the neck cervical incompetence / s vik(ə)l inkɒmpit(ə)ns/ noun a dysfunction of the cervix of the uterus which is often the cause of spontaneous abortions and premature births and can be remedied by Shirodkars operation cervical intraepithelial neoplasia / s vik(ə)l intrəepi θi liəl ni əυ plei ə/ noun changes in the cells of the cervix which may lead to cervical cancer. Abbreviation CIN cervical nerve / s vik(ə)l n v/ noun spinal nerve in the neck cervical node / s vik(ə)l nəυd/ noun lymph node in the neck cervical plexus / s vik(ə)l pleksəs/ noun a group of nerves in front of the vertebrae in the neck, which lead to nerves supplying the skin and muscles of the neck, and also the phrenic nerve which controls the diaphragm cervical rib / s vik(ə)l rib/ noun an extra rib sometimes found attached to the vertebrae above the other ribs and which may cause thoracic outlet syndrome cervical smear / s vik(ə)l smiə/ noun a test for cervical cancer, where cells taken from the mucus in the cervix of the uterus are examined cervical spondylosis / s vik(ə)l spɒndi ləυsis/ noun a degenerative change in the neck bones. spondylosis cervical vertebrae / s vik(ə)l v tibri / plural noun the seven bones which form the neck cervicectomy / s vi sektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the cervix uteri cervicitis / s vi saitis/ noun inflammation of the cervix uteri cervico- /s vikəυ/ prefix referring to the neck cervicouterine canal / s vikəυ ju tərain kə n l/ noun same as cervical canal cervix / s viks/ noun 1. any narrow neck of an organ 2. the neck of the uterus, the narrow lower cervical collar cervical erosion | cervical ganglion cervical incompetence cervical intraepithelial neoplasia | cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid / serəbrəυspain(ə)l flu id/ noun fluid which surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. Abbreviation CSF | COMMENT: CSF is found in the space be- tween the arachnoid mater and pia mater of the brain, within the ventricles of the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord. It consists mainly of water, with some sugar and sodium chloride. Its function is to cushion the brain and spinal cord and it is continually formed and absorbed to maintain the correct pressure. | cervical nerve cervical node cervical plexus cervical rib cerebrovascular cerebrovascular / serəbrəυ v skjυlə/ adjective referring to the blood vessels in the | brain cerebrovascular accident / serəbrəυ v skjυlər ksid(ə)nt/ noun a sudden blocking of or bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain resulting in temporary or permanent paralysis or death. Also called stroke cerebrum /sə ri brəm/ noun the largest part of the brain, formed of two sections, the cerebral hemispheres, which run along the length of the head. The cerebrum controls the main mental processes, including the memory. Also called telcerebrovascular accident | cerebrum | encephalon cerumen /sə ru men/ noun wax which forms inside the ear. Also called earwax ceruminous gland /sə ru minəs l nd/ noun a gland which secretes earwax. See illustracerumen | ceruminous gland | tion at EAR in Supplement cervic- /s vik/ prefix same as cervico- (used cervic- before vowels) cervical smear cervical spondylosis | cervical vertebrae cervicectomy | cervicitis | cervico- cervicouterine canal | | cervix Nursing.fm Page 51 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 51 part of the uterus leading into the vagina. Also called cervix uteri CESDI abbreviation Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and Deaths in Infancy. CEMACH cesium / si ziəm/ noun US same as caesium cetrimide / setrimaid/ noun a mixture of ammonium compounds, used in disinfectants and antiseptics CFT abbreviation complement fixation test chafe /tʃeif/ verb to rub something, especially to rub against the skin The rough cloth of the collar chafed the girls neck. Chagas disease / ʃɑ əs di zi z/ noun a type of sleeping sickness found in South America, transmitted by insect bites which pass trypanosomes into the bloodstream. Children are mainly affected and if untreated the disease can cause fatal heart block in early adult life. [Described CESDI cesium cetrimide CFT chafe Chagas disease | 1909. After Carlos Chagas (18791934), Brazilian scientist and physician.] CHAI CHAI abbreviation Commission for Healthcare Audit and Improvement chalasia /tʃə leiziə/ noun an excessive relaxation of the oesophageal muscles, which causes regurgitation chalazion /kə leiziən/ noun same as meibochalasia | chalazion | mian cyst chalone chalone / keiləυn, k ləυn/ noun a hormone which stops a secretion, as opposed to those hormones which stimulate secretion chancre / ʃ ŋkə/ noun a sore on the lip, penis or eyelid which is the first symptom of syphilis chancroid / ʃ ŋkrɔid/ noun a venereal sore with a soft base, situated in the groin or on the genitals and caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. Also called soft chancre characterise / k riktəraiz/, characterize verb to be a typical or special quality or feature of something or someone The disease is characterised by the development of lesions throughout the body. charcoal / tʃɑ kəυl/ noun a highly absorbent substance, formed when wood is burnt in the absence of oxygen, used to relieve diarrhoea or intestinal gas and in cases of poisoning Charcots joint / ʃɑ kəυz d ɔint/ noun a joint which becomes deformed because the patient cannot feel pain in it when the nerves have been damaged by syphilis, diabetes or leprosy chancre chancroid characterise charcoal Charcots joint [Described 1868. After Jean-Martin Charcot (182593), French neurologist.] Charcots triad Charcots triad / ʃɑ kəυz trai d/ noun three symptoms of multiple sclerosis: rapid eye movement, tremor and scanning speech Charnley clamps / tʃɑ nli kl mps/ plural noun metal clamps fixed to a rod through a bone to hold it tight Charnley clamps chemotaxis chart chart /tʃɑ t/ noun a record of information shown as a series of lines or points on graph paper a temperature chart charting / tʃɑ tiŋ/ noun the preparation and updating of a hospital patients chart by nurses and doctors CHC abbreviation 1. child health clinic 2. community health council CHD abbreviation coronary heart disease check-up / tʃek p/ noun a general examination by a doctor or dentist She went for a checkup. He had a heart check-up last week. cheek /tʃi k/ noun 1. one of two fleshy parts of the face on each side of the nose 2. either side of the buttocks (informal ) cheekbone / tʃi kbəυn/ noun an arch of bone in the face beneath the cheek which also forms the lower part of the eye socket cheil- /kail/ prefix same as cheilo- (used before charting CHC CHD check-up cheek cheekbone cheil- vowels) cheilitis cheilitis /kai laitis/ noun inflammation of the lips cheilo- /kailəυ/ prefix referring to the lips cheiloschisis / kailəυ ʃaisis/ noun a double cleft upper lip cheilosis /kai ləυsis/ noun swelling and cracks on the lips and corners of the mouth caused by lack of vitamin B cheiro- /keirəυ/ prefix referring to the hand cheiropompholyx / keirəυ pɒmfəliks/ noun a disorder of the skin in which tiny blisters appear on the palms of the hand chelating agent / ki leitiŋ eid ənt/ noun a chemical compound which can combine with some metals, used as a treatment for metal poisoning chemical symbol / kemik(ə)l simbəl/ noun letters which represent a chemical substance Na is the symbol for sodium. chemistry / kemistri/ noun the study of substances, elements and compounds and their reactions with each other chemo / ki məυ/ noun chemotherapy | cheilo- cheiloschisis | cheilosis | cheiro- cheiropompholyx | chelating agent chemical symbol chemistry chemo (informal ) chemo- chemo- /keməυ, ki məυ/ prefix referring to chemistry chemoreceptor / ki məυri septə/ noun a cell which responds to the presence of a chemical compound by activating a nerve, e.g. a taste bud reacting to food or cells in the carotid body reacting to lowered oxygen and raised carbon dioxide in the blood chemosis /ki məυsis/ noun swelling of the conjunctiva chemotaxis / ki məυ t ksis/ noun the movement of a cell when it is attracted to or repelled by a chemical substance chemoreceptor | chemosis | chemotaxis | Nursing.fm Page 52 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM chemotherapeutic agent 52 chemotherapeutic agent chemotherapeutic agent / ki məυθerə pju tik eid ənt/ noun a chemical substance used to treat a disease chemotherapy / ki məυ θerəpi/ noun the use of drugs such as antibiotics, painkillers or antiseptic lotions to fight a disease, especially using toxic chemicals to destroy rapidly developing cancer cells chest /tʃest/ noun 1. the upper front part of the body between the neck and stomach. Also called thorax 2. same as thorax (NOTE: For other terms | | chemotherapy | chest referring to the chest, see pectoral and words beginning with steth-, thorac-, thoraco-.) chest pain / tʃest pein/ noun pain in the chest chest pain which may be caused by heart disease chesty / tʃesti/ adjective having phlegm in the lungs, or having a tendency to chest complaints CheyneStokes respiration / tʃein stəυks respi reiʃ(ə)n/, CheyneStokes breathing / tʃein stəυks bri ðiŋ/ noun irregular breathing, usually found in people who are unconscious, with short breaths gradually increasing to deep breaths, then reducing again, until breathing appears to stop chiasm / kai z(ə)m/, chiasma /kai zmə/ chesty CheyneStokes respiration | chiasm | noun ‘ optic chiasma chickenpox / tʃikin pɒks/ noun an infectious chickenpox | disease of children, with fever and red spots which turn into itchy blisters. Also called varicella Chief Medical Officer Chief Medical Officer /tʃi f medik(ə)l ɒfisə/ noun in the UK, a government official responsible for all aspects of public health. Abbreviation CMO Chief Nursing Officer / tʃi f n siŋ ɒfisə/ noun in the UK, an official appointed by the Department of Health to advise Government Ministers and provide leadership to nurses and midwives. Abbreviation CNO chilblain / tʃilblein/ noun a condition in which the skin of the fingers, toes, nose or ears becomes red, swollen and itchy because of exposure to cold. Also called erythema pernio child /tʃaild/ noun a young boy or girl. Child is the legal term for a person under 14 years of age. Chief Nursing Officer chilblain child (NOTE: The plural is children. For other terms referring to children, see words beginning with paed-, paedo- or ped-, pedo-.) child abuse / tʃaild ə bju s/ noun cruel treatchild abuse | ment of a child by an adult, including physical and sexual harm childbirth / tʃaildb θ/ noun the act of giving birth. Also called parturition child health clinic / tʃaild helθ klinik/ noun a special clinic for checking the health and development of small children under school age. Abbreviation CHC childminder / tʃaildmaində/ noun somebody who looks after other peoples children in his or childbirth child health clinic childminder her own home, especially when the parents or guardians are working child protection / tʃaild prə tekʃən/ noun the measures taken to avoid abuse, neglect or exploitation of any kind towards children children / tʃildrən/ plural of child chill /tʃil/ noun a short illness causing a feeling of being cold and shivering, usually the sign of the beginning of a fever, of flu or a cold Chinese medicine / tʃaini z med(ə)sin/ noun a system of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness developed in China over many centuries. It uses herbs, minerals and animal products, exercise, massage and acupuncture. Chinese restaurant syndrome / tʃaini z rest(ə)rɒnt sindrəυm/ noun an allergic condition which gives people severe headaches after eating food flavoured with monosodium glutamate (informal ) chiro- /kairəυ/ prefix referring to the hand chiropodist /ki rɒpədist/ noun a person who spees in treatment of minor disorders of the feet chiropody /ki rɒpədi/ noun the study and treatment of minor diseases and disorders of the feet chiropractic / kairəυ pr ktik/ noun the treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system by making adjustments primarily to the bones of the spine chiropractor / kairəυ pr ktə/ noun a person who treats musculoskeletal disorders by making adjustments primarily to the bones of the spine chiropracty / kairəυ pr kti/ noun same as child protection | children chill Chinese medicine Chinese restaurant syndrome chiro- chiropodist | chiropody | chiropractic | chiropractor | chiropracty | chiropractic (informal ) Chlamydia /klə midiə/ noun a bacterium that Chlamydia | causes trachoma and urogenital diseases in humans and psittacosis in birds, which can be transmitted to humans. It is currently a major cause of sexually transmitted disease. chloasma /kləυ zmə/ noun the presence of brown spots on the skin from various causes chlor- /klɔ r/ prefix same as chloro- (used chloasma | chlor- before vowels) chlorambucil chlorambucil /klɔ r mbjυsil/ noun a drug which is toxic to cells, used in cancer treatment chloramphenicol / klɔ r m fenikɒl/ noun a powerful antibiotic which sometimes causes the collapse of blood cell production, so is used only for treating life-threatening diseases such as meningitis chlordiazepoxide / klɔ dai zi pɒksaid/ noun a yellow crystalline powder, used as a tranquilliser and treatment for alcoholism chlorhexidine /klɔ heksidi n/ noun a disinfectant mouthwash chlorination / klɔ ri neiʃ(ə)n/ noun sterilisation by adding chlorine | chloramphenicol | chlordiazepoxide | chlorhexidine | chlorination | | Nursing.fm Page 53 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 53 chlorine chlorine / klɔ ri n/ noun a powerful greenish gas, used to sterilise water (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Cl.) chlormethiazole chlormethiazole / klɔ me θaiəzəυl/ noun a sedative used in the treatment of people with alcoholism chloro- /klɔ rəυ/ prefix referring to chlorine chloroform / klɒrəfɔ m/ noun a powerful drug formerly used as an anaesthetic chloroma /klɔ rəυmə/ noun a bone tumour associated with acute leukaemia chlorosis /klɔ rəυsis/ noun a type of severe anaemia due to iron deficiency, affecting mainly young girls chlorothiazide / klɔ rəυ θaiəzaid/ noun a drug which helps the body to produce more urine, used in the treatment of high blood pressure, swelling and heart failure chloroxylenol / klɔ rəυ zailənɒl/ noun a chemical used as an antimicrobial agent in skin creams and in disinfectants chlorpheniramine / klɔ fen airəmi n/, chlorpheniramine maleate / klɔ fenairəmi n m lieit/ noun an antihistamine drug chlorpromazine hydrochloride /klɔ prəυməzi n haidrəυ klɔ raid/ noun a drug used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses chlorpropamide /klɔ prəυpəmaid/ noun a drug which lowers blood sugar, used in the treatment of diabetes chlorthalidone /klɔ θ lidəυn/ noun a diuretic choana / kəυənə/ noun any opening shaped like a funnel, especially the one leading from the nasal cavity to the pharynx (NOTE: The plural is | chloro- chloroform chloroma | chlorosis | chlorothiazide | chloroxylenol | chlorpheniramine | | chlorpromazine hydrochloride | | chlorpropamide | chlorthalidone | choana choanae.) chocolate cyst chocolate cyst / tʃɒklət sist/ noun an ovarian cyst containing old brown blood chol- /kɒl/ prefix same as chole- (used before chol- vowels) cholaemia cholaemia /kə li miə/ noun the presence of an unusual amount of bile in the blood cholagogue / kɒlə ɒ / noun a drug which encourages the production of bile cholangiocarcinoma /kə l nd iəυ kɑ si nəυmə/ noun a rare cancer of the cells of the bile ducts cholangiography /kə l nd i ɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the bile ducts and gall bladder cholangiolitis /kə l nd iəυ laitis/ noun inflammation of the small bile ducts cholangiopancreatography /kə l nd iəυ p ŋkriə tɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the bile ducts and pancreas cholangitis / kəυl n d aitis/ noun inflammation of the bile ducts chole- /kɒli/ prefix referring to bile | cholagogue cholangiocarcinoma | | | cholangiography | | cholangiolitis | | cholangiopancreatography | cholangitis | chole- | cholesterol cholecalciferol cholecalciferol / kɒlik l sifərɒl/ noun a form of vitamin D found naturally in fish-liver oils and egg yolks cholecystectomy / kɒlisi stektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the gall bladder cholecystitis / kɒlisi staitis/ noun inflammation of the gall bladder cholecystoduodenostomy / kɒlisistə dju ədi nɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the gall bladder to the duodenum to allow bile to pass into the intestine when the main bile duct is blocked cholecystography / kɒlisi stɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the gall bladder cholecystokinin / kɒlisistəυ kainin/ noun a hormone released by cells at the top of the small intestine. It stimulates the gall bladder, making it contract and release bile. cholecystotomy / kɒlisi stɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the gall bladder, usually to remove gallstones choledoch- /kəledək/ prefix referring to the common bile duct choledocholithiasis /kə ledəkəli θaiəsis/ noun same as cholelithiasis choledocholithotomy /kə ledikəυli θɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a gallstone by cutting into the bile duct choledochostomy /kə ledə kɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in a bile duct choledochotomy /kəledə kɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the common bile duct to remove gallstones cholelithiasis / kɒlili θaiəsis/ noun a condition in which gallstones form in the gall bladder or bile ducts. Also called choledocholithiasis cholelithotomy / kɒlili θɒtəmi/ noun the surgical removal of gallstones by cutting into the gall bladder cholera / kɒlərə/ noun a serious bacterial disease spread through food or water which has been infected by Vibrio cholerae A cholera epidemic broke out after the flood. choleresis /kə liərəsis/ noun the production of bile by the liver choleretic / kɒli retik/ adjective referring to a substance which increases the production and flow of bile cholestasis / kɒli steisis/ noun a condition in which all bile does not pass into the intestine but some remains in the liver and causes jaundice cholesteatoma /kə lestiə təυmə/ noun a cyst containing some cholesterol found in the middle ear and also in the brain cholesterol /kə lestərɒl/ noun a fatty substance found in fats and oils, also produced by the liver and forming an essential part of all cells | cholecystectomy | cholecystitis | cholecystoduodenostomy | | cholecystography | cholecystokinin | cholecystotomy | choledoch- choledocholithiasis | | | choledocholithotomy | choledochostomy | | choledochotomy | cholelithiasis | cholelithotomy | cholera choleresis | choleretic | cholestasis | cholesteatoma | cholesterol | | | | Nursing.fm Page 54 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cholesterolaemia 54 cholesterolaemia cholesterolaemia /kə lestərə leimiə/ noun a high level of cholesterol in the blood cholesterosis /kə lestə rəυsis/ noun inflammation of the gall bladder with deposits of cholesterol cholic acid / kəυlik sid/ noun one of the bile acids choline / kəυli n/ noun a compound involved in fat metabolism and the precursor for acetylcholine cholinergic / kəυli n d ik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor which responds to acetylcholine cholinesterase / kəυli nestəreiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down a choline ester choluria /kəυ ljυəriə/ noun same as biliuria chondr- /kɒndr/ prefix referring to cartilage chondritis /kɒn draitis/ noun inflammation of a cartilage chondroblast / kɒndrəυbl st/ noun a cell from which cartilage develops in an embryo chondrocalcinosis / kɒndrəυ k lsi nəυsis/ noun a condition in which deposits of calcium phosphate are found in articular cartilage chondrocyte / kɒndrəυsait/ noun a mature cartilage cell chondrodysplasia / kɒndrəυdis pleiziə/ noun a hereditary disorder of cartilage which is linked to dwarfism chondrodystrophy / kɒndrəυ distrəfi/ noun any disorder of cartilage chondroma /kɒn drəυmə/ noun a tumour formed of cartilaginous tissue chondromalacia / kɒndrəυmə leiʃə/ noun degeneration of the cartilage of a joint chondrosarcoma / kɒndrəυsɑ kəυmə/ noun a malignant, rapidly growing tumour involving cartilage cells chorda / kɔ də/ noun a cord or tendon (NOTE: | | cholesterosis | | cholic acid choline cholinergic | cholinesterase | choluria | chondr- chondritis | chondroblast chondrocalcinosis | | chondrocyte chondrodysplasia | | chondrodystrophy | chondroma | chondromalacia | chondrosarcoma | | chorda The plural is chordae.) chordee chordee / kɔ di / noun a painful condition where the erect penis is curved, a complication of gonorrhoea chorditis /kɔ daitis/ noun inflammation of the vocal cords chordotomy /kɔ dɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a cord such as a nerve pathway in the spinal cord in order to relieve intractable pain chorea /kɔ ri ə/ noun a sudden severe twitching, usually of the face and shoulders, which is a symptom of disease of the nervous system chorion / kɔ riən/ noun a membrane covering the fertilised ovum chorionic / kɔ ri ɒnik/ adjective referring to the chorion chorditis | chordotomy | chorea | chorion chorionic | chorionic gonadotrophin chorionic gonadotrophin /kɔ ri ɒnik əυnədəυ trəυfin/ noun ‘ human chorionic | | gonadotrophin chorionic villi chorionic villi /kɔ ri ɒnik vilai/ plural noun tiny finger-like folds in the chorion chorionic villus sampling /kɔ ri ɒnik viləs sɑ mpliŋ/ noun an antenatal screening test carried out by examining cells from the chorionic villi of the outer membrane surrounding an embryo, which have the same DNA as the fetus choroid / kɔ rɔid/ noun the middle layer of tissue which forms the eyeball, between the sclera and the retina. See illustration at EYE in Supplement choroiditis / kɔ rɔi daitis/ noun inflammation of the choroid in the eyeball choroidocyclitis /kɔ rɔidəυsai klaitis/ noun inflammation of the choroids and ciliary body Christmas disease / krisməs di zi z/ noun same as haemophilia B [After Mr Christmas, the | chorionic villus sampling | choroid choroiditis | choroidocyclitis | | | Christmas disease | person in whom the disease was first studied in detail.] Christmas factor / krisməs f ktə/ noun same as Factor IX chrom- /krəυm/ prefix same as chromo- (used before vowels) -chromasia /krəmeiziə/ suffix referring to colChristmas factor chrom- -chromasia our chromatid / krəυmətid/ noun one of two parallel filaments making up a chromosome chromatin / krəυmətin/ noun a network which forms the nucleus of a cell and can be stained with basic dyes chromatography / krəυmə tɒ rəfi/ noun a method of separating chemicals through a porous medium, used in analysing compounds and mixtures chromatophore /krəυ m təfɔ / noun any pigment-bearing cell in the eyes, hair and skin chromic acid / krəυmik sid/ noun an unstable acid existing only in solution or in the form of a salt, sometimes used in the removal of warts chromicised catgut / krəυmisaizd k t t/ noun catgut which is hardened with chromium to make it slower to dissolve in the body chromium / krəυmiəm/ noun a metallic trace element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Cr.) chromo- /krəυməυ/ prefix referring to colour chromosomal / krəυmə səυm(ə)l/ adjective referring to chromosomes chromosome / krəυməsəυm/ noun a rodshaped structure in the nucleus of a cell, formed of DNA, which carries the genes chromosome mapping / krəυməsəυm m piŋ/ noun a procedure by which the position of genes on a chromosome is established chromatid chromatin chromatography | chromatophore | chromic acid chromicised catgut chromium chromo- chromosomal | chromosome chromosome mapping Nursing.fm Page 55 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 55 chronic chronic / krɒnik/ adjective 1. referring to a disease or condition which lasts for a long time He has a chronic chest complaint. Opposite acute 2. referring to serious pain (informal ) chronic abscess / krɒnik bses/ noun an abscess which develops slowly over a period of time chronic appendicitis / krɒnik ə pendi saitis/ noun a condition in which the vermiform appendix is always slightly inflamed. grumchronic abscess chronic appendicitis | | bling appendix cineplasty chyle chyle /kail/ noun a fluid in the lymph vessels in the intestine, which contains fat, especially after a meal chylomicron / kailəυ maikrɒn/ noun a particle of chyle present in the blood chyluria /kai ljυəriə/ noun the presence of chyle in the urine chyme /kaim/ noun a semi-liquid mass of food and gastric juices, which passes from the stomach to the intestine chymotrypsin / kaiməυ tripsin/ noun an enzyme which digests protein Ci abbreviation curie cicatrix / sikətriks/ noun same as scar -ciclovir /sikləviə/ suffix used in the names of antiviral drugs -cide /said/ suffix referring to killing cilia / siliə/ plural of cilium ciliary / siliəri/ adjective referring to cilia ciliary body / siliəri bɒdi/ noun the part of the eye which connects the iris to the choroid. See illustration at EYE in Supplement ciliary ganglion / siliəri ŋ liən/ noun a parasympathetic ganglion in the orbit of the eye, supplying the intrinsic eye muscles ciliary muscle / siliəri m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle which makes the lens of the eye change its shape to focus on objects at different distances. See illustration at EYE in Supplement ciliary processes / siliəri prəυsesiz/ plural noun the ridges behind the iris to which the lens of the eye is attached ciliated epithelium / silieitid epi θi liəm/ noun simple epithelium where the cells have tiny hairs or cilia cilium / siliəm/ noun 1. an eyelash 2. one of many tiny hair-like processes which line cells in passages in the body and by moving backwards and forwards drive particles or fluid along the passage (NOTE: The plural is cilia.) -cillin /silin/ suffix used in the names of penicillin drugs amoxycillin cimetidine /si metidi n/ noun a drug which reduces the production of stomach acid, used in peptic ulcer treatment cimex / saimeks/ noun a bedbug or related insect which feeds on birds, humans and other mammals (NOTE: The plural is cimices.) CIN abbreviation cervical intraepithelial neoplasia -cin /sin/ suffix referring to aminoglycosides gentamicin cinematics / sini m tiks/ noun the science of movement, especially of body movements cineplasty / sinipl sti/ noun an amputation where the muscles of the stump of the amputated limb are used to operate an artificial limb chylomicron | chyluria | chyme chymotrypsin | chronic catarrhal rhinitis chronic catarrhal rhinitis / krɒnik kə tɑ rəl rai naitis/ noun a persistent form of inflammation of the nose where excess mucus is secreted by the mucous membrane chronic fatigue syndrome / krɒnik fə ti sindrəυm/ noun same as myalgic encephalo| | chronic fatigue syndrome | myelitis chronic granulomatous disease chronic granulomatous disease / krɒnik r njυ ləυmətəs di zi z/ noun a type of inflammation where macrophages are converted into epithelial-like cells as a result of infection, as in tuberculosis or sarcoidosis chronic obstructive airways disease / krɒnik əb str ktiv eəweiz di zi z/ noun abbreviation COAD. Now called chronic | | chronic obstructive airways disease | | obstructive pulmonary disease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease / krɒnik əb str ktiv p lmən(ə)ri di zi z/ noun any of a group of progressive respiratory disorders where someone experiences loss of lung function and shows little or no response to steroid or bronchodilator drug treatments, e.g. emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Abbreviation COPD chronic pancreatitis / krɒnik p ŋkriə taitis/ noun a persistent inflammation occurring after repeated attacks of acute pancreatitis, where the gland becomes calcified chronic periarthritis / krɒnik periɑ θraitis/ noun inflammation of tissues round the shoulder joint. Also called scapulohumeral arthritis chronic pericarditis / krɒnik perikɑ daitis/ noun a condition in which the pericardium becomes thickened and prevents the heart from functioning normally. Also called constrictive | | chronic pancreatitis | chronic periarthritis | chronic pericarditis | pericarditis Chronic Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 Chronic Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 /krɒnik sik ən dis eib(ə)ld p s(ə)nz kt/ noun an Act of Parliament in the UK which provides benefits such as alterations to their homes for people with long-term conditions chronic toxicity / krɒnik tɒk sisiti/ noun exposure to harmful levels of a toxic substance over a period of time chrysotherapy / kraisəυ θerəpi/ noun treatment which involves gold injections Chvosteks sign /tʃə vɒsteks sain/ noun an indication of tetany, where a spasm is produced if the facial muscles are tapped | chronic toxicity | | Chvosteks sign | cicatrix -ciclovir -cide cilia ciliary ciliary body ciliary ganglion ciliary muscle chronic obstructive pulmonary disease chrysotherapy Ci ciliary processes ciliated epithelium | cilium -cillin cimetidine | cimex CIN -cin cinematics | cineplasty Nursing.fm Page 56 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM cineradiography 56 cineradiography cineradiography / sinireidi ɒ rəfi/ noun the practice of taking a series of X-ray photographs for diagnosis, or to show how something moves or develops in the body cinesiology /si ni si ɒləd i/ noun the study of muscle movements, particularly in relation to treatment cinnarizine / sinərəzi n/ noun an antihistaminic used to treat Ménières disease ciprofloxacin / saiprəυ flɒksəsin/ noun a powerful antibiotic used in eye drops to treat corneal ulcers and surface infections of the eye, and in the treatment of anthrax in humans circadian /s keidiən/ adjective referring to a pattern which is repeated approximately every 24 hours circle of Willis / s k(ə)l əv wilis/ noun a circle of branching arteries at the base of the brain formed by the basilar artery, the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries, the anterior and posterior communicating arteries and the internal carotid arteries [Described 1664. After Thomas Willis | cinesiology | | cinnarizine ciprofloxacin | circadian | circle of Willis (162175), English physician and anatomist.] circulatory system / s kjυ leit(ə)ri sistəm/ noun a system of arteries and veins, circulatory system | together with the heart, which makes the blood circulate around the body circum- /s kəm/ prefix around circumcision / s kəm si (ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis circumduction / s kəm d kʃən/ noun the action of moving a limb so that the end of it makes a circular motion circumflex / s kəmfleks/ adjective bent or curved circumoral / s kəm ɔ rəl/ adjective referring to rashes surrounding the lips circumvallate papillae /s kəm v leit pə pili / plural noun large papillae at the base of the tongue, which have taste buds cirrhosis /sə rəυsis/ noun a progressive disease of the liver, often associated with alcoholism, in which healthy cells are replaced by scar tissue cirrhotic /si rɒtik/ adjective referring to cirrhosis The patient had a cirrhotic liver. cirs- /s s/ prefix referring to dilation cirsoid / s sɔid/ adjective referring to a varicose vein which is dilated cisplatin /sis pleitin/ noun a chemical substance which may help fight cancer by binding to DNA. It is used in the treatment of ovarian and testicular cancer. cistern / sistən/, cisterna /si st nə/ noun a space containing fluid citric acid / sitrik sid/ noun an acid found in fruit such as oranges, lemons and grapefruit citric acid cycle / sitrik sid saik(ə)l/ noun an important series of events concerning amino circum- circumcision | circumduction | circumflex circumoral | circumvallate papillae | cirrhosis | cirrhotic | cirs- cirsoid cisplatin | cistern | citric acid citric acid cycle | acid metabolism, which takes place in the mitochondria in the cell. Also called Krebs cycle citrulline / sitrυli n, sitrυlain/ noun an amino acid CJD abbreviation Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cl abbreviation centilitre clamp /kl mp/ noun a surgical instrument to hold something tightly, e.g. a blood vessel during an operation í verb to hold something tightly clap /kl p/ noun same as gonorrhoea (slang) classification / kl sifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the work of putting references or components into order so as to be able to refer to them again and identify them easily the ABO classification of blood claudication / klɔ di keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of limping or being lame claustrophobia / klɔ strə fəυbiə/ noun a fear of enclosed spaces or crowded rooms. Compare citrulline CJD cl clamp clap classification | claudication | claustrophobia | agoraphobia claustrophobic claustrophobic / klɔ strə fəυbik/ adjective afraid of being in enclosed spaces or crowded rooms. Compare agoraphobic clavicle / kl vik(ə)l/ noun same as collarbone clavicular /klə vikjυlə/ adjective referring to the clavicle clavus / kleivəs/ noun 1. a corn on the foot 2. severe pain in the head, like a nail being driven in claw foot / klɔ fυt/ noun a deformed foot with the toes curved towards the instep and with a very high arch. Also called pes cavus claw hand / klɔ h nd/ noun a deformed hand with the fingers, especially the ring finger and little finger, bent towards the palm, caused by paralysis of the muscles clean /kli n/ adjective 1. free from dirt, waste products or unwanted substances 2. sterile or free a clean dressing a clean from infection wound 3. not using recreational drugs cleavage / kli vid / noun the repeated division of cells in an embryo cleavage lines / kli vid lainz/ plural noun same as Langers lines cleft /kleft/ noun a small opening or hollow place in a surface or body part í adjective referring to a surface or body part which has separated into two or more sections cleft foot / kleft fυt/ noun same as talipes cleft lip / kleft lip/ noun a congenital condition in which the upper lip fails to form in the usual way during fetal development. Also called hare| clavicle clavicular | clavus claw foot claw hand clean cleavage cleavage lines cleft cleft foot cleft lip lip cleft palate cleft palate / kleft p lət/ noun a congenital condition in which the palate does not fuse during fetal development, causing a gap between the mouth and nasal cavity in severe cases cleido- /klaidəυ/ prefix referring to the clavicle cleido- Nursing.fm Page 57 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 57 cleidocranial dysostosis cleidocranial dysostosis / klaidəυkreiniəl disɒs təυsis/ noun a hereditary bone malformation, with protruding jaw, lack of collarbone and malformed teeth client / klaiənt/ noun a person visited by a health visitor or social worker climacteric /klai m ktərik/ noun a period of diminished sexual activity in a man who reaches middle age climax / klaim ks/ noun 1. an orgasm 2. the point where a disease is at its worst í verb to have an orgasm clindamycin / klində maisin/ noun a powerful antibiotic used to treat severe infections and acne clinic / klinik/ noun 1. a small hospital or a department in a large hospital which deals only with out-patients or which spees in the treatment of particular medical conditions He is She was being treated in a private clinic. referred to an antenatal clinic. 2. a group of students under a doctor or surgeon who examine patients and discuss their treatment clinical / klinik(ə)l/ adjective 1. referring to the physical assessment and treatment of patients by doctors, as opposed to a surgical operation, a laboratory test or experiment 2. referring to instruction given to students at the bedside of patients as opposed to class instruction with no patient present 3. referring to a clinic clinical audit / klinik(ə)l ɔ dit/ noun an evaluation of the standard of clinical care clinical care / klinik(ə)l keə/ noun the care and treatment of patients in hospital wards or in doctors surgeries clinical effectiveness / klinik(ə)l i fektivnəs/ noun the ability of a procedure or treatment to achieve the desired result clinical governance / klinik(ə)l v(ə)nəns/ noun the responsibility given to doctors to coordinate audit, research, education, use of guidelines and risk management to develop a strategy to raise the quality of medical care Clinical Management Plan / klinik(ə)l m nid mənt pl n/ noun a comprehensive statement of a patients condition that details what medicines and treatments may be used in ongoing care, forming part of the patients records clinical medicine / klinik(ə)l med(ə)s(ə)n/ noun the study and treatment of patients in a hospital ward or in the doctors surgery, as opposed to in the operating theatre or laboratory clinical nurse manager / klinik(ə)l n s m nid ə/ noun the administrative manager of the clinical nursing staff of a hospital clinical nurse spet / klinik(ə)l n s speʃ(ə)list/ noun a nurse who spees in a particular branch of clinical care | client climacteric | climax clindamycin | clinic clinical clinical audit clinical care clinical effectiveness | clinical governance Clinical Management Plan clinical medicine clinical nurse manager clinical nurse spet clotting factors clinical pathology clinical pathology / klinik(ə)l pə θɒləd i/ noun the study of disease as applied to the treat| ment of patients clinical psychologist / klinik(ə)l sai kɒləd ist/ noun a psychologist who studies and treats sick patients in hospital clinical trial / klinik(ə)l traiəl/ noun a trial carried out in a medical laboratory on a person or on tissue from a person clinician /kli niʃ(ə)n/ noun a doctor, usually not a surgeon, who has considerable experience in treating patients clinodactyly / klainəυ d ktili/ noun the permanent bending of a finger to one side clip /klip/ noun a piece of metal with a spring, used to attach things together clitoris / klitəris/ noun a small erectile female sex organ, situated at the anterior angle of the vulva, which can be excited by sexual activity. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) clinical psychologist | clinical trial clinician | clinodactyly | clip clitoris in Supplement cloaca /kləυ eikə/ noun the end part of the cloaca | hindgut in an embryo clomipramine /kləυ miprəmi n/ noun a drug used to treat depression, phobias and obsessivecompulsive disorder clonazepam /kləυ n zip m/ noun a drug used to treat epilepsy clone /kləυn/ noun a group of cells derived from a single cell by asexual reproduction and so identical to the first cell í verb to reproduce an individual organism by asexual means clonic / klɒnik/ adjective referring to clonus clonic spasms / klɒnik sp z(ə)mz/ plural noun spasms which recur regularly clonidine / klɒnidi n/ noun a drug which relaxes and widens the arteries, used in the treatment of hypertension, migraine headaches and heart failure clonus / kləυnəs/ noun the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of a muscle, usually a sign of upper motor neurone lesions closed fracture / kləυzd fr ktʃə/ noun same as simple fracture Clostridium /klɒ stridiəm/ noun a type of bacteria clot /klɒt/ noun a soft mass of coagulated blood in a vein or an artery The doctor diagnosed a blood clot in the brain. Blood clots occur in thrombosis. í verb to change from a liquid to a semi-solid state, or to cause a liquid to do this His blood does not clot easily. (NOTE: clotting clomipramine | clonazepam | clone clonic clonic spasms clonidine clonus closed fracture Clostridium | clot clotted) clotrimazole clotrimazole /klɒ triməzəυl/ noun a drug used to treat yeast and fungal infections clotting / klɒtiŋ/ noun the action of coagulating clotting factors / klɒtiŋ f ktəz/ plural noun substances in plasma, called Factor I, Factor II, | clotting clotting factors Nursing.fm Page 58 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM clubbing 58 and so on, which act one after the other to make the blood coagulate when a blood vessel is damaged COMMENT: Deficiency in one or more of the clotting factors results in haemophilia. clubbing / kl biŋ/ noun a thickening of the clubbing ends of the fingers and toes, a sign of many different diseases club foot / kl b fυt/ noun same as talipes cluster headache / kl stə hedeik/ noun a headache which occurs behind one eye for a short period Cluttons joint / kl t(ə)nz d ɔint/ noun a swollen knee joint occurring in congenital syphilis [Described 1886. After Henry Hugh Clutton club foot cluster headache Cluttons joint (18501909), surgeon at St Thomass Hospital, London, UK] cm abbreviation centimetre CMHN abbreviation community mental health cm CMHN nurse CM joint / si em d ɔint/ noun same as car- cocci cocci / kɒki/ plural of coccus coccus / kɒkəs/ noun a bacterium shaped like a ball (NOTE: The plural is cocci.) coccy- /kɒksi/ prefix referring to the coccyx coccydynia / kɒksi diniə/ noun a sharp pain in the coccyx, usually caused by a blow. Also called coccus coccy- coccydynia | coccygodynia coccygeal vertebrae coccygeal vertebrae /kɒk sid iəl v tibrei/ plural noun the fused bones in the coccyx coccyges /kɒk said i z/ plural of coccyx coccygodynia / kɒksi əυ diniə/ noun same as coccydynia coccyx / kɒksiks/ noun the lowest bone in the backbone (NOTE: The plural is coccyges.) cochlea / kɒkliə/ noun a spiral tube inside the inner ear, which is the essential organ of hearing. See illustration at EAR in Supplement (NOTE: | coccyges | coccygodynia | coccyx cochlea The plural is cochleae.) CM joint pometacarpal joint CMO abbreviation Chief Medical Officer CMV abbreviation cytomegalovirus C/N abbreviation charge nurse CNS abbreviation central nervous system coagulant /kəυ jυlənt/ noun a substance CMO CMV C/N CNS coagulant | which can make blood clot coagulase /kəυ jυleiz/ noun an enzyme produced by a staphylococcal bacteria which makes blood plasma clot coagulate /kəυ jυleit/ verb to change from liquid to semi-solid, or cause a liquid to do this His blood does not coagulate easily. clot coagulation /kəυ jυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the action of clotting coagulum /kəυ jυləm/ noun same as blood coagulase | coagulate | coagulation | | coagulum | clot (NOTE: The plural is coagula.) coalesce / kəυə les/ verb to combine, or to coalesce | cause things to combine, into a single body or group coalescence / kəυə les(ə)ns/ noun the process by which wound edges come together when healing coarctation / kəυɑ k teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of narrowing coat /kəυt/ noun a layer of material covering an organ or a cavity í verb to cover something with something else coated tongue / kəυtid t ŋ/ noun same as coalescence | coarctation | coat coated tongue furred tongue cobalt / kəυbɔ lt/ noun a metallic element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Co.) cocaine /kəυ kein/ noun a narcotic drug not cobalt cocaine | generally used in medicine because its use leads to addiction, but sometimes used as a surface anaesthetic cochlear cochlear / kɒkliə/ adjective referring to the cochlea cochlear implant / kɒkliə implɑ nt/ noun a type of hearing aid for profound hearing loss Cochrane database / kɒkrən deitəbeis/ noun a database of regular reviews carried out on research code /kəυd/ noun 1. a system of numbers, letters or symbols used to represent language or information 2. same as genetic code í verb 1. to convert instructions or data into another form 2. (of a codon or gene) to provide the genetic information which causes a specific amino acid to be produced Genes are sections of DNA that code for a specific protein sequence. codeine / kəυdi n/, codeine phosphate / kəυdi n fɒsfeit/ noun a common painkilling drug that can also be used to suppress coughing and in the treatment of diarrhoea code of conduct / kəυd əv kɒnd kt/ noun a set of general rules showing how a group of people such as doctors or nurses should work cod liver oil / kɒd livər ɔil/ noun a fish oil which is rich in calories and vitamins A and D -coele /si l/ suffix referring to a hollow (NOTE: cochlear implant Cochrane database code codeine code of conduct cod liver oil -coele The US spelling is usually -cele.) coeli- coeli- /si li/ prefix same as coelio- (used before vowels) (NOTE: The US spelling is usually celi-.) coeliac coeliac / si li k/ adjective referring to the abdomen coeliac artery / si li k ɑ təri/, coeliac axis ksis/ noun the main artery in the / si li k abdomen leading from the abdominal aorta and dividing into the left gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. Also called coeliac trunk coeliac disease / si li k di zi z/ noun same as gluten-induced enteropathy coeliac artery coeliac disease | Nursing.fm Page 59 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 59 coeliac ganglion coeliac ganglion / si li k ŋ liən/ noun a ganglion on each side of the origins of the diaphragm, connected with the coeliac plexus coeliac trunk / si li k tr ŋk/ noun same as coeliac trunk coeliac artery coelio- /si liəυ/ prefix referring to a hollow, usucoelio- ally the abdomen coelioscopy / si li ɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the peritoneal cavity by inflating the abdomen with sterile air and passing an endoscope through the abdominal wall (NOTE: The plural is coelioscopy | coelioscopies.) coffee ground vomit coffee ground vomit / kɒfi raυnd vɒmit/ noun vomit containing dark pieces of blood, indicating that the person is bleeding from the stomach or upper intestine cognition /kɒ niʃ(ə)n/ noun the mental action or process of gaining knowledge by using your mind or your senses, or knowledge gained in this way cognitive / kɒ nitiv/ adjective referring to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment and reasoning a cognitive impairment cognitive disorder / kɒ nitiv dis ɔ də/ noun impairment of any of the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment and reasoning cognitive therapy / kɒ nitiv θerɑpi/ noun a treatment of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety or depression which encourages people to deal with their negative ways of thinking cohort / kəυhɔ t/ noun a group of people sharing a particular characteristic such as age or gender who are studied in a scientific or medical investigation cohort study / kəυhɔ t st di/ noun an investigation in which a group of people are classified according to their exposure to various risks and studied over a period of time to see if they develop a specific disease, in order to evaluate the links between risk and disease coil /kɔil/ noun a device fitted into a womans uterus as a contraceptive cold /kəυld/ adjective not warm or hot í noun an illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which someone sneezes and coughs and has a blocked and running nose She had a heavy cold. Also called common cold, coryza cold burn / kəυld b n/ noun an injury to the skin caused by exposure to extreme cold or by touching a very cold surface cold cautery / kəυld kɔ təri/ noun the removal of a skin growth using carbon dioxide snow cold pack / kəυld p k/ noun a cloth or a pad filled with gel or clay which is chilled and put on the body to reduce or increase the temperature cold sore / kəυld sɔ / noun a painful blister, usually on the lips or nose, caused by herpes simplex Type I cognition | cognitive cognitive disorder | cognitive therapy cohort cohort study coil cold cold burn cold cautery cold pack cold sore colloid colectomy colectomy /kə lektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the whole or part of the colon | (NOTE: The plural is colectomies.) colic / kɒlik/ noun 1. pain in any part of the intestinal tract. Also called enteralgia, tormina 2. crying and irritability in babies, especially from colic stomach pains coliform bacterium / kəυlifɔ m b k tiəriəm/ plural noun any bacterium which is similar to Escherichia coli colistin /kɒ listin/ noun an antibiotic which is effective against a wide range of organisms and is used to treat gastrointestinal infections colitis /kə laitis/ noun inflammation of the colon. Also called colonitis collaborative care /kə l b(ə)rətiv keə/ noun treatment that involves collaboration between different medical departments or agencies, or involves active collaboration between the patient and the providers of treatment collagen / kɒləd ən/ noun a thick protein fibre forming bundles, which make up the connective tissue, bone and cartilage collapse /kə l ps/ noun 1. a condition in which someone is extremely exhausted or semi-conscious She was found in a state of collapse. 2. a condition in which an organ becomes flat or loses air lung collapse í verb 1. to fall down in a semi-conscious state After running to catch his train he collapsed. 2. to become flat, or lose air collapsed lung /kə l pst l ŋ/ noun same as coliform bacterium | colistin | colitis | collaborative care | collagen collapse | collapsed lung | pneumothorax collarbone / kɒləbəυn/ noun one of two long collarbone thin bones which join the shoulder blades to the breastbone. Also called clavicle (NOTE: Collarbone fracture is one of the most frequent fractures in the body.) collateral /kə l t(ə)rəl/ adjective secondary or collateral | less important Colles fracture / kɒlis(iz) fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture of the lower end of the radius with displacement of the wrist backwards, usually when someone has stretched out a hand to try to break a fall [After Abraham Colles (17731843), Irish Colles fracture surgeon.] colliculus colliculus /kə likjυləs/ noun one of four small projections (superior colliculi and inferior colliculi) in the midbrain. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is colliculi.) collodion /kə ləυdiən/ noun a liquid used for painting on a clean wound, where it dries to form a flexible covering colloid / kɒlɔid/ noun 1. a mass of tiny particles of one substance dispersed in another substance 2. the particles which are suspended in a colloid solution 3. a thick jelly-like substance which stores hormones, produced in the thyroid gland í | collodion | colloid Nursing.fm Page 60 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM collyrium 60 adjective relating to or resembling a colloid colloid acne collyrium /kə liriəm/ noun a solution used to bathe the eyes (NOTE: The plural is collyria.) colo- /kɒləυ/ prefix referring to the colon coloboma / kɒləυ bəυmə/ noun a condition in which part of the eye, especially part of the iris, is missing colon / kəυlɒn/ noun the main part of the large intestine, running from the caecum at the end of the small intestine to the rectum colonic /kə lɒnik/ adjective referring to the colon colonic irrigation /kə lɒnik iri eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the washing out of the contents of the large intestine using a tube inserted in the anus colonoscope /kə lɒnəskəυp/ noun a surgical instrument for examining the interior of the colon colonoscopy / kɒlə nɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the inside of the colon, using a colonoscope passed through the rectum (NOTE: The plucollyrium | colo- coloboma | colon colonic | colonic irrigation | | colonoscope | colonoscopy | ral is colonoscopies.) colony / kɒləni/ noun a group or culture of colony microorganisms colostomy /kə lɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall to allow faeces to be passed out without going through the rectum (NOTE: The colostomy | plural is colostomies.) colostomy bag /kə lɒstəmi b colostomy bag | / noun a bag attached to the opening made by a colostomy, to collect faeces as they are passed out of the body colostrum /kə lɒstrəm/ noun a fluid rich in antibodies and low in fat, secreted by the mothers breasts at the birth of a baby, before the true milk starts to flow colour blindness / k lə blaindnəs/ noun a condition of being unable to tell the difference between specific colours colour index / k lər indeks/ noun the ratio between the amount of haemoglobin and the number of red blood cells in a specific amount of blood colp- /kɒlp/ prefix same as colpo- (used before colostrum | colour blindness colour index colp- vowels) colpo- colpo- /kɒlpəυ/ prefix referring to the vagina colpocystitis / kɒlpəυsi staitis/ noun inflammation of both the vagina and the urinary bladder colpohysterectomy / kɒlpəυhistə rektəmi/ noun a surgical operation in which the womb is removed through the vagina (NOTE: The plural is colpocystitis | colpohysterectomy | colpohysterectomies.) colpopexy / kɒlpəpeksi/ noun a surgical opercolpopexy ation to fix a prolapsed vagina to the abdominal wall (NOTE: The plural is colpopexies.) colpoplasty / kɒlpəpl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair a damaged vagina (NOTE: The colpoplasty plural is colpoplasties.) colporrhaphy colporrhaphy /kɒl pɒrəfi/ noun a surgical operation to stitch a prolapsed vagina (NOTE: The | plural is colporraphies.) colposcope colposcope / kɒlpəυskəυp/ noun a surgical instrument used to examine the inside of the vagina. Also called vaginoscope colposcopy /kɒl pɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the inside of the vagina (NOTE: The plural colposcopy | is colposcopies.) colposuspension colposuspension / kɒlpəυsə spenʃən/ noun a surgical operation to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles to prevent incontinence colpotomy /kɒl pɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the vagina (NOTE: The plu| colpotomy | ral is colpotomies.) column / kɒləm/ noun ‘ vertebral column coma / kəυmə/ noun a state of unconsciousness column coma from which a person cannot be awakened by external stimuli comatose / kəυmətəυs/ adjective unconscious or in a coma combined therapy /kəm baind θerəpi/ noun the use of two or more treatments at the same time comedo / kɒmidəυ/ noun a small point of dark, hard matter in a sebaceous follicle, often found associated with acne on the skin of adolescents comatose combined therapy | comedo (NOTE: The plural is comedones.) comforter / k mfətə/ noun 1. someone who comforter helps to make another person less anxious or unhappy 2. a babys dummy commando operation /kə mɑ ndəυ ɒpəreiʃ(ə)n/, commando procedure /kə mɑ ndəυ prə si d ə/ noun a major operation to combat cancer of the face and neck. It involves the removal of facial features, which are later rebuilt. commensal /kə mensəl/ noun an animal or plant which lives on another animal or plant but does not harm it in any way. Both may benefit from the association. Candida is a commensal in the mouths of 50% of healthy adults. (NOTE: If commando operation | | | commensal | a commensal causes harm, it is a parasite.) í adjective living on another animal or plant comminuted / kɒminju tid/ adjective refercomminuted ring to a fracture where the bone is broken in several places comminuted fracture / kɒminju tid fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture where the bone is broken in several places Commission for Health Improvement /kə miʃ(ə)n fə helθ im pru vmənt/ in the UK, the independent inspection body for the National Health Service, with the role of helping to raise standards of patient care. It aims to identify where improvement is required and share good practice. Abbreviation CHI commissure / kɒmisjυə/ noun a structure which joins two similar tissues, e.g. a group of nerves which crosses from one part of the central comminuted fracture Commission for Health Improvement | | commissure Nursing.fm Page 61 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 61 nervous system to another. corpus callosum, grey commissure competency community paediatrician community paediatrician /kə mju niti pi diə triʃ(ə)n/ noun a paediatrician serving a local community community pharmacist /kə mju niti fɑ məsist/, retail pharmacist / ri teil fɑ məsist/ noun a person who makes medicines and sells them in a chemists shop community psychiatric nurse /kə mju niti saiki trik/ noun. Also called community mental health nurse. Abbreviation CPN community trust /kə mju niti tr st/ noun an independent non-profit-making body set up to represent an area of public concern compact bone / kɒmp kt bəυn/ noun a type of bone tissue which forms the hard outer layer of a bone. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement compartment /kəm pɑ tmənt/ noun one of the areas into which an enclosed space is divided compatibility /kəm p ti biliti/ noun the ability of two drugs not to interfere with each other when administered together compatible /kəm p tib(ə)l/ adjective able to function together without being rejected The surgeons are trying to find a compatible donor or a donor with a compatible blood group. compensate / kɒmpənseit/ verb 1. to give someone an amount of money or something else to pay for loss or damage 2. (of an organ) to make good the failure of an organ by making another organ, or the undamaged parts of the same organ, function at a higher level The heart has to beat more strongly to compensate for the narrowing of the arteries. 3. to emphasise a particular ability or personality characteristic in order to make the lack of another one seem less bad compensation / kɒmpən seiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. something which makes something else seem less bad or less serious 2. an amount of money or something else given to pay for loss or damage The drugs caused him to develop breathing problems, so he thinks hes entitled to medical compensation. 3. the act of giving money to pay for loss or damage compensation for loss of a limb 4. a situation where the body helps to correct a problem in a particular organ by making another organ, or the undamaged parts of the same organ, function at a higher level 5. behaviour that emphasises a particular ability or personality characteristic in order to make the lack of another one seem less bad competence / kɒmpit(ə)ns/ noun the ability to do something well, measured against a standard, especially ability which you get through experience or training encouraging the development of professional competence in the delivery of care to patients competency / kɒmpit(ə)nsi/ noun a guideline, usually one of several, for the medical treat| | Committee on Safety of Medicines Committee on Safety of Medicines /kə miti ɒn seifti əv med(ə)sinz/ noun the official body which advises the British Government on the safety and quality of medicines commode /kə məυd/ noun a special chair with a removable basin used as a toilet by people with limited mobility common bile duct / kɒmən bail d kt/ noun a duct leading to the duodenum, formed of the hepatic and cystic ducts common carotid artery / kɒmən kə rɒtid ɑ təri/ noun the main artery running up each side of the lower part of the neck. Also called carotid common cold / kɒmən kəυld/ noun same as | commode | common bile duct common carotid artery | common cold cold community pharmacist | community psychiatric nurse | | community trust | compact bone compartment common hepatic duct common hepatic duct / kɒmən hi p tik d kt/ noun a duct from the liver formed when the right and left hepatic ducts join common iliac artery / kɒmən ili k ɑ təri/ noun one of two arteries which branch from the aorta in the abdomen and in turn divide into the internal iliac artery, leading to the pelvis, and the external iliac artery, leading to the leg communicable disease /kə mju nikəb(ə)l di zi z/ noun a disease which can be passed from one person to another or from an animal to a person. contagious disease, infectious disease communicating artery /kə mju nikeitiŋ ɑ təri/ noun one of the arteries which connect the blood supply from each side of the brain, forming part of the circle of Willis community /kə mju niti/ noun a group of people who live and work in a district The health services serve the local community. community care /kə mju niti keə/ noun the providing of help to people such as those who are elderly or mentally ill in order to allow them to stay in their own homes, rather than requiring them to be cared for in hospitals or care homes community health /kə mju niti helθ/ noun the health of a local community, or provision of services for a local community community health council /kə mju niti helθ kaυnsəl/ noun a statutory body of interested people from outside the medical professions charged with putting forward the patients point of view on local health issues. Abbreviation CHC community hospital /kə mju niti hɒspit(ə)l/ noun a hospital serving a local community community midwife /kə mju niti midwaif/ noun a midwife who works in a community as part of a primary health care team community nurse /kə mju niti n s/ noun a nurse who treats people in a local community | common iliac artery communicable disease | | communicating artery | community | community care | community health | community health council | community hospital | community midwife | community nurse | | compatibility | | compatible | compensate compensation | competence competency Nursing.fm Page 62 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM complaint 62 ment that is to be given in particular circumstances complaint /kəm pleint/ noun 1. an expression of dissatisfaction about something or someone The hospital administrator wouldnt listen to the complaints of the consultants. 2. an illness a chest complaint a nervous complaint complement noun / kɒmplimənt/ a substance which forms part of blood plasma and is essential to the work of antibodies and antigens í verb / kɒmpliment/ to complete something by providing useful or pleasing qualities which it does not itself have complementary / kɒmpli ment(ə)ri/ adjective 1. combining with or adding to something else Ultrasound and CT provide complementary information. 2. used in or using complementary medicine complementary therapies 3. referring to genes which are necessary to each other and produce their effect only when they are present together complementary medicine / kɒmpliment(ə)ri med(ə)sin/ noun the forms of alternative medicine which are now accepted by practitioners of conventional Western medicine, e.g. acupuncture and osteopathy complete abortion /kəm pli t ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun an abortion where the whole contents of the uterus are expelled complete blood count /kəm pli t bl d kaυnt/ noun a test to find the exact numbers of each type of blood cell in a sample of blood. Abbreviation CBC complicated fracture / kɒmplikeitid fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture with an associated injury of tissue, as when a bone has punctured an artery complication / kɒmpli keiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a condition in which two or more conditions exist in someone, whether or not they are connected He was admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia with complications. 2. a situation in which someone develops a second condition which changes the course of treatment for the first She appeared to be improving, but complications set in and she died in a few hours. compos mentis / kɒmpɒs mentis/ adjective not affected by a mental disorder (NOTE: The complaint | complement complementary | complementary medicine complete abortion | | complete blood count | complicated fracture complication | compos mentis phrase is from Latin and means of sound mind.) compound fracture compound fracture / kɒmpaυnd fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture where the skin surface is damaged or where the broken bone penetrates the surface of the skin. Also called open fracture compress noun / kɒmpres/ a wad of cloth soaked in hot or cold liquid and applied to the skin to relieve pain or swelling, or to force pus out of an infected wound í verb /kəm pres/ to squeeze or press something compressed air sickness /kəm prest eə siknəs/ noun same as caisson disease compress | compressed air sickness | compression compression /kəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of squeezing or pressing The first-aider applied compression to the chest of the casualty. 2. a serious condition in which the brain is compressed by blood or cerebrospinal fluid accumulating in it or by a fractured skull compression stocking /kəm preʃ(ə)n stɒkiŋ/ noun a strong elastic stocking worn to support a weak joint in the knee or to hold varicose veins tightly compulsion /kəm p lʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. an act of forcing someone to do something, or the fact of being forced to do something You are under no compulsion to treat a violent patient. 2. a strong psychological force which makes someone do something, often unwillingly She felt a sudden compulsion to wash her hands again. compulsive /kəm p lsiv/ adjective referring to a feeling which cannot be stopped She has a compulsive desire to steal. compulsiveobsessive disorder /kəm p lsiv əb sesiv dis ɔ də/ noun same as obses| compression stocking | compulsion | compulsive | compulsiveobsessive disorder | | | sivecompulsive disorder compulsory admission compulsory admission /kəm p lsəri əd miʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of admitting someone who is mentally ill to hospital for treatment whether or not they consent computed tomography /kəm pju tid tə mɒ rəfi/ noun same as computerised axial tomography. Abbreviation CT computerised axial tomography /kəm pju təraizd ksiəl tə mɒ rəfi/ noun a system of examining the body in which a narrow X-ray beam, guided by a computer, photographs a thin section of the body or of an organ from several angles, using the computer to build up an image of the section. Abbreviation CAT. Also called | | computed tomography | | computerised axial tomography | | computed tomography -conazole /kɒnəzəυl/ suffix used in the names -conazole of antifungal drugs fluconazole concave / kɒnkeiv/ adjective curving towards the inside a concave lens concept / kɒnsept/ noun a thought or idea, or something which someone might be able to imagine conception /kən sepʃən/ noun the point at which a woman becomes pregnant and the development of a baby starts conceptual framework /kən septʃuəl freimw k/ noun the theoretical basis on which something is formed conceptus /kən septəs/ noun an embryo or fetus together with all the tissues that surround it during pregnancy (NOTE: The plural is concepconcave concept conception | conceptual framework | conceptus | tuses.) concha concha / kɒŋkə/ noun a part of the body shaped like a shell (NOTE: The plural is conchae.) concordance /kən kɔ d(ə)ns/ noun 1. a state in which two or more things are in the correct or concordance | Nursing.fm Page 63 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 63 expected relationship to each other. For example, the atrioventricular concordance is the relationship between the atria and the ventricles in the heart. 2. the fact of two related people sharing the same genetic characteristic the concordance of schizophrenia in identical twins 3. an agreement between a professional and a patient on a course of treatment, especially related to use of medicines concretion /kən kri ʃ(ə)n/ noun a mass of hard material which forms in the body, e.g. a gallstone or deposits on bone in arthritis concussion /kən k ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of applying force to any part of the body 2. loss of consciousness for a short period, caused by a blow to the head condition /kən diʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the particular state of someone or something in poor condition Her condition is getting worse. The conditions in the hospital are very good. 2. a particuHe is being lar illness, injury or disorder treated for a heart condition. conditioned reflex /kən diʃ(ə)nd ri fleks/ noun an automatic reaction by a person to a stimulus, or an expected reaction to a stimulus which comes from past experience conditioned response /kən diʃ(ə)nd ri spɒns/ noun a response to a stimulus as a result of associating it with an earlier stimulus concretion | concussion | condition | conditioned reflex | conditioned response | | COMMENT: The classic example of a condi- tioned response is Pavlovs experiment with dogs in which they produced saliva, ready to eat their food, when a bell rang, because on previous occasions they had been fed when the bell was rung. condom / kɒndɒm/ noun a rubber sheath worn condom on the penis during intercourse as a contraceptive and also as a protection against sexually transmitted disease conducting system /kən d ktiŋ sistəm/ noun the nerve system in the heart which links an atrium to a ventricle, so that the two beat at the same rate conduction /kən d kʃən/ noun the process of passing heat, sound or nervous impulses from one part of the body to another conductive deafness /kən d ktiv defnəs/, conductive hearing loss /kən d ktiv hiəriŋ lɒs/ noun deafness caused by inadequate conduction of sound into the inner ear conductor /kən d ktə/ noun 1. a substance or object which allows heat, electricity, light or sound to pass along it or through it 2. a tube with a groove in it along which a knife is slid to cut open a sinus condyle / kɒndail/ noun a rounded end of a bone which articulates with another condyloid process / kɒndilɔid prəυses/ noun a projecting part at each end of the lower conducting system | conduction | conductive deafness | | conductor | condyle condyloid process congenital malformation jaw which forms the head of the jaw, joining the jaw to the skull condyloma / kɒndi ləυmə/ noun a growth usually found on the vulva (NOTE: The plural is condyloma | condylomas or condylomata.) cone /kəυn/ noun 1. a shape with a circular base cone or top and a part that tapers to a point, or an object with this shape 2. one of two types of cell in the retina of the eye which is sensitive to light, used especially in the perception of bright light and colour. rod í verb to show a rapid change for the worse in neurological condition due to herniation of the midbrain through the foramen magnum in the skull, caused by raised pressure inside the brain (NOTE: cones coning coned) cone biopsy / kəυn bai ɒpsi/ noun the removing of a cone of tissue from the cervix for examination confabulation /kən f jυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of making up plausible stories to cover up loss of memory confidentiality / kɒnfidenʃi liti/ noun an obligation not to reveal professional information about a person or organisation confounding factor /kən faυndiŋ f ktə/ noun a factor which has an association with both a disease and a risk factor and thus complicates the nature of the relationship between them confused /kən fju zd/ adjective unable to Many severely think clearly or act rationally confused patients do not respond to spoken communication. confusion /kən fju (ə)n/ noun the state of being confused congenital /kən d enit(ə)l/ adjective existing at or before birth congenital aneurysm /kən d enit(ə)l njəriz(ə)m/ noun a weakening of the arteries at the base of the brain, present at birth congenital cataract /kən d enit(ə)l k tər kt/ noun a cataract which is present at birth congenital dislocation of the hip /kən d enit(ə)l dislə keiʃ(ə)n əv ðə hip/ noun a condition in which a person is born with weak ligaments in the hip, so that the femur does not stay in position in the pelvis congenital heart disease /kən d enit(ə)l hɑ t di zi z/, congenital heart defect /kən d enit(ə)l hɑ t di fekt/ noun a heart condition existing at birth congenital hyperthyroidism /kən d enit(ə)l haipə θairɔidiz(ə)m/ noun a disease caused by a malfunction of the thyroid before birth or in early life congenital malformation /kən d enit(ə)l m lfɔ meiʃ(ə)n/ noun a malformation which is present at birth, e.g. a cleft palate cone biopsy | confabulation | | confidentiality | confounding factor | confused | confusion | congenital | congenital aneurysm | congenital cataract | congenital dislocation of the hip | | congenital heart disease | | | congenital hyperthyroidism | | congenital malformation | | Nursing.fm Page 64 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM congenital syphilis 64 congenital syphilis congenital syphilis /kən d enit(ə)l sifilis/ noun syphilis which is passed on from a mother | to her unborn child congenital toxoplasmosis /kən d enit(ə)l tɒksəυpl z məυsis/ noun a condition in which a baby has been infected with toxoplasmosis by its mother while still in the uterus congestion /kən d estʃən/ noun an accumulation of blood in an organ. nasal congestion congestive /kən d estiv/ adjective referring to congestion conisation / kɒnai zeiʃ(ə)n/, conization noun the surgical removal of a cone-shaped piece of tissue conjoined twins /kən d ɔind twinz/ plural noun twins who are joined together at birth. Also called Siamese twins congenital toxoplasmosis | | congestion | congestive | conisation | conjoined twins | COMMENT: Conjoined twins are always identical and can be joined at the head, chest or hip. In some cases they can be separated by surgery, but this is not possible if they share a single important organ such as the heart. conjugate / kɒnd υ eit/, conjugate diameter / kɒnd υ ət dai mitə/ noun a measureconjugate | ment of space in a womans pelvis, used to calculate if it is large enough for a child to be delivered conjunctiva / kɒnd ŋk taivə/ noun a membrane which covers the front of the eyeball and the inside of the eyelids. See illustration at EYE in conjunctiva | Supplement (NOTE: The plural is conjunctivas or conjunctivae.) conjunctival / kɒnd ŋk taiv(ə)l/ adjective conjunctival | referring to the conjunctiva conjunctivitis /kən d ŋkti vaitis/ noun inflammation of the conjunctiva from a range of causes connective tissue /kə nektiv tiʃu / noun tissue which forms the main part of bones and cartilage, ligaments and tendons, in which a large proportion of fibrous material surrounds the tissue cells Conns syndrome / kɒnz sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which excessive production of the hormone aldosterone causes fluid retention and high blood pressure consanguinity / kɒns ŋ winiti/ noun a blood relationship between people conscious / kɒnʃəs/ adjective 1. awake and aware of what is happening He became conscious in the recovery room two hours after the a conoperation. 2. deliberate and intended scious choice -conscious /kɒnʃəs/ suffix giving importance to health-conscious safety-conscious consciousness / kɒnʃəsnəs/ noun the state of being mentally alert and knowing what is happening consensus management /kən sensəs m nid mənt/ noun a form of management conjunctivitis | | connective tissue | Conns syndrome consanguinity | conscious -conscious consciousness consensus management | which aims to get everyone to agree on what actions should be taken consent /kən sent/ noun agreement to allow The parents gave someone to do something their consent for their sons heart to be used in the transplant operation. consent form /kən sent fɔ m/ noun a form which a patient signs to show that he or she agrees to have a particular operation conservative treatment /kən s vətiv tri tmənt/ noun medical or surgical treatment which is limited to conventional measures rather than more extreme or risky procedures Symptoms usually resolve with conservative treatment. consolidation /kən sɒli deiʃ(ə)n/ noun a stage in mending a broken bone in which the callus formed at the break changes into bone constipation / kɒnsti peiʃ(ə)n/ noun difficulty in passing faeces constrictive pericarditis /kən striktiv perikɑ daitis/ noun same as chronic pericarconsent | consent form | conservative treatment | consolidation | | constipation | constrictive pericarditis | | ditis constrictor constrictor /kən striktə/ noun a muscle which squeezes an organ or which makes an organ contract consultant /kən s ltənt/ noun 1. a doctor who is a senior spet in a particular branch of medicine and who is consulted by GPs She was referred to a consultant at the orthopaedic hospital. 2. a senior speed doctor in a hospital consumption /kən s mpʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of taking food or liquid into the body the patients increased consumption of alcohol 2. a former name for pulmonary tuberculosis contact dermatitis / kɒnt kt d mə taitis/ noun inflammation of the skin caused by touch, e.g. by touching some types of plant, soap or chemical. Also called irritant dermatitis contact lens / kɒnt kt lenz/ noun a tiny plastic lens which fits over the eyeball and is worn instead of spectacles to improve eyesight contact tracing / kɒnt kt treisiŋ/ noun the process of tracing people with whom someone with an infectious disease has been in contact contagious /kən teid əs/ adjective able to be transmitted by touching an infected person or objects which an infected person has touched contagious disease /kən teid əs di zi z/ noun a disease which can be transmitted by touching an infected person or objects which an infected person has touched. communicable | consultant | consumption | contact dermatitis | contact lens contact tracing contagious | contagious disease | | disease, infectious disease containment containment /kən teinmənt/ noun 1. action taken to restrict the spread of something undesirable or dangerous such as a disease government policy of containment of the SARS virus 2. the eradication of a global disease such as smallpox by removing it region by region | Nursing.fm Page 65 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 65 contaminate contaminate /kən t mineit/ verb 1. to make something impure by touching it or by adding something to it Supplies of drinking water were contaminated by refuse from the factories. The whole group of tourists fell ill after eating contaminated food. 2. to spread infection to someone or something continence / kɒntinəns/ noun 1. the ability to control the discharge of urine and faeces 2. selfrestraint continent / kɒntinənt/ adjective able to exercise control over the discharge of urine and faeces continuing education /kən tinjuiŋ edjυ keiʃ(ə)n/ noun regular courses or training designed to bring professional people up to date with the latest developments in their particular field continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis /kən tinjuəs mbjυlət(ə)ri peritə ni əl dai ləsis/ noun a method of dialysis of people while they are walking about. Abbreviation | continence continent continuing education | | continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis | | | CAPD continuous positive airways pressure continuous positive airways pressure /kən tinjuəs pɒzitiv eəweiz preʃə/ noun a method used in intensive care which forces air into the lungs of someone with lung collapse. Abbreviation CPAP contra- /kɒntrə/ prefix against, opposite, contrasting contraception / kɒntrə sepʃən/ noun the prevention of pregnancy, e.g. by using devices such as a condom or an IUD, or drugs in the form of contraceptive pills or injections at regular intervals. Also called birth control contraceptive / kɒntrə septiv/ adjective preventing conception a contraceptive device or drug í noun a drug or device which prevents pregnancy contraceptive sheath / kɒntrə septiv ʃi θ/ noun same as condom contraceptive sponge / kɒntrə septiv sp nd / noun a piece of synthetic sponge impregnated with spermicide, which is inserted into the vagina before intercourse contractibility / kɒntr ktibiliti/ noun the capacity to contract contraction /kən tr kʃən/ noun 1. the act of making something smaller or of becoming smaller the contraction of dental services 2. a tightening movement which makes a muscle shorter, which makes the pupil of the eye smaller or which makes the skin wrinkle contracture /kən tr ktʃə/ noun a permanent tightening of a muscle caused by fibrosis contraindication / kɒntrəindi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun something which suggests that someone should not be treated with a specific drug or not continue with a specific treatment because circumstances make that treatment unsuitable | contra- contraception | contraceptive | contraceptive sheath | contraceptive sponge | contractibility contraction | contracture | contraindication | convex contralateral contralateral / kɒntrə l tərəl/ adjective located on or affecting the opposite side of the body. Opposite ipsilateral contrast medium / kɒntrɑ st mi diəm/ noun a radio-opaque dye, or sometimes gas, put into an organ or part of the body so that it will show clearly in an X-ray photograph In an MRI scan no contrast medium is required; in a CAT scan iodine-based contrast media are often required. contrecoup / kɒntrəku / noun an injury to one point of an organ such as the brain, caused by a blow received on an opposite point of the organ control /kən trəυl/ verb 1. to have the ability or authority to direct someone or something Sometimes we need help to control people who think they have waited too long. 2. to limit or restrain something administered drugs to control the pain í noun 1. the ability or authority to control something After her stroke she had no control over her left arm. The administrators are in control of the admissions policy. 2. a person or group whose test data are used as a comparison in a study 3. a comparison in a study controlled drug /kən trəυld dr / noun a drug which is not freely available, which is restricted by law and classified as A, B, or C and of which possession may be an offence. Also called controlled substance controlled substance /kən trəυld s bstəns/ noun same as controlled drug controlled trial /kən trəυld traiəl/ noun a trial in which members of one group are treated with a test substance and those of another group are treated with a placebo as a control controls assurance /kən trəυlz ə ʃυərəns/ noun a process designed to provide evidence that NHS organisations are doing their best to manage themselves both in order to meet their objectives and to protect patients, staff and the public against risks of all kinds contused wound /kən tju zd wu nd/ noun a wound caused by a blow where the skin is bruised as well as torn and bleeding contusion /kən tju (ə)n/ noun same as | contrast medium contrecoup control | controlled drug | controlled substance | controlled trial | controls assurance | | contused wound | contusion | bruise convalescence convalescence / kɒnvə les(ə)ns/ noun a period of time when someone is convalescing convergent strabismus /kən v d ənt strə bizməs/, convergent squint /kən v d ənt skwint/ noun a condition in which one or both of a persons eyes look towards the nose. Also called cross eye conversion /kən v ʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of changing one thing into another the conversion of nutrients into tissue convex / kɒnveks/ adjective curving towards the outside a convex lens | convergent strabismus | | | conversion | convex Nursing.fm Page 66 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM convoluted 66 convoluted convoluted / kɒnvəlu tid/ adjective folded and twisted convolution / kɒnvə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a twisted shape the convolutions of the surface of the cerebrum convulsion /kən v lʃən/ noun the rapid involuntary contracting and relaxing of the muscles in several parts of the body The child had convulsions. fit (NOTE: Often used in the plural.) Cooleys anaemia / ku liz ə ni miə/ noun same as thalassaemia [Described 1927. After convolution | convulsion | Cooleys anaemia | Thomas Benton Cooley (18711945), Professor of Paediatrics at Wayne College of Medicine, Detroit, USA.] Coombs test / ku mz test/ noun a test for Coombs test antibodies in red blood cells, used as a test for erythroblastosis fetalis and other haemolytic syndromes [Described 1945. After Robin Royston Amos Coombs (19212006), Quick Professor of Biology, and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, UK] coordination /kəυ ɔ di neiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the coordination | | combining of two or more things as an effective unit, or the way things combine effectively requires coordination between nursing staff and doctors 2. the ability to use two or more parts of the body at the same time to carry out a movement or task The patient showed lack of coordination between eyes and hands. COPD abbreviation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease coping mechanism / kəυpiŋ mekəniz(ə)m/ noun a method of dealing with situations which cause psychological stress copper / kɒpə/ noun a metallic trace element COPD coping mechanism copper (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Cu.) copr- /kɒpr/ prefix faeces coprolith / kɒprəliθ/ noun a lump of hard faecopr- coprolith ces in the bowel cor /kɔ / noun the heart coraco-acromial / kɒrəkəυ ə krəυmiəl/ adjective referring to the coracoid process and the acromion coracoid process / kɒrəkɔid prəυses/ noun a projecting part on the shoulder blade cord /kɔ d/ noun a long flexible structure in the body like a thread cordectomy /kɔ dektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a vocal cord (NOTE: The plucor coraco-acromial | coracoid process cord cordectomy | ral is cordectomies.) cordotomy /kɔ dɒtəmi/ noun another spelling of chordotomy corium / kɔ riəm/ noun same as dermis corn /kɔ n/ noun a hard painful lump of skin cordotomy | corium corn usually on a foot, where something such as a tight shoe has rubbed or pressed on the skin. Also called heloma cornea cornea / kɔ niə/ noun a transparent part of the front of the eyeball. See illustration at EYE in Sup- plement (NOTE: The plural is corneae. For other terms referring to the cornea, see words beginning with kerat-, kerato-.) corneal / kɔ niəl/ adjective relating to a cornea corneal graft / kɔ niəl rɑ ft/ noun 1. a surcorneal corneal graft gical operation to graft corneal tissue from a donor or from a dead person to replace diseased tissue. Also called corneal transplant, keratoplasty 2. a piece of corneal tissue used in a graft corneal reflex / kɔ niəl ri fleks/ noun a reflex from touching or hitting the cornea which makes the eyelid close corneal transplant / kɔ niəl tr nsplɑ nt/ noun same as corneal graft cornification / kɔ nifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as corneal reflex corneal transplant cornification | keratinisation cornu / kɔ nju / noun a structure in the body cornu which is shaped like a horn corona /kə rəυnə/ noun a structure in the body which is shaped like a crown coronal / kɒrən(ə)l, kə rəυn(ə)l/ adjective referring to a corona coronal plane / kɒrən(ə)l plein/ noun a plane at right angles to the median plane, dividing the body into dorsal and ventral halves. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement coronal suture / kɒrən(ə)l su tʃə/ noun a horizontal joint across the top of the skull between the parietal and frontal bones coronary / kɒrən(ə)ri/ noun same as coronary thrombosis (informal ) í adjective referring to any structure shaped like a crown, but especially to the arteries which supply blood to the heart muscles coronary artery / kɒrən(ə)ri ɑ təri/ noun one of the two arteries which supply blood to the heart muscles coronary artery bypass graft / kɒrən(ə)ri ɑ təri baipɑ s rɑ ft/, coronary artery bypass / kɒrən(ə)ri ɑ təri baipɑ s/ noun a surgical operation to treat angina by grafting pieces of vein around the diseased part of a coronary artery coronary care unit / kɒrən(ə)ri keə ju nit/ noun the section of a hospital caring for people who have heart disorders or who have had heart surgery. Abbreviation CCU coronary heart disease / kɒrən(ə)ri hɑ t di zi z/ noun any disease affecting the coronary arteries, which can lead to strain on the heart or a heart attack. Abbreviation CHD coronary sinus / kɒrən(ə)ri sainəs/ noun a vein which takes most of the venous blood from the heart muscles to the right atrium coronary thrombosis / kɒrən(ə)ri θrɒm bəυsis/ noun a blood clot which blocks the corcorona | coronal | coronal plane coronal suture coronary coronary artery coronary artery bypass graft coronary care unit coronary heart disease | coronary sinus coronary thrombosis | Nursing.fm Page 67 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 67 onary arteries, leading to a heart attack. Also called coronary coronavirus /kə rəυnə vairəs/ noun a type of virus which has been identified in people who have the common cold coroner / kɒrənə/ noun a public official, either a doctor or a lawyer, who investigates sudden or violent deaths coronoid process / kɒrənɔid prəυses/ noun a projecting piece of bone on the ulna corpora plural of corpus corpse /kɔ ps/ noun the body of a dead person corpus / kɔ pəs/ noun any mass of tissue coronavirus | | coroner coronoid process corpora corpse corpus (NOTE: The plural is corpora.) corpus callosum corpus callosum / kɔ pəs kə ləυsəm/ noun the thick band of nerve fibres that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and allows them to communicate. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is corpora callosa.) corpus cavernosum / kɔ pəs k və nəυsəm/ noun a part of the erectile tissue in the penis and clitoris. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement (NOTE: The plural | corpus cavernosum | is corpora cavernosa.) counselling corticospinal corticospinal / kɔ tikəυ spain(ə)l/ adjective referring to both the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord corticosteroid / kɔ tikəυ stiərɔid/ noun 1. any steroid hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands 2. a drug which reduces inflammation, used in asthma, gastro-intestinal disease and in adrenocortical insufficiency corticotrophin / kɔ tikəυ trəυfin/ noun same as adrenocorticotrophic hormone cortisol / kɔ tisɒl/ noun same as hydrocorti| corticosteroid | corticotrophin | cortisol sone cortisone cortisone / kɔ tizəυn/ noun a hormone secreted in small quantities by the adrenal cortex The doctor gave her a cortisone injection in the ankle. Corynebacterium /kəυ rainib k tiəriəm/ noun a genus of bacteria which includes the bacterium which causes diphtheria coryza /kə raizə/ noun an illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which someone sneezes and coughs and has a blocked and running nose (technical ) Also called cold, common Corynebacterium | coryza | cold cosmetic surgery cosmetic surgery /kɒz metik s d əri/ noun a surgical operation to improve a persons | corpuscle corpuscle / kɔ p s(ə)l/ noun 1. a small round mass 2. a cell in blood or lymph corpus luteum / kɔ pəs lu tiəm/ noun a body which forms in each ovary after a Graafian follicle has ruptured. The corpus luteum secretes the hormone progesterone to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilised ovum. (NOTE: The corpus luteum appearance cost- /kɒst/ prefix same as costo- (used before cost- vowels) costal costal / kɒst(ə)l/ adjective referring to the ribs costive / kɒstiv/ noun a drug which causes constipation costo- /kɒstəυ/ prefix referring to the ribs cot death / kɒt deθ/ noun ‘ sudden infant costive costo- plural is corpora lutea.) corpus spongiosum corpus spongiosum / kɔ pəs sp n i əυsəm/ noun the part of the penis round the urethra, forming the glans. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement (NOTE: | The plural is corpora spongiosa.) cot death death syndrome co-trimoxazole co-trimoxazole / kəυ trai mɒksəzəυl/ noun a drug used to combat bacteria in the urinary tract cotyledon / kɒti li d(ə)n/ noun one of the divisions of a placenta cotyloid cavity / kɒtilɔid k viti/ noun same as acetabulum couching / kaυtʃiŋ/ noun a surgical operation to displace the opaque lens of an eye as a treatment for cataracts cough /kɒf/ noun a reflex action, caused by irritation in the throat, when the glottis is opened and air is sent out of the lungs suddenly í an infection that causes coughing She has a bad cough and cannot make the speech. í verb to send air out of the lungs suddenly because the throat is irritated The smoke made him cough. She has a cold and keeps on coughing and sneezing. cough medicine / kɒf med(ə)sin/, cough linctus / kɒf liŋktəs/, cough mixture / kɒf mikstʃə/ noun a liquid taken to soothe the irritation which causes a cough counselling / kaυnsəliŋ/ noun a method of treating especially psychiatric disorders in which | cotyledon | corrective corrective /kə rektiv/ adjective intended to correct an irregularity or problem corrective lenses í noun a drug which changes the harmful effect of another drug Corrigans pulse / kɒri ənz p ls/ noun a condition occurring in the arterial pulse in the neck in which there is a visible rise in pressure followed by a sudden collapse, caused by aortic regurgitation. Also called water-hammer pulse corrugator muscle / kɒrə eitə m s(ə)l/ noun one of the muscles which produce vertical wrinkles on the forehead when someone frowns cortex / kɔ teks/ noun the outer layer of an organ, as opposed to the soft inner medulla | Corrigans pulse corrugator muscle cortex (NOTE: The plural is cortices or cortexes.) Corti Corti / kɔ ti/ ‘ organ of Corti cortical mastoidectomy / kɔ tik(ə)l m stɔi dektəmi/ noun same as atticotomy cortices plural of cortex cortical mastoidectomy | cortices | cotyloid cavity couching cough cough medicine counselling Nursing.fm Page 68 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM counterextension 68 a spet talks with a person about his or her condition and how to deal with it counterextension / kaυntərik stenʃən/ noun an orthopaedic treatment in which the upper part of a limb is kept fixed and traction is applied to the lower part of it counterirritant / kaυntər irit(ə)nt/ noun a substance which alleviates the pain in an internal organ by irritating an area of skin whose sensory nerves are close to those of the organ in the spinal cord coupling / k pliŋ/ noun 1. an act of joining together or linking two people, things or processes 2. something which joins two things, especially a device for connecting two pieces of pipe, hose or tube couvade /ku vɑ d/ noun an act of copying the actions of having a baby while a woman is actually giving birth, done by the father in some Native South American societies Cowpers glands / ku pəz l ndz/ plural noun two glands at the base of the penis which secrete into the urethra. Also called bulbourecounterextension | counterirritant | coupling couvade | Cowpers glands thral glands [Described 1700. After William Cowper (16661709), English surgeon.] cowpox / kaυpɒks/ noun an infectious viral cowpox disease of cattle which can be transmitted to humans. It was used as a constituent of the first vaccines for smallpox. cox- /kɒks/ prefix the hip joint coxa / kɒksə/ noun the hip joint (NOTE: The plucox- coxa ral is coxae.) coxalgia coxalgia /kɒk s ld ə/ noun pain in the hip joint coxa vara / kɒksə veərə/ noun an unusual development of the hip bone, making the legs bow Coxsackie virus /kɒk s ki vairəs/ noun one of a group of enteroviruses which enter the cells of the intestines and can cause diseases such as aseptic meningitis and Bornholm disease [After | coxa vara Coxsackie virus | Coxsackie, New York, where the virus was first identified.] CPAP abbreviation continuous positive airways CPAP pressure CPN abbreviation community psychiatric nurse CPR abbreviation cardiopulmonary resuscitation crab /kr b/, crab louse / kr b laυs/ noun a louse, Phthirius pubis, which infests the pubic region and other parts of the body with coarse hair. Also called pubic louse crack /kr k/ noun a thin break Theres a crack in one of the bones in the skull. í verb to make a thin break in something, or become split She cracked a bone in her leg. cradle / kreid(ə)l/ noun a metal frame put over a person in bed to keep the weight of the bedclothes off the body í verb to carry a child with CPN CPR crab crack cradle one arm under the thigh and the other under the upper back cradle cap / kreid(ə)l k p/ noun a yellow deposit on the scalp of babies, caused by seborrhoea cramp /kr mp/ noun a painful involuntary spasm in the muscles, in which the muscle may stay contracted for some time crani- /kreini/ prefix same as cranio- (used cradle cap cramp crani- before vowels) crania crania plural of cranium cranial / kreiniəl/ adjective referring to the skull cranio- /kreiniəυ/ prefix the skull craniometry / kreini ɒmitri/ noun the process of measuring skulls to find differences in size and shape craniopharyngioma / kreiniəυfə rind i əυmə/ noun a tumour in the brain originating in the hypophyseal duct (NOTE: The plural is cranicranial cranio- craniometry | craniopharyngioma | | opharyngiomas or craniopharyngiomata.) craniostenosis / kreiniəυste nəυsis/, craniosynostosis / kreiniəυ sinəυ stəυsis/ noun craniostenosis | | | the early closing of the bones in a babys skull, so making the skull contract craniotabes / kreiniəυ teibi z/ noun thinness of the bones in the occipital region of a childs skull, caused by rickets, marasmus or syphilis craniotomy / kreini ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation on the skull, especially one cutting away part of the skull (NOTE: The plural is cranicraniotabes | craniotomy | otomies.) cranium cranium / kreiniəm/ noun same as skull (NOTE: The plural is craniums or crania.) CRB check CRB check / si ɑ bi tʃek/ noun a check with the Criminal Records Bureau to establish whether a candidate has any convictions that disallow him or her from working with children or other vulnerable members of society. Also called disclosure check creatine creatine / kri iti n/ noun a compound of nitrogen found in the muscles, produced by protein metabolism and excreted as creatinine creatinine /kri təni n/ noun a substance which is the form in which creatine is excreted creatinuria /kri ti njυəriə/ noun excess creatine in the urine creatorrhoea / kri ətə ri ə/ noun the presence of undigested muscle fibre in the faeces, occurring in some pancreatic diseases Credés method /kre deiz meθəd/ noun 1. a method of extracting a placenta by massaging the uterus through the abdomen 2. the putting of silver nitrate solution into the eyes of a baby born to a mother who has gonorrhoea, in order to prevent gonococcal conjunctivitis [Described 1860. After creatinine | creatinuria | | creatorrhoea | Credés method | Karl Sigmund Franz Credé (181992), German gynaecologist.] Nursing.fm Page 69 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 69 creeping eruption crura intestinal tract, characterised by thickening and scarring of the intestinal wall and obstruction creeping eruption / kri piŋ i r pʃən/ noun an itching skin complaint, caused by larvae of various parasites which creep under the skin crepitation / krepi teiʃ(ə)n/ noun an unusual soft crackling sound heard in the lungs through a stethoscope. Also called rale crepitus / krepitəs/ noun a harsh crackling sound heard through a stethoscope in a person with inflammation of the lungs crest /krest/ noun a long raised part on a bone crest of ilium / krest əv iliəm/ noun same as [Described 1932. After Burrill Bernard Crohn (18841983), New York physician.] COMMENT: No certain cause has been found for Crohns disease, where only one section of the intestine becomes inflamed and can be blocked. cromolyn sodium / krəυməlin səυdiəm/ noun a drug that helps to prevent the release of iliac crest cross-dresser | crepitation | crepitus crest crest of ilium Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease / krɔitsfelt j kɒb di zi z/ noun a disease of the nervous system caused by a slow-acting prion which eventually affects the brain. It may be linked to BSE in cows. Abbreviation CJD. variant CJD | [Described 1920 by H.G. Creutzfeldt (1885 1964); 1921 by A.M. Jakob (18841931), German psychiatrists] cribriform / kribrifɔ m/ adjective having small cribriform holes like a sieve cribriform plate / kribrifɔ m pleit/ noun the top part of the ethmoid bone which forms the roof of the nasal cavity and part of the roof of the eye sockets cricoid / kraikɔid/ adjective relating to the lowest part of the cartilage of the larynx cricoid cartilage / kraikɔid kɑ təlid / noun ring-shaped cartilage in the lower part of the larynx. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement cri-du-chat syndrome / kri dju ʃɑ sindrəυm/ noun a congenital condition, caused by loss of part of chromosome 5, which is characterised in babies by a cry suggestive of that of a cat Crigler-Najjar syndrome / kri lə n d ɑ sindrəυm/ noun a genetically controlled condition in which bilirubin cannot be formed, leading to jaundice or even brain damage crista / kristə/ noun 1. a ridge, e.g. the border of a bone 2. a fold in the inner membrane of a mitrochondrion (NOTE: The plural is cristae.) crista galli / kristə lai/ noun a projection from the ethmoid bone criterion /krai tiəriən/ noun an accepted standard used in making a decision or judgment about something (NOTE: The plural is criteria.) critical care / kritik(ə)l keə/ noun spet nursing and medical treatment given to patients who are critically ill critical list / kritik(ə)l list/ noun the list of patients in a hospital whose condition is medically life-threatening CRNA abbreviation certified registered nurse anaesthetist Crohns disease / krəυnz di zi z/ noun a persistent inflammatory disease, usually of the lower cribriform plate cricoid cricoid cartilage cri-du-chat syndrome Crigler-Najjar syndrome crista crista galli criterion | critical care critical list CRNA Crohns disease | cromolyn sodium histamine and other substances which cause many of the symptoms of asthma and hay fever cross-dresser / krɒs dresə/ noun someone who wears clothes usually worn by people of the opposite sex, e.g. a transvestite cross-dressing / krɒs dresiŋ/ noun the practice of wearing clothes usually worn by people of the opposite sex, e.g. by transvestites cross-infection / krɒs in fekʃən/ noun an infection passed from one patient to another in hospital, either directly or from nurses, visitors or equipment crossmatch /krɒs m tʃ/ verb (in transplant surgery) to match a donor to a recipient as closely blood as possible to avoid tissue rejection. cross-dressing cross-infection | crossmatch | group crossmatching crossmatching /krɒs m tʃiŋ/ noun the process of matching a transplant donor to a recipient as closely as possible to avoid tissue rejection cross-resistance / krɒs ri zistəns/ noun the development by a disease agent of resistance to a number of similar drugs or chemicals of the same class crotamiton /krə t mit(ə)n/ noun a chemical that kills mites, used to treat scabies crotch /krɒtʃ/ noun the point where the legs meet the body, where the genitals are. Also called | cross-resistance | crotamiton | crotch crutch croup croup /kru p/ noun acute infection of the upper respiratory passages which blocks the larynx, affecting children crown /kraυn/ noun the top part of a tooth above the level of the gums í verb to put an artificial crown on a tooth crowning / kraυniŋ/ noun 1. the act of putting an artificial crown on a tooth 2. a stage in childbirth in which the top of the babys head becomes visible cruciate / kru ʃiət/ adjective shaped like a cross cruciate ligament / kru ʃiət li əmənt/ noun any ligament shaped like a cross, especially either of two ligaments behind the knee which prevent the knee from bending forwards crude death rate / kru d deθ reit/ noun the number of deaths in a year, divided by the total population crura plural of crus crown crowning cruciate cruciate ligament crude death rate crura Nursing.fm Page 70 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM crural 70 crural crural / krυərəl/ adjective referring to the thigh, leg or shin crura of the diaphragm / krυərə əv ðə daiəfrə m/ plural noun the long muscle fibres joining the diaphragm to the lumbar vertebrae crus /kr s/ noun a long projecting part (NOTE: crura of the diaphragm crus The plural is crura.) crus cerebri / kr s seribrai/ noun each of the crus cerebri nerve tracts between the cerebrum and the medulla oblongata (NOTE: The plural is crura cryptosporidia cryptosporidia / kriptəυspə ridiə/ plural of | cryptosporidium cryptosporidiosis cryptosporidiosis / kriptəυspə ridi əυsis/ noun an infectious condition of humans and domestic animals, spread by an intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Its symptoms are fever, diarrhoea and stomach cramps. cryptosporidium / kriptəυspə ridiəm/ noun a parasite which contaminates drinking water supplies, causing intestinal infection (NOTE: The | | cryptosporidium | plural is cryptosporidia.) cerebri.) crypts of Lieberkühn crush fracture crush fracture / kr ʃ fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture by compression of the bone crush syndrome / kr ʃ sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which a limb has been crushed, as in an accident, causing kidney failure and shock crutch /kr tʃ/ noun 1. a strong support for someone with an injured leg, formed of a stick with a T-bar which fits under the armpit, especially formerly, or a holding bar and elbow clasp 2. same as crotch cry- /krai/ prefix same as cryo- (used before crush syndrome crutch cry- vowels) cryaesthesia cryaesthesia / kraii s θi ziə/ noun the fact of being sensitive to cold cryo- /kraiəυ/ prefix cold cryobank / kraiəυb ŋk/ noun a place where biological material such as semen and body tissue can be stored at extremely low temperatures cryoprecipitate / kraiəυpri sipitət/ noun a precipitate such as from blood plasma, which separates out on freezing and thawing cryoprobe / kraiəυprəυb/ noun an instrument used in cryosurgery with a tip that is kept very cold to destroy tissue cryosurgery / kraiəυ s d əri/ noun surgery which uses extremely cold instruments to destroy tissue cryotherapy / kraiəυ θerəpi/ noun treatment using extreme cold, as in removing a wart with dry ice crypt /kript/ noun a small cavity in the body crypto- /kriptəυ/ prefix hidden cryptococcal meningitis / kriptəkɒk(ə)l menin d aitis/ noun a form of meningitis that is a feature of cryptococcosis cryptococcosis / kriptəυkə kəυsis/ noun an infection mainly affecting the brain or nervous system, caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most often in people with HIV infection. cryptomenorrhoea / kriptəυmenə ri ə/ noun the retention of menstrual flow, usually caused by an obstruction cryptorchidism /krip tɔ kidiz(ə)m/, cryptorchism /krip tɔ kiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in a young male in which the testicles do not move down into the scrotum | cryo- cryobank cryoprecipitate | cryoprobe cryosurgery | cryotherapy | crypt crypto- cryptococcal meningitis | cryptococcosis | cryptomenorrhoea | cryptorchidism | | crypts of Lieberkühn / kripts əv li bəku n/ plural noun tubular glands found in the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine, especially those between the bases of the villi in the small intestine. Also called Lieberkühns glands [Described 1745. After Johann Nathaniel Lieberkuhn (171156), Berlin anatomist and physician.] CSF abbreviation cerebrospinal fluid CT abbreviation computed tomography CT scan / si ti sk n/ noun a computer picCSF CT CT scan ture of a slice of the body or an organ produced by a CT scanner. Also called CAT scan cubital / kju bit(ə)l/ adjective referring to the ulna cubitus / kju bitəs/ noun same as ulna cuboid / kju bɔid/, cuboid bone / kju bɔid bəυn/ noun one of the tarsal bones in the foot. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement cuff /k f/ noun an inflatable ring put round the arm and inflated when blood pressure is being measured cuirass respirator /kwi r s respireitə/ noun a type of artificial respirator which surrounds only the chest culdoscope / k ldəυskəυp/ noun an instrument used to inspect the interior of a womans pelvis, introduced through the vagina culdoscopy /k l dɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the interior of a womans pelvis using a culdoscope culture / k ltʃə/ noun 1. the shared values and behaviour of a group 2. microoorganisms or tissues grown in a culture medium in a laboratory í verb to grow microorganisms or tissues in a culture medium cumulative / kju mjυlətiv/ adjective growing by adding cuneiform / kju nifɔ m bəυnz/, cuneiform bone / kju nifɔ mz/ noun one of the three tarsal bones in the foot. See illustration at FOOT in Supcubital cubitus cuboid cuff cuirass respirator | culdoscope culdoscopy | culture cumulative cuneiform plement cupola / kju pələ/ noun a dome-shaped struccupola ture curare /kjυ rɑ ri/ noun a drug derived from South American plants, antagonist to acetylcholine and used surgically to paralyse muscles durcurare | Nursing.fm Page 71 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 71 ing operations without causing unconsciousness (NOTE: Curare is the poison used to make poison arrows.) curettage curettage /kjυə retid / noun the procedure of scraping the inside of a hollow organ, often the uterus, to remove a growth or tissue for examination. Also called curettement curette /kjυə ret/ noun a surgical instrument like a long thin spoon, used for scraping the inside of an organ í verb to scrape an organ with a curette (NOTE: curettes curetting curetted.) curettement /kjυə retmənt/ same as curet| curette | curettement | tage cutis anserina CVA cyan- before vowels) cyanide cyanide / saiənaid/ noun a poison which kills very rapidly when drunk or inhaled cyano- /saiənəυ/ prefix blue cyanocobalamin / saiənəυkəυ b ləmin/ same as Vitamin B12 cyanosed / saiənəυst/ adjective with blue skin The patient was cyanosed round the lips. cyanosis / saiə nəυsis/ noun a condition characterised by a blue colour of the peripheral skin and mucous membranes, a symptom of lack of oxygen in the blood, e.g. in heart or lung disease cyanotic / saiə nɒtik/ adjective referring to or having cyanosis cycle / saik(ə)l/ noun a series of events which recur regularly cyclic / siklik, saiklik/ adjective 1. occurring or repeated in cycles 2. referring to organic compounds composed of a closed ring of atoms cyclical / siklik(ə)l/ adjective referring to cycles -cycline /saiklin/ suffix used in names of antibiotics cyclitis /si klaitis/ noun inflammation of the ciliary body in the eye cyclo- /saikləυ/ prefix cycles cyclodialysis / saikləυdai ləsis/ noun a surgical operation to connect the anterior chamber of the eye and the choroid, as a treatment of glaucoma cyclopentolate / saikləυ pentəleit/ noun a drug used to paralyse the ciliary muscle cyclophosphamide / saikləυ fɒsfəmaid/ noun a drug which suppresses immunity, used in the treatment of leukaemia, lymphoma, Hodgkins disease and tumours cycloplegia / saikləυ pli d ə/ noun paralysis of the ciliary muscle which makes it impossible for the eye to focus properly cyclopropane / saikləυ prəυpein/ noun a flammable hydrocarbon gas used as a general anaesthetic and in organic synthesis cyclothymia / saikləυ θaimiə/ noun a mild form of bipolar disorder in which the person experiences alternating depression and excitement cyclotomy /sai klɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the ciliary body (NOTE: The cyano- | curie / kjυəri/ noun a former unit of measurement of radioactivity, replaced by the becquerel. Symbol Ci Curlings ulcer / k liŋz lsə/ noun an ulcer of the duodenum following severe injury to the body curvature / k vətʃə/ noun the way in which something bends from a straight line greater or lesser curvature of the stomach cushingoid / kυʃiŋɔid/ adjective showing symptoms of Cushings disease Cushings disease / kυʃiŋz di zi z/, Cushings syndrome / kυʃiŋz sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which the adrenal cortex produces too many corticosteroids [Described 1932. After Curlings ulcer curvature cushingoid Cushings disease | Harvey Williams Cushing (18691939), surgeon, Boston, USA.] cusp cusp /k sp/ noun 1. the pointed tip of a tooth 2. a flap of membrane forming a valve in the heart cuspid / k spid/ noun same as canine cut /k t/ noun 1. a reduction in the number or amount of something 2. a place where the skin has been penetrated by a sharp instrument She had a bad cut on her left leg. The nurse will put a bandage on your cut. í verb 1. to make an opening in something using a knife, scissors or other sharp thing The surgeon cut the diseased tissue away with a scalpel. She cut her finger on the broken glass. 2. to reduce the number or amount of something Accidents have been cut by 10%. (NOTE: cutting cut) cut- /kju t/ prefix referring to the skin cutaneous /kju teiniəs/ adjective referring to the skin cutaneous leishmaniasis /kju teiniəs li ʃmə naiəsis/ noun a form of skin disease caused by the tropical parasite Leishmania. Also called Delhi boil cutdown / k tdaυn/ noun the procedure of cutting a vein to insert a cannula or administer an intravenous drug cuticle / kju tik(ə)l/ noun same as epidermis cuspid cut cut- cutaneous | cutaneous leishmaniasis | | cuticle cutis / kju tis/ noun the skin cutis anserina / kju tis nserainə/ noun a reaction of the skin when someone is cold or frightened, the skin being raised into many little bumps by the action of the arrector pili muscles. Also called goose bumps CVA abbreviation cerebrovascular accident cyan- /saiən/ prefix same as cyano- (used cyanocobalamin curie cutdown cyclotomy cutis cyanosed cyanosis | cyanotic | cycle cyclic cyclical -cycline cyclitis | cyclo- cyclodialysis | cyclopentolate | cyclophosphamide | cycloplegia | cyclopropane | cyclothymia | cyclotomy | plural is cyclotomies.) Nursing.fm Page 72 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM -cyclovir 72 -cyclovir -cyclovir /saikləυviə/ suffix used in the names of antiviral drugs cyesis /sai i sis/ noun same as pregnancy cyesis | (technical ) cyst /sist/ noun an unusual growth in the body cyst shaped like a pouch, containing liquid or semiliquid substances cyst- /sist/ prefix the bladder cystadenoma / sistədi nəυmə/ noun an adenoma in which fluid-filled cysts form (NOTE: The cyst- cystadenoma | plural is cystadonomas or cystadonomata.) cystalgia /si st ld ə/ noun pain in the urinary cystalgia | bladder cystectomy /si stektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of the urinary bladder (NOTE: The plural is cystectomies.) cystic / sistik/ adjective 1. referring to cysts 2. referring to a bladder cysticercosis / sistis kəυsis/ noun a disease caused by infestation of tapeworm larvae from pork cystic fibrosis / sistik fai brəυsis/ noun a hereditary disease in which there is malfunction of the exocrine glands such as the pancreas, in particular those which secrete mucus, causing respiratory difficulties, male infertility and malabsorption of food from the gastrointestinal tract. Also called fibrocystic disease, mucoviscidocystectomy | cystic cysticercosis | cystic fibrosis | sis called vesicofixation (NOTE: The plural is cystopexies.) cystoplasty cystoplasty / sistə pl sti/ noun a surgical operation on the bladder (NOTE: The plural is | cystoplasties.) cystoscope / sistəskəυp/ noun an instrument cystoscope made of a long tube with a light at the end, used to inspect the inside of the bladder cystoscopy /si stɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the bladder using a cystoscope (NOTE: The plucystoscopy | ral is cystoscopies.) cystostomy /si stɒstəmi/, cystotomy /si stɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an cystostomy | | opening between the bladder and the abdominal wall to allow urine to pass without going through the urethra. Also called vesicostomy (NOTE: The plurals are cystostomies and cystotomies.) cystourethrography / sistəυ jυəri θrɒ rəfi/ noun X-ray examination of the bladder and urecystourethrography | | thra cystourethroscope / sistəυjυ ri θrəskəυp/ noun an instrument used to inspect the bladder and urethra cyt- /sait/ prefix same as cyto- (used before cystourethroscope | cyt- vowels) cyto- /saitəυ/ prefix cell cytochemistry / saitəυ kemistri/ noun the cyto- cytochemistry | study of the chemical activity of cells cytogenetics / saitəυd ə netiks/ noun a branch of genetics which studies the function of cells, especially chromosomes, in heredity cytokine / saitəυkain/ noun a protein secreted by cells of the lymph system which is involved in controlling response to inflammation cytokinesis / saitəυkai ni sis/ noun changes in the cytoplasm of a cell during division cytological smear / saitəlɒd ik(ə)l smiə/ noun a sample of tissue taken for examination under a microscope cytology /sai tɒləd i/ noun the study of the structure and function of cells cytolysis /sai tɒlisis/ noun the breaking down of cells cytomegalovirus / saitəυ me ələυ vairəs/ noun one of the herpesviruses which can cause serious congenital disorders in a fetus if it infects the pregnant mother. Abbreviation CMV cytometer /sai tɒmitə/ noun an instrument attached to a microscope, used for measuring and counting the number of cells in a specimen cytopenia / saitəυ pi niə/ noun a deficiency of cellular elements in blood or tissue cytoplasm / saitəυpl z(ə)m/ noun a substance inside the cell membrane which surrounds the nucleus of a cell cytoplasmic / saitəυ pl zmik/ adjective referring to the cytoplasm of a cell cytogenetics cystine cystine / sisti n/ noun an amino acid. It can cause stones to form in the urinary system of people who have a rare inherited metabolic disorder. cystinosis / sisti nəυsis/ noun a disorder affecting the absorption of amino acids, resulting in excessive amounts of cystine accumulating in the kidneys cystinuria / sisti njυəriə/ noun cystine in the urine cystitis /si staitis/ noun inflammation of the urinary bladder, which makes someone pass water often and with a burning sensation cystocele / sistəsi l/ noun a hernia of the urinary bladder into the vagina cystogram / sistə r m/ noun an X-ray photograph of the urinary bladder cystography /si stɒ rəfi/ noun an examination of the urinary bladder by X-rays after radioopaque dye has been introduced cystolithiasis / sistəli θaiəsis/ noun a condition in which stones are formed in the urinary bladder cystometer /si stɒmitə/ noun an apparatus which measures the pressure in the bladder cystometry /si stɒmitri/ noun measurement of the pressure in the bladder cystopexy /si stɒpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to fix the bladder in a different position. Also cystinosis | cystinuria | cystitis | cystocele cystogram cystography | cystolithiasis | cystometer | cystometry | cystopexy | | cytokine cytokinesis | cytological smear cytology | cytolysis | cytomegalovirus | cytometer | cytopenia | cytoplasm cytoplasmic | | Nursing.fm Page 73 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 73 cytosine cytosine / saitəυsi n/ noun one of the four basic chemicals in DNA cytosome / saitəυsəυm/ noun the body of a cell, not including the nucleus cytotoxic / saitəυ tɒksik/ adjective 1. referring to a drug or agent which prevents cell divicytosome cytotoxic | cytotoxin sion 2. referring to cells in the immune system which destroy other cells cytotoxic drug / saitəυtɒksik dr / noun a drug which reduces the reproduction of cells, used to treat cancer cytotoxin / saitəυ tɒksin/ noun a substance which has a toxic effect on cells cytotoxic drug cytotoxin | Nursing.fm Page 74 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM D d d symbol decida symbol decada Costas syndrome /dɑ kɒstəz sindrəυm/ noun same as disordered action of da da Costas syndrome the heart [Described 1871. After Jacob Mendes da Costa (18331900), Philadelphia surgeon, who described this condition in soldiers in the American Civil War.] dacryo- /d kriəυ/ prefix tears dacryoadenitis / d kriəυ di naitis/ noun dacryo- dacryoadenitis | inflammation of the lacrimal gland dacryocystitis / d kriəυsi staitis/ noun inflammation of the lacrimal sac when the tear duct, which drains into the nose, becomes blocked dacryocystography / d kriəυsi stɒ rəfi/ noun contrast radiography to determine the site of an obstruction in the tear ducts dacryocystorhinostomy / d kriəυ sistəυrai nɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to bypass a blockage from the tear duct which takes tears into the nose. Abbreviation DCR (NOTE: dacryocystitis | dacryocystography | dacryocystorhinostomy | | The plural is dacryocystorhinostomies.) dacryolith / d kriəυliθ/ noun a stone in the dacryolith lacrimal sac dacryoma / d kri əυmə/ noun a benign swelling in one of the tear ducts (NOTE: The plural is dacryoma | dacryomas or dacryomata.) dactyl / d ktil/ noun a finger or toe dactyl- /d ktil/ prefix same as dactylo- (used before vowels) dactylitis / d kti laitis/ noun inflammation of dactyl dactyl- dactylitis | the fingers or toes, caused by bone infection or rheumatic disease dactylo- /d ktiləυ/ prefix referring to the fingers or toes dactylology / d kti lɒləd i/ noun signs made with the fingers in place of words when talking to a person who is unable to hear, or when a person who is unable to hear or speak wants to communicate dactylomegaly / d ktiləυ me əli/ noun a condition in which a person has longer fingers than usual DAH abbreviation disordered action of the heart dactylo- dactylology | dactylomegaly | DAH Daltonism Daltonism / dɔ ltəniz(ə)m/ noun the commonest form of colour blindness, in which someone cannot see the difference between red and green. Also called protanopia [Described 1794. After John Dalton (17661844), English chemist and physician. Founder of the atomic theory, he himself was colour-blind.] D & C /di ən/ abbreviation dilatation and curetD&C tage dander / d ndə/ noun very small fragments that fall from the feathers, hair or skin of animals or people dandruff / d ndrəf/ noun pieces of dead skin from the scalp which fall out when the hair is combed. Also called pityriasis capitis, scurf D and V / di ən vi / abbreviation diarrhoea and vomiting Dandy-Walker syndrome / d ndi wɔ kə sindrəυm/ noun a congenital condition in which there is no Magendies foramen in the brain dark adaptation /dɑ k d p teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the reflex changes which enable the eye to continue to see in dim light. For example, the pupil becomes larger and the rods in the retina become more active than the cones. data / deitə/ plural noun information in words or figures about a particular subject, especially information which is available on computer dander dandruff D and V Dandy-Walker syndrome dark adaptation | data (NOTE: In scientific usage, data is used with a plural verb: The data are accurate. In everyday language, data is often used with a singular verb: The recent data supports our case.) data bank / deitə b ŋk/ noun a store of infordata bank mation in a computer The hospital keeps a data bank of information about possible kidney donors. database / deitəbeis/ noun a structured collection of information in a computer that can be automatically retrieved and manipulated Data Protection Act / deitə prə tekʃ(ə)n kt/ noun a parliamentary act intended to protect information about individuals that is held on computers. It ensures that all information is stored securely and allows people to have access to their entries. daughter / dɔ tə/ noun a female child of a parent They have two sons and one daughter. database Data Protection Act | daughter Nursing.fm Page 75 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 75 day blindness day blindness / dei blaindnəs/ noun same as hemeralopia day care / dei keə/ noun supervised recreation day care or medical care provided during the day for people who need special help, e.g. some elderly people or small children day case / dei keis/ noun same as day patient day case surgery / dei keis s d əri/ noun same as day surgery day centre / dei sentə/ noun a place providing day care day nursery / dei n s(ə)ri/ noun a place where small children can be looked after during the daytime while their parents or guardians are at work day patient / dei peiʃ(ə)nt/ noun a patient who is in hospital for treatment for a day and does not stay overnight. Also called day case day patient care / dei peiʃ(ə)nt keə/ noun care for patients who are resident in a hospital during the daytime only day recovery ward / dei ri k v(ə)ri wɔ d/ noun a ward where day patients who have had minor operations can recover before going home day surgery / dei s d əri/ noun a surgical operation which does not require the patient to stay overnight in hospital. Also called day case day case day case surgery day centre day nursery day patient day patient care day recovery ward | day surgery surgery dB abbreviation decibel DCR abbreviation dacryocystorhinostomy DDS abbreviation US doctor of dental surgery DDT abbreviation dichlorodiphenyltrichlodB DCR DDS DDT roethane de- /di / prefix removal or loss dead fingers / ded fiŋ əz/, dead mans fingers / ded m nz fiŋ əz/ noun same as Rayde- dead fingers nauds disease dead space /ded speis/ noun a breath in the dead space last part of the process of breathing in air which does not get further than the bronchial tubes deaf /def/ adjective not able to hear in circumstances where most people would. hearingdeaf impaired deaf and dumb deaf and dumb / def ən d m/ noun not able to hear or to speak (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) deafness / defnəs/ noun the fact of being unadeafness ble to hear in circumstances where most people would deamination /di mi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process by which amino acids are broken down in the liver and urea is formed death /deθ/ noun the permanent end of all natural functions death rate / deθ reit/ noun the number of deaths per year per thousand of population The death rate from cancer of the liver has remained stable. deamination | death death rate | decimetre debility debility /di biliti/ noun general weakness debridement /di bri dmənt/ noun the removal of dirt or dead tissue from a wound to help healing deca- /dekə/ prefix ten. Symbol da Decadron / dekədrɒn/ a trade name for dexamethasone decalcification /di k lsifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the loss of calcium salts from teeth and bones decannulation /di k njυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of a tracheostomy tube decapitation /di k pi teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act or process of cutting off the head of a person or animal decapsulation /di k psjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to remove a capsule from an organ, especially from a kidney decay /di kei/ noun 1. the process by which tissues become rotten, caused by the action of microorganisms and oxygen 2. damage caused to tissue or a tooth by the action of microorganisms, especially bacteria í verb (of tissue) to rot The surgeon removed decayed matter from the wound. deci- /desi/ prefix one tenth (10-1) decigram Symbol d decibel / desibel/ noun a unit of measurement of the loudness of sound, used to compare different levels of sound. Symbol dB decidua /di sidjuə/ noun a membrane which lines the uterus after fertilisation (NOTE: The plu| debridement | deca- Decadron decalcification | | decannulation | | decapitation | | decapsulation | | decay | deci- decibel decidua | ral is deciduas or deciduae.) COMMENT: The decidua is divided into several parts: the decidua basalis, where the embryo is attached, the decidua capsularis, which covers the embryo and the decidua vera which is the rest of the decidua not touching the embryo. It is expelled after the birth of the baby. decidual decidual /di sidjuəl/ adjective referring to the decidua deciduoma /di sidju əυmə/ noun a mass of decidual tissue remaining in the uterus after birth | deciduoma | | (NOTE: The plural is deciduomas or deciduomata.) deciduous /di sidjuəs/ adjective referring to deciduous | teeth discarded at a later stage of development deciduous dentition /di sidjuəs den tiʃ(ə)n/ noun the set of twenty teeth which are gradually replaced by the permanent teeth as a child grows older deciduous tooth /di sidjuəs tu θ/ noun same as primary tooth decilitre / desili tə/ noun a unit of measurement of liquid equal to one tenth of a litre. Symbol dl (NOTE: The US spelling is deciliter.) decimetre / desimi tə/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one tenth of a metre. Symbol dm (NOTE: The US spelling is decimeter.) deciduous dentition | deciduous tooth | decilitre decimetre | Nursing.fm Page 76 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM decompensation 76 decompensation decompensation /di kɒmpən seiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which an organ such as the | | heart cannot cope with extra stress placed on it and so is unable to perform its function properly decomposition / di kɒmpə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun the process where dead matter is rotted by the action of bacteria or fungi decompression / di kəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. reduction of pressure 2. a controlled reduction of atmospheric pressure which occurs as a diver returns to the surface decompression sickness / di kəm preʃ(ə)n siknəs/ noun same as caisson disdecomposition | decompression | decompression sickness | ease defecation defecation / defə keiʃ(ə)n/, defaecation noun the act of passing out faeces from the bowels defence /di fens/ noun resistance against an attack of a disease defence mechanism /di fens mekəniz(ə)m/ noun a subconscious reflex by which a person prevents himself or herself from showing emotion deferent / defərənt/ adjective going away from the centre defervescence / defə ves(ə)ns/ noun a period during which a fever is subsiding defibrillation /di fibri leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a procedure to correct an irregular heartbeat by applying a large electrical impulse to the chest wall, especially in potentially life-threatening circumstances. Also called cardioversion defibrillator /di fibrileitə/ noun an apparatus used to apply an electric impulse to the heart to make it beat regularly defibrination /di faibri neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of fibrin from a blood sample to prevent clotting deficiency /di fiʃ(ə)nsi/ noun a lack of something necessary deficit / defisit/ noun the amount by which something is less than it should be defloration / di flɔ reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of breaking the hymen of a virgin, usually at the first sexual intercourse deflorescence / di flɔ res(ə)ns/ noun the disappearance of a rash deformans /di fɔ mənz/ ‘ osteitis deform| defence | defence mechanism | deferent defervescence | defibrillation decongestant decongestant / di kən d estənt/ adjective reducing congestion and swelling í noun a drug which reduces congestion and swelling, sometimes used to unblock the nasal passages decontamination / di kənt mi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of a contaminating substance such as radioactive material decortication /di kɔ ti keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of the cortex of an organ decrudescence / di kru des(ə)ns/ noun a reduction in the symptoms of a disease decubitus /di kju bitəs/ noun the position of a person who is lying down decubitus ulcer /di kju bitəs lsə/ noun same as bedsore decussation / di k seiʃ(ə)n/ noun the crossing of nerve fibres in the central nervous system. Also called chiasm deep /di p/ adjective located, coming from or reaching relatively far inside the body. Opposite | decontamination | decortication | | decrudescence | decubitus | decubitus ulcer | decussation | deep superficial | | defibrillator | defibrination | | deficiency | deficit defloration | deflorescence | deformans | deep cervical vein deep cervical vein / di p s vik(ə)l vein/ noun a vein in the neck which drains into the vertebral vein deep dermal burn / di p d m(ə)l b n/ noun a burn which is so severe that a graft will be necessary to repair the skin damage. Also called deep dermal burn full thickness burn deep facial vein / di p feiʃ(ə)l vein/ noun a deep facial vein small vein which drains from the pterygoid process behind the cheek into the facial vein deep plantar arch / di p pl ntər ɑ tʃ/ noun a curved artery crossing the sole of the foot deep vein / di p vein/ noun a vein which is inside the body near a bone, as opposed to a superficial vein near the skin deep-vein thrombosis / di p vein θrɒm bəυsis/ noun a condition arising when a thrombus formed in the deep veins of a leg or the pelvis travels to a lung where it may cause death. The condition may affect anyone who is inactive for long periods. Also called phlebothrombosis. Abbreviation DVT deep plantar arch deep vein deep-vein thrombosis | ans deformity deformity /di fɔ miti/ noun an unusual shape of part of the body degeneration /di d enə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a change in the structure of a cell or organ so that it no longer works properly degenerative disease /di d en(ə)rətiv di zi z/, degenerative disorder /di d en(ə)rətiv dis ɔ də/ noun a disease or disorder in which there is progressive loss of function of a part of the body, or in which a part of the body fails to repair itself deglutition / di lu tiʃ(ə)n/ noun the action of passing food or liquid, and sometimes also air, from the mouth into the oesophagus (technical ) Also called swallowing dehiscence /di his(ə)ns/ noun the act of opening wide dehydration / di hai dreiʃ(ə)n/ noun a dangerous lack of water in the body resulting from inadequate intake of fluids or excessive loss through sweating, vomiting or diarrhoea | degeneration | | degenerative disease | | | | deglutition | dehiscence | dehydration | Nursing.fm Page 77 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 77 dehydrogenase dehydrogenase / di hai drɒd əneiz/ noun an enzyme that transfers hydrogen between chemical compounds déjà vu / dei ɑ vu / noun an illusion that a new situation is a previous one being repeated, usually caused by a disease of the brain deleterious / deli tiəriəs/ adjective damaging or harmful Delhi boil / deli bɔil/ noun same as cutane| déjà vu deleterious | Delhi boil ous leishmaniasis delirium /di liriəm/ noun a mental state in delirium | which someone is confused, excited and restless and has hallucinations delirium alcoholicum /di liriəm lkə hɒlikəm/ noun ‘ delirium tremens delirium tremens /di liriəm tri menz/, lkə delirium alcoholicum /di liriəm hɒlikəm/ noun a state of mental illness usually found in long-term alcoholics who attempt to give up alcohol consumption. It includes hallucinations about insects, trembling and excitement. Abbreviation DTs delivery /di liv(ə)ri/ noun the birth of a child delta / deltə/ noun the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet deltoid / deltɔid/, deltoid muscle / deltɔid m s(ə)l/ noun a big triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint and attached to the humerus, which lifts the arm sideways delusion /di lu (ə)n/ noun a false belief which a person holds which cannot be changed by reason He suffered from the delusion that he was wanted by the police. dementia /di menʃə/ noun the loss of mental ability and memory due to organic disease of the brain, causing disorientation and personality changes demi- /demi/ prefix half demography /di mɒ rəfi/ noun the study of populations and environments or changes affecting populations demulcent /di m lsənt/ noun a soothing substance which relieves irritation in the stomach demyelinating /di maiəlineitiŋ/ adjective relating to the destruction of the myelin sheath round nerve fibres demyelination /di maiəli neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the destruction of the myelin sheath round nerve fibres, caused, e.g. by injury to the head, or as the main result of multiple sclerosis dendrite / dendrait/ noun a branched structure growing out from a nerve cell, which receives impulses from the nerve endings of other nerve cells at synapses. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement. Also called dendron dendritic /den dritik/ adjective referring to a dendrite dendron / dendrɒn/ noun same as dendrite delirium alcoholicum | | delirium tremens | | delivery | delta deltoid delusion | dementia | demi- demography | demulcent | demyelinating | demyelination | dendrite dendritic | dendron | | deoxygenated blood denervation denervation / di nə veiʃ(ə)n/ noun the stopping or cutting of the nerve supply to a part of the body dengue / deŋ i/ noun a tropical disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes, characterised by high fever, pains in the joints, headache and rash. Also called breakbone fever denial /di naiəl/ noun a persons refusal to accept that he or she has a serious medical problem Denis Browne splint / denis braυn splint/ noun a metal splint used to correct a club foot | dengue denial | Denis Browne splint [Described 1934. After Sir Denis John Wolko Browne (18921967), Australian orthopaedic and general surgeon working in Britain.] dens /denz/ noun a tooth, or something shaped dens like a tooth dent- /dent/ prefix referring to a tooth or teeth dental / dent(ə)l/ adjective referring to teeth or to the treatment of teeth dental caries dental surgeon dental hygiene / dent(ə)l haid i n/ noun procedures to keep the teeth clean and healthy dental impaction / dent(ə)l im p kʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which a tooth is closely pressed against other teeth and cannot grow normally dental plate / dent(ə)l pleit/ noun a prosthesis made to the shape of the mouth, which holds artificial teeth dental prosthesis / dent(ə)l prɒs θi sis/ noun one or more false teeth dentine / denti n/ noun a hard substance which surrounds the pulp of teeth, beneath the enamel dentistry / dentistri/ noun the profession of a dentist, or the branch of medicine dealing with teeth and gums dentition /den tiʃ(ə)n/ noun the number, arrangement and special characteristics of all the teeth in a persons jaws dent- dental dental hygiene dental impaction | dental plate dental prosthesis | dentine dentistry dentition | COMMENT: Children have incisors, canines and molars, which are replaced over a period of years by the permanent teeth: eight incisors, four canines, eight premolars and twelve molars, the last four molars being called the wisdom teeth. dentoid / dentɔid/ adjective shaped like a tooth denture / dentʃə/ noun a set of false teeth, fixed dentoid denture to a device which fits inside the mouth deodorant /di əυd(ə)rənt/ noun a substance which hides or prevents unpleasant smells í adjective hiding or preventing odours deontology / di ɒn tɒləd i/ noun the ethics of duty and of what is morally right or wrong deoxygenate /di ɒksid əneit/ verb to remove oxygen from something deoxygenated blood /di ɒksid əneit bl d/ noun blood from which most of the oxydeodorant | deontology | deoxygenate | deoxygenated blood | Nursing.fm Page 78 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM deoxyribonucleic acid 78 gen has been removed by the tissues. It is darker than arterial oxygenated blood. Also called venous blood. Compare deoxygenated blood deoxyribonucleic acid /di ɒksiraibəυnju kleiik sid/ noun full form of DNA. ‘ RNA Department of Health /di pɑ tmənt əv helθ/ noun in the UK, the government department in charge of health services. Abbreviation deoxyribonucleic acid | | Department of Health | DH dependant dependant /di pendənt/ noun a person who is looked after or supported by someone else He has to support a family of six children and several dependants. dependence /di pendəns/, dependency /di pendənsi/ noun the fact of needing the suuport of something or someone such as a carer, nurse or doctor, or of being addicted to a drug dependent /di pendənt/ adjective 1. needing the support of someone or something 2. addicted to a drug 3. referring to a part of the body which is hanging down dependent relative /di pendənt relətiv/ noun a person who is looked after by another member of the family depersonalisation /di p s(ə)n(ə)lai zeiʃ(ə)n/, depersonalization noun a psychiatric state in which someone does not believe he or she is real depilation / depi leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of hair depilatory /di pilət(ə)ri/ noun a substance which removes hair í adjective removing hair Depo-Provera a trademark for a progesterone derivative used in birth control and the treatment of endometriosis which is administered by threemonthly injection depressant /di pres(ə)nt/ noun a drug which reduces the activity of part of the body, e.g. a tranquilliser depressed /di prest/ adjective 1. experiencing a mental condition that prevents someone from carrying out the normal activities of life in the usual way clinically depressed Same as depressed 2. feeling miserable and worried (informal ) He was depressed after his exam results. 3. referring to something such as a metabolic rate which is below the usual level depressed fracture /di prest fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture of a flat bone such as those in the skull where part of the bone has been pushed down lower than the surrounding parts depression /di preʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a mental condition that prevents someone from carrying out the normal activities of life in the usual way 2. a hollow on the surface of a part of the body depressor /di presə/ noun a muscle which pulls part of the body downwards deprivation / depri veiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the fact of not being able to have something that you need | dependence | | dependent | dependent relative | depersonalisation | depilation | depilatory | Depo-Provera depressant | depressed | depressed fracture | depression | depressor | deprivation | | or want sleep deprivation 2. the lack of basic necessities of life deradenitis /di r di naitis/ noun inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck Dercums disease / d kəmz di zi z/ noun same as adiposis dolorosa [Described 1888. deradenitis | | Dercums disease | After François Xavier Dercum (18561931), Professor of Neurology at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, USA.] derealisation /di riəlai zeiʃ(ə)n/, derealization noun a psychological state in which somederealisation | | one feels the world around him or her is not real derm- /d m/ prefix same as derma- (used derm- before vowels) -derm -derm /d m/ suffix skin derma- /d mə/ prefix skin dermal / d m(ə)l/ adjective referring to the skin dermatitis / d mə taitis/ noun inflammation of the skin dermato- /d mətəυ/ prefix referring to the skin dermatochalasis / d mətəυkə l sis/ noun a condition where a fold of skin moves down over the eyelid, common in older people dermatological / d mətə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to dermatology dermatologist / d mə tɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in the study and treatment of the skin and its diseases dermatology / d mə tɒləd i/ noun the study and treatment of the skin and its diseases dermatome / d mətəυm/ noun 1. a special knife used for cutting thin sections of skin for grafting 2. an area of skin supplied by one spinal nerve dermatomycosis / d mətəυmai kəυsis/ noun a skin infection caused by a fungus that is not a dermatophyte dermatomyositis / d mətəυmaiəυ saitis/ noun a collagen disease with a wasting inflammation of the skin and muscles dermatophyte / d mətəυfait/ noun a fungus belonging to one of three genera which affect the skin or hair, causing tinea dermatophytosis / d mətəυfai təυsis/ noun a fungal infection of the skin caused by a dermatophyte dermatoplasty / d mətəυpl sti/ noun a skin graft, replacing damaged skin by skin taken from another part of the body or from a donor dermatosis / d mə təυsis/ noun a disease of the skin dermis / d mis/ noun a thick layer of living skin beneath the epidermis. Also called corium dermo- /d məυ/ prefix same as dermadermoid / d mɔid/ adjective 1. referring to the skin 2. like skin derma- dermal dermatitis | dermato- dermatochalasis | dermatological | dermatologist | dermatology | dermatome dermatomycosis | dermatomyositis | dermatophyte dermatophytosis | dermatoplasty dermatosis | dermis dermo- dermoid Nursing.fm Page 79 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 79 Descemets membrane Descemets membrane /deʃə mets membrein/ noun one of the deep layers of the cornea [Described 1785. After Jean Descemet | (17321810), French physician; Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in Paris.] descending aorta /di sendiŋ ei ɔ tə/ noun descending aorta | | the second section of the aorta, which turns downwards. Compare ascending aorta descending colon /di sendiŋ kəυlɒn/ noun the third section of the colon which goes down the left side of the body. Compare ascending colon. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Suppledescending colon | ment desensitisation desensitisation /di sensitai zeiʃ(ə)n/, desensitization noun the act of making some| | one or something no longer sensitive to something such as an allergen designer drug /di zainə dr / noun a drug that has been modified to enhance its properties designer drug | (informal ) diabetes insipidus develop develop /di veləp/ verb 1. to become larger and stronger, or more complex The embryo is A swelling developed developing normally. under the armpit. The sore throat developed into an attack of meningitis. 2. to make something start to happen Were developing a new system for dealing with admission to A & E. 3. to make something start to grow or become larger, stronger or more complex He does exercises to develop his muscles. 4. to start to have an illness The baby may be developing a cold. development /di veləpmənt/ noun 1. the process of growing, or of becoming larger and stronger, or more complex The development of the embryo takes place in the uterus. 2. something which happens and causes a change in a situation Report any developments to me at once. developmental delay /di veləpment(ə)l di lei/ noun the fact of being later than usual in developing, either physically or psychologically deviance / di viəns/ noun sexual behaviour which is considered unusual deviated nasal septum / di vieitid neiz(ə)l septəm/, deviated septum / di vieitid septəm/ noun an unusual position of the septum of the nose which may block the nose and cause nosebleeds deviation / di vi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the fact of being different from what is usual or expected or something which is different from what is usual or expected 2. an unusual position of a joint or of the eye, as in strabismus dexamethasone / deksə meθəsəυn/ noun a synthetic steroid drug that is used to treat inflammation and hormonal imbalances Dexa scan / deksə sk n/ noun a technique to assess changes in someones bone density, as in osteoporosis or in Pagets disease. Full form Dual | development | developmental delay | | deviance desogestrel desogestrel / desə d estrəl/ noun a hormone used an as oral contraceptive desquamation / deskwə meiʃ(ə)n/ noun the continual process of losing the outer layer of dead skin detached retina /di t tʃt retinə/ noun a condition in which the retina becomes partially separated from the eyeball, causing loss of vision. Also called retinal detachment | desquamation | detached retina | COMMENT: A detached retina can be caused by a blow to the eye, or simply is a condition occurring in old age. If left untreated the eye will become blind. A detached retina can sometimes be attached to the choroid again using lasers. detergent /di t d ənt/ noun a cleaning subdetergent | stance which removes grease and bacteria deterioration /di tiəriə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of becoming worse The nurses were worried by the deterioration in the patients reactions. detox / di tɒks/ noun same as detoxication deterioration | | detox (informal ) deviated nasal septum deviation | dexamethasone | Dexa scan Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry dextro- /dekstrəυ/ prefix referring to the right, dextro- or the right side of the body dextromoramide / dekstrə mɔ rəmaid/ noun an opioid drug used to reduce pain dextrose / dekstrəυz/ noun same as glucose DH abbreviation Department of Health DI abbreviation donor insemination di- /dai/ prefix two, double dia- /daiə/ prefix 1. through or throughout 2. across 3. in different or opposite directions 4. apart diabetes / daiə bi ti z/ noun 1. one of a group of diseases which cause the body to produce large gestational diabetes 2. amounts of urine. same as diabetes mellitus diabetes insipidus /daiə bi ti z in sipidəs/ noun a rare disorder of the pituitary gland causing an inadequate amount of the hormone vasopressin, which controls urine production, to be dextromoramide | detoxication detoxication /di tɒksi keiʃ(ə)n/, detoxification /di tɒksifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of toxic substances to make a poisonous substance harmless detrition /di triʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of wearing away by rubbing or use detritus /di traitəs/ noun rubbish produced when something disintegrates detrusor muscle /di tru zə m s(ə)l/ noun the muscular coat of the urinary bladder detumescence / di tju mes(ə)ns/ noun 1. | | | | detrition | detritus | detrusor muscle | detumescence | (of the penis or clitoris after an erection or orgasm) the process of becoming limp 2. (of a swelling) the process of disappearing deuteranopia / dju tərə nəυpiə/ noun a form deuteranopia | of colour blindness in which someone cannot see green dextrose DH DI di- dia- diabetes | diabetes insipidus | | Nursing.fm Page 80 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM diabetes mellitus 80 produced, leading to excessive passing of urine and extreme thirst diabetes mellitus /daiə bi ti z melitəs/ noun a disease where the body cannot control sugar absorption because the pancreas does not secrete enough insulin diabetes mellitus | COMMENT: Diabetes mellitus has two forms: Type I may have a viral trigger caused by an infection which affects the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin; Type II is caused by a lower sensitivity to insulin, is common in older people, and is associated with obesity. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are tiredness, unusual thirst, frequent passing of water and sweet-smelling urine. Blood and urine tests show high levels of sugar. Treatment for Type II diabetes involves keeping to a strict diet and reducing weight, and sometimes the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs such as glibenclamide. Type I diabetes is treated with regular injections of insulin. | dialyser dialysis | | diaphoresis | diaphoretic | diaphragm diabetic cataract / daiəbetik k tər kt/ noun a cataract which develops in people who have diabetes diabetic coma / daiəbetik kəυmə/ noun a state of unconsciousness caused by untreated diabetes diabetic retinopathy / daiəbetik reti nɒpəθi/ noun a disease of the retina, caused by diabetes diabetogenic / daiəbetə d enik/ adjective which causes diabetes diabetologist / daiəbe tɒləd ist/ noun a doctor speing in the treatment of diabetes mellitus diaclasia / daiə kleiziə/ noun a fracture made by a surgeon to repair an earlier fracture which has set badly, or to correct a deformity diadochokinesis /dai dəkəυkai ni sis/ noun the natural ability to make muscles move limbs in opposite directions diagnosis / daiə nəυsis/ noun the act of diagnosing a condition or illness The doctors diagnosis was a viral infection, but the childs parents asked for a second opinion. They found it difficult to make a diagnosis. Compare prognosis diabetic coma diabetic retinopathy | diabetogenic | diabetologist | diaclasia | diadochokinesis | diagnosis | (NOTE: The plural is diagnoses.) diaphragm diaphragmatic diaphragmatic / daiəfr m tik/ adjective referring to a diaphragm, or like a diaphragm diaphyseal / daiə fiziəl/ adjective referring to a diaphysis diaphysis /dai fəsis/ noun the long central part of a long bone. Also called shaft. See illustration at BONE MARROW in Supplement diaphysitis / daiəfə saitis/ noun inflammation of the diaphysis, often associated with rheumatic disease diarrhoea / daiə ri ə/ noun a condition in which someone frequently passes liquid faeces attack of diarrhoea mild/severe diarrhoea diarthrosis / daiɑ θrəυsis/ noun same as | diaphyseal | diaphysis | diaphysitis | diarrhoea | diarthrosis | synovial joint diastase / daiəsteiz/ noun an enzyme which diastase breaks down starch and converts it into sugar diastasis / daiə steisis/ noun a condition in which a bone separates into parts diastema / daiə sti mə/ noun 1. an unusually wide space between adjacent teeth 2. an unusual gap in any body part or organ diastolic / daiə stɒlik/ adjective relating to the diastole diastolic pressure / daiəstɒlik preʃə/ noun blood pressure taken at the diastole (NOTE: diastasis | diastema | diastolic | diastolic pressure diagnostic diagnostic / daiə nɒstik/ adjective referring to diagnosis diagnostic and treatment centre / daiə nɒstik ən tri tmənt sentə/ noun a facility mainly for day surgery or short-term stay, where a range of planned operations such as joint replacements, hernia repair and cataract removal can be undertaken. Abbreviation DTC diagnostic radiographer /daiə nɒstik reidi ɒ rəfə/ noun ‘ radiographer | diagnostic and treatment centre diagnostic radiographer | | dialysate /dai lisət/ noun material which is subjected to dialysis dialyser / daiəlaizə/ noun an apparatus which uses a membrane to separate solids from liquids, e.g. a kidney machine dialysis /dai ləsis/ noun 1. a procedure in which a membrane is used as a filter to separate soluble waste substances from the blood 2. same as renal dialysis diapedesis / daiəpi di sis/ noun the movement of white blood cells through the walls of the capillaries into tissues in the development of inflammation diaphoresis / daiəfə ri sis/ noun excessive perspiration diaphoretic / daiəfə retik/ noun a drug which causes sweating í adjective causing sweating diaphragm / daiəfr m/ noun 1. a thin layer of tissue stretched across an opening, especially the flexible sheet of muscle and fibre which separates the chest from the abdomen and moves to pull air into the lungs in respiration 2. same as vaginal diapedesis diabetic cataract | dialysate Diastolic pressure is always lower than systolic.) diathermy diathermy / daiə θ mi/ noun the use of highfrequency electric current to produce heat in body tissue diathermy needle /daiə θ mi ni d(ə)l/ noun a needle used in surgical diathermy diathermy snare / daiə θ mi sneə/ noun a snare which is heated by electrodes and burns away tissue | diathermy needle | diathermy snare | Nursing.fm Page 81 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 81 diathesis diathesis /dai θəsis/ noun the general inherited constitution of a person in relation to their susceptibility to specific diseases or allergies diazepam /dai zəp m/ noun a tranquilliser used in the short term to treat anxiety and as a muscle relaxant. In the long term it is potentially addictive. diazoxide / daiə zɒksaid/ noun a drug used as a vasodilator, to reduce hypertension DIC abbreviation disseminated intravascular coagulation dicephalus /dai sefələs/ noun a fetus with two heads dichlorphenamide / daiklɔ fenəmaid/ noun a drug used to treat glaucoma dichromatism / daikrəυ m tiz(ə)m/ noun colour blindness in which only two of the three primary colours can be seen. Compare mono| diazepam | diazoxide | DIC dicephalus | dichlorphenamide | dichromatism | chromatism, trichromatism diclofenac sodium diclofenac sodium / daikləυfen k səυdiəm/ noun an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat rheumatic disease dicrotism / daikrətiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the pulse occurs twice with each heartbeat die /dai/ verb to stop living His father died last year. She died in a car crash. (NOTE: dying dicrotism die died) diet / daiət/ noun the amount and type of food eaten a balanced diet í verb to reduce the diet quantity of food you eat, or to change the type of food you eat, in order to become thinner or healthier He is dieting to try to lose weight. dietary / daiət(ə)ri/ noun a system of nutrition and energy The nutritionist supervised the dietaries for the patients. í adjective referring to a diet dietary fibre / daiət(ə)ri faibə/ noun fibrous matter in food, which cannot be digested. Also called roughage dietary dietary fibre COMMENT: Dietary fibre is found in cereals, nuts, fruit and some green vegetables. There are two types of fibre in food: insoluble fibre, e.g. in bread and cereals, which is not digested, and soluble fibre, e.g. in vegetables and pulses. Foods with the highest proportion of fibre include wholemeal bread, beans and dried apricots. Fibre is thought to be necessary to help digestion and avoid developing constipation, obesity and appendicitis. dietetic dietetic / daiə tetik/ adjective referring to diets dietetics / daiə tetiks/ noun the study of food, nutrition and health, especially when applied to peoples food intake dietitian / daiə tiʃ(ə)n/ noun someone who spees in the study of diet, especially someone in a hospital who supervises dietaries as part of the medical treatment of patients | dietetics | dietitian | digitoxin Dietls crisis Dietls crisis / di t(ə)lz kraisis/ noun a painful blockage of the ureter, causing back pressure on the kidney which fills with urine and swells [After Joseph Dietl (180478), Polish physician.] diet sheet diet sheet / daiət ʃi t/ noun a list of suggestions for quantities and types of food given to someone to follow differential / difə renʃəl/ adjective referring to a difference differential diagnosis / difə renʃ(ə)l daiə nəυsis/ noun the identification of one disease from a number of other similar diseases by comparing the range of symptoms of each differentiation / difərenʃi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the development of speed cells during the early embryo stage diffuse /di fju s/ verb /di fju z/ /di fju s/; /di fju z/ to spread through tissue, or cause something to spread Some substances easily diffuse through the walls of capillaries. í adjective referring to a disease which is widespread in the body, or which affects many organs or cells diffusion /di fju (ə)n/ noun the process of mixing a liquid with another liquid, or a gas with another gas digest /dai d est/ verb to break down food in the alimentary canal and convert it into components which are absorbed into the body digestion /dai d estʃən/ noun the process by which food is broken down in the alimentary canal into components which can be absorbed by the body digestive /dai d estiv/ adjective relating to digestion digestive juice /dai d estiv ju s/ noun ‘ gasdifferential | differential diagnosis | | differentiation | diffuse | | | | diffusion | digest | digestion | digestive | digestive juice | tric juice (usually plural ) digestive system digestive system /dai d estiv sistəm/ noun the set of organs such as the stomach, liver and pancreas which are associated with the digestion of food. Also called alimentary system digestive tract /dai d estiv tr kt/ noun same as alimentary canal digit / did it/ noun 1. a finger or a toe 2. a number digitalin / did i teilin/, digitalis / did i teilis/ noun a drug derived from foxglove leaves, used in small doses to treat heart conditions digitalise / did itəlaiz/, digitalize verb to treat someone who has heart failure with digoxin digital palpation / did it(ə)l p l peiʃ(ə)n/ noun an examination of part of the body by feeling it with the fingers digitoxin / did i tɒksin/ noun an extract of foxglove leaves, used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of heart failure or irregular heartbeat | digestive tract | digit digitalin | | digitalise digital palpation | digitoxin | Nursing.fm Page 82 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM digoxin 82 digoxin digoxin /dai d ɒksin/ noun an extract of foxglove leaves, which acts more rapidly than digitoxin when used as a heart stimulant dihydrocodeine tartrate /dai haidrəυ kəυdi n tɑ treit/ noun an analgesic used to treat severe pain dilatation / dailei teiʃ(ə)n/, dilation /dai leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of making a hollow space or a passage in the body bigger or wider dilatation of the cervix during labour dilatation and curettage /dailei teiʃ(ə)n ən kjυə retid / noun a surgical operation to scrape the interior of the uterus to obtain a tissue sample or to remove products of miscarriage. Abbreviation D & C dilate /dai leit/ verb to become wider or larger, or make something become wider or larger to dilate the pupil of the eye dilator /dai leitə/ noun an instrument used to widen the entrance to a cavity dilator pupillae muscle /dai leitə pju pili m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle in the iris which pulls the iris back and so makes the pupil expand diltiazem hydrochloride /dil taiəzəm haidrə klɔ raid/ noun a calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension diluent / diljuənt/ noun a substance which is used to dilute a liquid, e.g. water dilute /dai lu t/ adjective with water added í verb to add water to a liquid to make it less concentrated Dilute the disinfectant in four parts of water. dimenhydrinate / daimen haidrəneit/ noun an antihistamine drug that relieves travel sickness dimetria /dai mi triə/ noun a condition in which a woman has a double uterus dioptre /dai ɒptə/ noun a unit of measurement of the refraction of a lens DIP abbreviation distal interphalangeal joint diphenoxalate / daifen ɒksileit/ noun a drug related to pethidine that is used to treat diarrhoea, sometimes mixed with a little atropine in commercial preparations diphtheria /dif θiəriə/ noun a serious infectious disease of children, caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae, characterised by fever and the formation of a fibrous growth like a membrane in the throat which restricts breathing diphtheroid / difθərɔid/ adjective referring to a bacterium similar to the diphtheria bacterium -dipine /dipin/ suffix used in the names of calcium channel blockers nifedipine dipl- /dipl/ prefix same as diplo- (used before | dihydrocodeine tartrate | | dilatation | | dilatation and curettage | | dilate | dilator | dilator pupillae muscle | | diltiazem hydrochloride | | diluent dilute | dimenhydrinate | dimetria | dioptre | DIP diphenoxalate | diphtheria | diphtheroid -dipine dipl- vowels) diplegia diplegia /dai pli d ə/ noun paralysis of a similar part on both sides of the body, e.g. paralysis of both arms. Compare hemiplegia diplegic /dai pli d ik/ adjective referring to diplegia diplo- /dipləυ/ prefix double diploe / dipləυi / noun a layer of spongy bone tissue filled with red bone marrow, between the inner and outer layers of the skull diploid / diplɔid/ adjective referring to a cell where there are two copies of each chromosome, except the sex chromosome. In humans the diploid number of chromosomes is 46. diplopia /di pləυpiə/ noun a condition in which someone sees single objects as double. Also called double vision direct contact /dai rekt kɒnt kt/ noun a situation where someone or something physically touches an infected person or object director /dai rektə/ noun an instrument used to limit the incision made with a surgical knife dis- /dis/ prefix 1. undoing or reversal 2. removal from 3. lacking or deprived of disability / disə biliti/ noun a condition in which part of the body does not function in the usual way and makes some activities difficult or impossible. learning disability Disabled Living Foundation /dis eib(ə)ld liviŋ faυn deiʃ(ə)n/ noun a charity which aims to help disabled people live independently disarticulation / disɑ tikjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the amputation of a limb at a joint, which does not involve dividing a bone disc /disk/ noun a flat round structure. | diplegic | diplo- diploe diploid diplopia | direct contact | director | dis- disability | Disabled Living Foundation | | disarticulation | disc intervertebral disc discharge discharge /dis tʃɑ d / noun / distʃɑ d / 1. the secretion of liquid from an opening 2. the process of sending a patient away from a hospital because the treatment has ended í verb 1. to secrete liquid out of an opening The wound discharged a thin stream of pus. 2. to send a patient away from hospital because the treatment has ended He was discharged from hospital last week. discharge planning / distʃɑ d pl niŋ/ noun the work of making a plan for when a patient leaves hospital to live at home disclosure check /dis kləυ ə tʃek/ noun same as CRB check discomfort /dis k mfət/ noun a feeling of mild pain You may experience some discomfort after the operation. discrete /di skri t/ adjective separate, not joined together disease /di zi z/ noun a condition that stops the body from functioning in the usual way an infectious disease She is suffering from a very serious disease of the kidneys or from a serious | discharge planning disclosure check | discomfort | discrete | disease | diplacusis diplacusis / diplə kju sis/ noun a disorder of the cochlea in which a person hears one sound as two sounds of different pitch | Nursing.fm Page 83 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 83 distraction dispensing practice kidney disease. He is a spet in occupational diseases. (NOTE: The term disease is dispensing practice /di spensiŋ pr ktis/ noun a doctors practice which dispenses pre- applied to all physical and mental reactions which make a person ill. Diseases with distinct characteristics have individual names. For other terms referring to disease, see words beginning with path-, patho-.) scribed medicines to its patients displace /dis pleis/ verb to put something out of its usual place displacement /dis pleismənt/ noun the fact of being moved out of the usual position fracture of the radius together with displacement of the wrist disposition / dispə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun a persons general character or tendency to act in a particular way dissect /dai sekt/ verb to cut and separate tissues in a body to examine them dissection /dai sekʃən/ noun the action of cutting and separating parts of a body or an organ as part of a surgical operation, an autopsy or a course of study disseminated /di semineitid/ adjective occurring in every part of an organ or in the whole body disseminated intravascular coagulation /di semineitid intrə v skυlə kəυ jυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a disorder that causes extensive clot formation in the blood vessels, followed by severe bleeding. Abbreviation DIC disseminated sclerosis /di semineitd sklə rəυsis/ noun same as multiple sclerosis dissemination /di semi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of being widespread throughout the body dissociation /di səυʃi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the separation of parts or functions 2. (in psychiatry) a condition in which part of the consciousness becomes separated from the rest and becomes independent dissociative disorder /di səυsiətiv dis ɔ də/ noun a type of hysteria in which someone shows psychological changes such as a split personality or amnesia rather than physical ones distal / dist(ə)l/ adjective further away from the centre of a body Distalgesic / dist(ə)l d i zik/ a trade name for the analgesic co-proxamol distally / dist(ə)li/ adverb placed further away from the centre or point of attachment. Opposite proximally. See illustration at ANATOMICAL disfigure disfigure /dis fi ə/ verb to change someones appearance so as to make it less pleasant to look at Her legs were disfigured by scars. disinfect / disin fekt/ verb to make the surface of something or somewhere free from microorganisms She disinfected the skin with surgical spirit. All the patients clothes have to be disinfected. disinfectant / disin fektənt/ noun a substance used to kill microorganisms on the surface of something disinfection / disin fekʃən/ noun the removal of microorganisms on the surface of something | disinfect | disinfectant | disinfection | COMMENT: The words disinfect, disinfectant, and disinfection are used for substances which destroy microorganisms on instruments, objects or the skin. Substances used to kill microorganisms inside infected people are antibiotics. disinfestation disinfestation / disinfe steiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of insects or other pests from a place, person or animal dislocate / disləkeit/ verb to displace a bone from its usual position at a joint, or to become displaced He fell and dislocated his elbow. The shoulder joint dislocates easily. dislocation / dislə keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which a bone is displaced from its usual position at a joint. Also called luxation dismember /dis membə/ verb to cut off or pull off someones arms or legs, often violently or in an accident dismemberment /dis membəmənt/ noun the state of being dismembered disordered action of the heart /dis ɔ dəd kʃən əv ðə hɑ t/ noun a condition in which someone has palpitations, breathlessness and dizziness, caused by effort or worry. Also called da Costas syndrome, cardiac neurosis. Abbreviation DAH disorientation / disɔ riən teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which someone is confused and does not know where he or she is dispensary /di spensəri/ noun a place where drugs are prepared or mixed and given out according to a doctors prescription, e.g. part of a chemists shop or a department in a hospital dispensing optician /di spensiŋ ɒp tiʃ(ə)n/ noun a person who fits and sells glasses but does not test eyes | dislocate dislocation | dismember | dismemberment | disordered action of the heart | disorientation | dispensary | dispensing optician | | | displace | displacement | disposition | dissect | dissection | disseminated | disseminated intravascular coagulation | | | | disseminated sclerosis | | dissemination | | dissociation | | dissociative disorder | | distal Distalgesic | distally in Supplement distension /dis tenʃən/ noun a condition in which something is swollen Distension of the veins in the abdomen is a sign of blocking of the portal vein. distichiasis / disti kaiəsis/ noun the presence of extra eyelashes, sometimes growing on the meibomian glands distraction /di str kʃən/ noun 1. something that takes a persons attention away from something else 2. a state where someone is very emotionally and mentally troubled TERMS distension | distichiasis | distraction | Nursing.fm Page 84 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM district general hospital 84 district general hospital district general hospital / distrikt d en(ə)rəl hɒspit(ə)l/ noun a hospital which serves the needs of the population of a specific district district nurse / distrikt n s/ noun a nurse who visits and treats people in their homes disturbed /di st bd/ adjective affected by a psychiatric disorder severely disturbed children disulfiram /dai s lfir m/ noun a drug used to treat alcoholism by causing severe nausea if alcohol is consumed with it dithranol / diθrənɒl/ noun an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat dermatitis and psoriasis diuresis / daijυ ri sis/ noun an increase in the production of urine diuretic / daijυ retik/ adjective causing the kidneys to produce more urine í noun a substance which makes the kidneys produce more urine and, in the treatment of oedema and hypertension diurnal /dai n(ə)l/ adjective 1. happening in the daytime 2. happening every day divarication /dai v ri keiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. separation into widely spread branches 2. the point at which a structure forks or divides divergence /dai v d əns/ noun 1. a condition in which one eye points directly at the object of interest but the other does not 2. the process of moving apart to follow different courses 3. the amount of difference between two quantities, especially where the difference is unexpected 4. a deviation from a typical behaviour pattern or expressed wish divergent strabismus /dai v d ənt strə bizməs/, divergent squint /dai v d ənt skwint/ noun a condition in which a persons eyes both look away from the nose. Opposite district nurse disturbed | disulfiram | dithranol diuresis | diuretic | diurnal | divarication | | divergence | divergent strabismus | | | convergent strabismus diverticula / daivə tikjυlə/ plural noun plural of diverticulum diverticular disease / daivə tikjυlə di zi z/ noun a disease of the large intestine, where the diverticula | diverticular disease | | colon thickens and diverticula form in the walls, causing pain in the lower abdomen diverticulitis / daivətikjυ laitis/ noun inflammation of diverticula formed in the wall of the colon diverticulosis / daivətikjυ ləυsis/ noun a condition in which diverticula form in the intestine but are not inflamed. In the small intestine, this can lead to blind loop syndrome. diverticulum / daivə tikjυləm/ noun a little sac or pouch which develops in the wall of the intestine or another organ (NOTE: The plural is diverticulitis | diverticulosis | diverticulum | diverticula.) division /di vi (ə)n/ noun the action of cutting division | or splitting into parts divulsor /di v lsə/ noun a surgical instrument used to expand a passage in the body divulsor | dizygotic dizygotic / daizai ɒtik/ adjective developed from two separately fertilised eggs dizygotic twins / daizai ɒtik twinz/ plural noun twins who are not identical and not always of the same sex because they come from two different ova fertilised at the same time. Also called | dizygotic twins fraternal twins dizziness / dizinəs/ noun the feeling that evedizziness rything is going round because the sense of balance has been affected dl abbreviation decilitre DLE abbreviation disseminated lupus erythematosus dm abbreviation decimetre DNA noun one of the nucleic acids, the basic genetic material present in the nucleus of each cel. Full form deoxyribonucleic acid. RNA DNA fingerprint / di en ei fiŋ əprint/ noun same as genetic fingerprint DNA fingerprinting / di en ei fiŋ əprintiŋ/ noun same as genetic fingerdl DLE dm DNA DNA fingerprint DNA fingerprinting printing DOA abbreviation dead on arrival dobutamine /dəυ bju təmi n/ noun a drug DOA dobutamine | used to stimulate the heart doctor / dɒktə/ noun a person who has trained in medicine and is qualified to examine people when they are ill to find out what is wrong with them and to prescribe a course of treatment doctor COMMENT: In the UK surgeons are traditionally not called Doctor, but are addressed as Mr, Mrs, etc. The title doctor is also applied to persons who have a higher degree from a university in a non-medical subject. So Dr Jones may have a degree in music, or in any other subject without a connection with medicine. Döderleins bacillus / d dəlainz bə sil s/ noun a bacterium usually found in the vagina [After Albert Siegmund Gustav Döderlein (18601941), German obstetrician and gynaecologist.] dolicho- /dɒlikəυ/ prefix long dolichocephalic / dɒlikəυse f lik/ adjective Döderleins bacillus | dolicho- dolichocephalic | referring to a person with an unusually long skull dolichocephaly / dɒlikəυ sefəli/ noun a condition of a person who has a skull which is longer than usual, the measurement across the skull being less than 75% of the length of the head from front to back dolor / dɒlə/ noun pain dolorimetry / dɒlə rimətri/ noun the measurement of pain domiciliary / dɒmi siliəri/ adjective at home or in the home dominance / dɒminəns/ noun the characteristic of a gene form (allele) that leads to the trait dolichocephaly | dolor dolorimetry | domiciliary | dominance Nursing.fm Page 85 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 85 which it controls being shown in any individual carrying it dominant / dɒminənt/ adjective important or powerful í noun (of an allele) having the characteristic that leads to the trait which it controls being shown in any individual carrying it. Compare recessive domino booking / dɒminəυ bυkiŋ/ noun an arrangement for the delivery of a baby, where the baby is delivered in hospital by a midwife and the mother and child return home soon afterwards Donald-Fothergill operation / dɒnəld fɒðə il ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun an operation to close the neck of the vagina donor / dəυnə/ noun a person who gives blood, tissue, organs or reproductive material to be used to treat another person donor card / dəυnə kɑ d/ noun a card carried by people stating that they give permission for their organs to be transplanted into other people after they have died donor insemination / dəυnə insemi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun artificial insemination using the sperm of an anonymous donor. Abbreviation DI dopa / dəυpə/ noun a chemical related to adrenaline and dopamine. It occurs naturally in the body and in the form levodopa is used to treat Parkinsons disease. dopamine / dəυpəmi n/ noun a substance found in the medulla of the adrenal glands, which also acts as a neurotransmitter. Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinsons disease. dopaminergic / dəυpəmi n d ik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor stimulated by dopamine Doppler transducer / dɒplə tr nz dju sə/ noun a device to measure blood flow, commonly used to monitor fetal heart rate Doppler ultrasound / dɒplə ltrəsaυnd/ noun the use of the Doppler effect in ultrasound to detect red blood cells Doppler ultrasound flowmeter / dɒplə ltrəsaυnd fləυmi tə/ noun a device which measures the flow of blood and detects steady or irregular flow, allowing abnormalities or blockages to be detected dorsa / dɔ sə/ plural of dorsum dorsal / dɔ s(ə)l/ adjective referring to the back. Opposite ventral dorsal vertebrae / dɔ s(ə)l v tibrei/ plural noun the twelve vertebrae in the back between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae dorsi- /dɔ si/ prefix referring to the back dorsiflexion / dɔ si flekʃən/ noun flexion towards the back of part of the body, e.g. raising the foot at the ankle. Compare plantar flexion dorso- /dɔ səυ/ prefix same as dorsidominant domino booking Donald-Fothergill operation | donor donor card donor insemination | dopa dopamine dopaminergic | Doppler transducer | Doppler ultrasound Doppler ultrasound flowmeter dorsa dorsal dorsal vertebrae dorsi- dorsiflexion | dorso- doxepin dorsoventral dorsoventral / dɔ səυ ventrəl/ adjective referring to both the front and the back of the body dorsum / dɔ səm/ noun the back of any part of the body (NOTE: The plural is dorsa.) dosage / dəυsid / noun a measured quantity of a drug calculated to be necessary for someone a low dosage The doctor decided to increase the dosage of antibiotics. The dosage for children is half that for adults. dose /dəυs/ noun 1. a measured quantity of a drug or radiation which is to be given to someone at one time It is dangerous to exceed the prescribed dose. 2. a short period of experiencing a minor illness (informal ) a dose of flu 3. an infection with a sexually transmitted disease (informal ) í verb to provide someone with medication (informal ) She has been dosing herself with laxatives. dosimeter /dəυ simitə/ noun an instrument which measures the amount of X-rays or other radiation received dosimetry /dəυ simətri/ noun the act of measuring the amount of X-rays or radiation received, using a dosimeter double-blind randomised controlled trial / d b(ə)l blaind r ndəmaizd kən trəυld traiəl/ noun a trial used to test new treatments in which patients are randomly placed in either the treatment or the control group without either the patient or doctor knowing which group any particular patient is in double pneumonia / d b(ə)l nju məυniə/ noun same as bilateral pneumonia double uterus / d b(ə)l ju t(ə)rəs/ noun a condition in which the uterus is divided into two sections by a membrane. Also called uterus didelphys. dimetria double vision / d b(ə)l vi (ə)n/ noun same as diplopia (informal ) douche /du ʃ/ noun a liquid forced into the body to wash out a cavity, or a device used for washing out a cavity down below / daυn bi ləυ/ adverb used to refer politely to the genital area (informal ) Downs syndrome / daυnz sindrəυm/ noun a condition due to the existence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, in which a baby is born with slanting eyes, a wide face, speech difficulties and usually some degree of learning difficulty | dorsum dosage dose dosimeter | dosimetry | double-blind randomised controlled trial | double pneumonia | double uterus double vision douche down below | Downs syndrome [Described 1866. After John Langdon Haydon Down (182896), British physician at Normansfield Hospital, Teddington, UK] downstairs /daυn steəz/ adverb used to refer politely to the genital area (informal ) down there / daυn ðeə/ adverb used to refer politely to the genital area (informal ) doxepin / dɒksipin/ noun a drug used as a seddownstairs | down there doxepin ative and antidepressant Nursing.fm Page 86 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM doxycycline 86 doxycycline doxycycline / dɒksi saikli n/ noun a widely used antibiotic derived from DPT abbreviation diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus DPT vaccine / di pi ti v ksi n/, DPT immunisation / di pi ti imjυnai zeiʃ(ə)n/ noun a combined vaccine or immunisation against the three diseases, diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus Dr abbreviation doctor (NOTE: used when writing | DPT DPT vaccine | Dr someones name: Dr Smith) drachm /dr m/ noun a measure used in phardrachm macy, equal to 3.8g dry weight or 3.7ml liquid measure dracontiasis / dr kɒn taiəsis/, dracunculiasis /drə k ŋkjυ laiəsis/ noun a tropical disease caused by the guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis which enters the body from infected drinking water and forms blisters on the skin, frequently leading to secondary arthritis, fibrosis and cellulitis Dracunculus /drə k ŋkjυləs/ noun a parasitic worm which enters the body and rises to the skin to form a blister. The infection frequently leads to secondary arthritis, fibrosis and cellulitis. Also called guinea worm dragee /dr ei/ noun a sugar-coated tablet or pill drain /drein/ noun a tube to remove liquid from the body í verb to remove liquid from the body an operation to drain the sinus They drained the pus from the abscess. drainage / dreinid / noun the removal of liquid from the site of an operation or pus from an abscess by means of a tube or wick left in the body for a time drape /dreip/ noun a thin material used to place over someone about to undergo surgery, leaving the operation site uncovered drawn /drɔ n/ adjective appearing tired and careworn, usually as a result of anxiety, grief or illness draw-sheet / drɔ ʃi t/ noun a sheet under a person in bed, folded so that it can be pulled out as it becomes soiled drepanocyte / drepənəυsait/ noun same as dracontiasis | | | Dracunculus | dragee | drain drainage drape drawn draw-sheet drepanocyte sickle cell drepanocytosis / drepənəυsai təυsis/ noun same as sickle-cell anaemia dressing / dresiŋ/ noun a covering or bandage applied to a wound to protect it The patients dressings need to be changed regularly. drill /dril/ noun a tool which rotates very rapidly to make a hole, especially a surgical instrument used in dentistry to remove caries í verb to make a hole with a drill A small hole is drilled in the skull. The dentist drilled one of her molars. Drinker respirator / driŋkə respireitə/ noun a machine which encloses the whole of the body | drill Drinker respirator drip drip feed drop drop attack | droperidol | drop foot droplet droplet infection | dropper dropsy drop wrist drug drug addict drepanocytosis dressing except the head, and in which air pressure is increased and decreased, so forcing the person to breathe in and out. Also called iron lung drip /drip/ noun a system for introducing liquid slowly and continuously into the body, by which a bottle of liquid is held above a person and the fluid flows slowly down a tube into a needle in a vein or into the stomach After her operation, the patient was put on a drip. drip feed / drip fi d/ noun a drip containing nutrients drop /drɒp/ noun 1. a small quantity of liquid 2. a sudden reduction or fall in the quantity of something a drop in pressure í plural noun drops liquid medicine for the eye, nose, or ear administered with a dropper í verb 1. to fall or let something fall Pressure in the artery dropped suddenly. 2. to reduce suddenly drop attack / drɒp ə t k/ noun a condition in which a person suddenly falls down, though he or she is not unconscious, caused by sudden weakness of the spine droperidol /drɒ peridɒl/ noun a drug used to keep someone in a calm state before an operation drop foot / drɒp fυt/ noun a condition, caused by a muscular disorder, in which the ankle is not strong and the foot hangs limp droplet / drɒplət/ noun a very small quantity of liquid droplet infection / drɒplət in fekʃən/ noun an infection developed by inhaling droplets containing a virus, e.g. from a sneeze dropper / drɒpə/ noun a small glass or plastic tube with a rubber bulb at one end, used to suck up and expel liquid in drops dropsy / drɒpsi/ noun same as oedema (dated ) drop wrist / drɒp rist/ noun a condition caused by a muscular disorder, in which the wrist is not strong and the hand hangs limp drug /dr / noun 1. a natural or synthetic chemical substance which is used in medicine and affects the way in which organs or tissues function 2. a substance taken by choice which produces a strong effect on a persons feelings and state of mind recreational drug controlled drugs drug addict / dr dikt/ noun a person who is physically and mentally dependent on taking a particular drug regularly a heroin addict a morphine addict drug addiction / dr ə dikʃən/ noun the fact of being mentally and physically dependent on taking a particular drug regularly. Also called drug addiction | drug dependence drug allergy / dr drug allergy ləd i/ noun a reaction to a particular drug drug tolerance / dr tɒlərəns/ noun a condition in which a drug has been given to someone drug tolerance Nursing.fm Page 87 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 87 for so long that his or her body no longer reacts to it, and the dosage has to be increased dry /drai/ adjective 1. not wet The surface of the wound should be kept dry. 2. containing only a small amount of moisture She uses a cream to soften her dry skin. (NOTE: drier driest) í verb to remove moisture from something (NOTE: dries dry drying dried) dry beriberi / drai beri beri/ noun beriberi dry beriberi | associated with loss of feeling and paralysis dry-eye syndrome / drai ai sindrəυm/ noun same as xerosis dry out / drai aυt/ verb 1. same as dry 2. to treat someone for alcoholism, or undergo treatment for alcoholism (informal ) dry socket / drai sɒkit/ noun inflammation of the socket of a tooth which has just been removed DTC abbreviation diagnostic and treatment centre DTs abbreviation delirium tremens Duchenne muscular dystrophy /du ʃen m skjυlə distrəfi/, Duchennes muscular dystrophy /du ʃenz m skjυlə distrəfi/, Duchenne /du ʃen/ noun an inherited form of muscular dystrophy that weakens the muscles of the upper respiratory and pelvic areas. It usually affects boys and causes early death. [Described dry-eye syndrome dry out dry socket DTC DTs Duchenne muscular dystrophy | | | 1849. After Guillaume Benjamin Arnaud Duchenne (180675), French neurologist.] Ducreys bacillus /du kreiz bə siləs/ noun a Ducreys bacillus | | type of bacterium found in the lungs, causing chancroid [Described 1889. After Augusto Ducrey (18601940), Professor of Dermatology in Pisa, then Rome, Italy.] duct /d kt/ noun a tube which carries liquids, duct especially one which carries secretions ductless / d ktləs/ adjective without a duct ductless gland / d ktləs l nd/ noun same as endocrine gland ductule / d ktju l/ noun a very small duct ductus / d ktəs/ noun same as duct ductus deferens / d ktəs defərənz/ noun one of two tubes along which sperm pass from the epididymus to the seminal vesicles near the prostate gland. Also called vas deferens. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Suppleductless ductless gland ductule ductus ductus deferens ment dull /d l/ adjective referring to pain which is not dull strong but which is continuously present She complained of a dull throbbing pain in her head. He felt a dull pain in the chest. í verb to make a sensation or awareness of a sensation less sharp The treatment dulled the pain for a while. The drug had dulled her senses. dumbness / d mnəs/ noun same as mutism dumping syndrome / d mpiŋ sindrəυm/ noun same as postgastrectomy syndrome duo- /dju əυ/ prefix two dumbness dumping syndrome duo- dysarthria duoden- duoden- /dju əυdi n/ prefix referring to the duodenum duodenal / dju əυ di n(ə)l/ adjective referring to the duodenum duodenal papillae /dju əυ di n(ə)l pə pili / plural noun small projecting parts in the duodenum where the bile duct and pancreatic duct open duodenal ulcer /dju əυ di n(ə)l lsə/ noun an ulcer in the duodenum duodenoscope / dju əυ di nəυskəυp/ noun an instrument used to examine the inside of the duodenum duodenostomy / dju əυdi nɒstəmi/ noun a permanent opening made between the duodenum and the abdominal wall duodenum / dju ə di nəm/ noun the first part of the small intestine, going from the stomach to the jejunum. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement duplex imaging / dju pleks imid iŋ/ noun a type of ultrasonic imaging where the speed of the flow of blood is measured Dupuytrens contracture /du pwi trənz kən tr ktʃə/ noun a condition in which the palmar fascia becomes thicker, causing the fingers, usually the middle and fourth fingers, to bend forwards [Described 1831. After Baron Guillaume duodenal | duodenal papillae | | duodenal ulcer | duodenoscope | duodenostomy | duodenum | duplex imaging Dupuytrens contracture | | Dupuytren (17751835), French surgeon.] dura dura / djυərə/ noun same as dura mater dural / djυər(ə)l/ adjective referring to the dura mater dura mater / djυərə meitə/ noun the thicker outer membrane of the three covering the brain. Also called dura, pachymeninx. arachnoid duty / dju ti/ noun the activities which a person has to do as part of their job What are the duties of a night sister? (NOTE: The plural is duties.) to be on duty to be working Shes on duty from 2 p.m. till 10 p.m. a duty of care the requirement to treat a patient in an appropriate way, as part of the work of being a health professional d.v.t., DVT abbreviation deep-vein thrombosis dwarfism / dwɔ fiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the growth of a person has stopped, leaving him or her much smaller than average dynamic splint /dai n mik splint/ noun a splint which uses springs to help the person move dynamometer / dainə mɒmitə/ noun an instrument for measuring the force of muscular contraction -dynia /diniə/ suffix pain dys- /dis/ prefix difficult or impaired dysaesthesia / disi s θi ziə/ noun the impairment of a sense, in particular the sense of touch dysarthria /dis ɑ θriə/, dysarthrosis / disɑ θrəυsis/ noun difficulty in speaking words clearly, caused by damage to the central nervous system dural dura mater duty d.v.t. dwarfism dynamic splint | dynamometer | -dynia dys- dysaesthesia | dysarthria | | Nursing.fm Page 88 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM dysbasia 88 dysbasia dysbasia /dis beiziə/ noun difficulty in walking, especially when caused by a lesion to a nerve dyschezia /dis ki ziə/ noun difficulty in passing faeces dyschondroplasia / diskɒndrəυ pleiziə/ noun a condition in which the long bones are shorter than usual dyschromatopsia / diskrəυmə tɒpsiə/ noun a condition where someone cannot distinguish colours dyscoria /dis kɔ riə/ noun an unusually shaped pupil of the eye dyscrasia /dis kreiziə/ noun any unusual body condition (dated ) dysdiadochokinesia / disdai dəkəυkai ni siə/, dysdiadochokinesis / disdai dəkəυkai ni sis/ noun the inability to carry out rapid movements, caused by a disorder or lesion of the cerebellum dysentery / dis(ə)ntri/ noun an infection and inflammation of the colon, causing bleeding and diarrhoea dysfunction /dis f ŋkʃən/ noun an unusual functioning of an organ dysfunctional /dis f ŋkʃən(ə)l/ adjective 1. not working properly 2. unable to relate to other people emotionally or socially dysfunctional uterine bleeding /dis f ŋkʃən(ə)l ju tərain bli diŋ/ noun bleeding in the uterus not caused by a menstrual period dysgenesis /dis d enəsis/ noun unusual development dysgerminoma /dis d mi nəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour of the ovary or testicle dysgraphia /dis r fiə/ noun difficulty in writing caused by a brain lesion dyskariosis /dis k ri əυsis/ noun the fact of becoming mature in an unusual way dyskinesia / diskai ni ziə/ noun the inability to control voluntary movements dyslalia /dis leiliə/ noun a disorder of speech, caused by an unusual development of the tongue dyslexia /dis leksiə/ noun a disorder of development, where a person is unable to read or write properly and confuses letters dyslogia /dis ləυd ə/ noun difficulty in putting ideas into words dysmaturity / dismə tʃυəriti/ noun a condition affecting newborn babies, shown by wrinkled | dyschezia | dyschondroplasia | dyschromatopsia | dyscoria | dyscrasia | dysdiadochokinesia | | | | dysentery dysfunction | dysfunctional | dysfunctional uterine bleeding | dysgenesis | dysgerminoma | | dysgraphia | dyskariosis | | dyskinesia | dyslalia | dyslexia | dyslogia | dysmaturity | skin, long fingernails and toenails and relatively little body fat dysmenorrhoea / dismenə ri ə/ noun pain experienced at menstruation dysostosis / disɒs təυsis/ noun unusual formation of bones dyspareunia / disp ru niə/ noun difficult or painful sexual intercourse in a woman dyspepsia /dis pepsiə/ noun a condition in which a person feels pains or discomfort in the stomach, caused by indigestion dysphagia /dis feid iə/ noun difficulty in swallowing dysphasia /dis feiziə/ noun difficulty in speaking and putting words into the correct order dysphemia /dis fi miə/ noun same as stamdysmenorrhoea | dysostosis | dyspareunia | dyspepsia | dysphagia | dysphasia | dysphemia | mering dysphonia dysphonia /dis fəυniə/ noun difficulty in speaking caused by impairment of the vocal cords, or by laryngitis dysplasia /dis pleiziə/ noun an unusual development of tissue dyspnoea /disp ni ə/ noun difficulty or pain in breathing dyspnoeic /disp ni ik/ adjective difficult or painful when breathing dyspraxia /dis pr ksiə/ noun difficulty in carrying out coordinated movements dysrhythmia /dis riðmiə/ noun an unusual rhythm, either in speaking or in electrical impulses in the brain dyssocial /dis səυʃ(ə)l/ adjective same as | dysplasia | dyspnoea | dyspnoeic | dyspraxia | dysrhythmia | dyssocial | antisocial dyssynergia dyssynergia / disi n d iə/ noun same as | asynergia dystaxia dystaxia /dis t ksiə/ noun an inability to coordinate the muscles dystocia /dis təυsiə/ noun difficult childbirth dystonia /dis təυniə/ noun disordered muscle tone, causing involuntary contractions which make the limbs deformed dystrophia /dis trəυfiə/ noun the wasting of an organ, muscle or tissue due to lack of nutrients in that part of the body. Also called dystrophy dystrophia adiposogenitalis /dis trəυfiə di pəυsəυd eni teilis/ noun same as Fröh| dystocia | dystonia | dystrophia | dystrophia adiposogenitalis | | | lichs syndrome dystrophy dystrophy / distrəfi/ noun same as dystrophia dysuria /dis jυəriə/ noun difficulty in passing urine dysuria | Nursing.fm Page 89 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM E ear ear /iə/ noun an organ on the side of the head which is used for hearing (NOTE: For other terms referring to ears, see auricular and words beginning with ot-, oto-.) Ear, Nose & Throat Ear, Nose & Throat / iə nəυz ən θrəυt/ noun the study of the ear, nose and throat. Abbreviation ENT. Also called otorhinolarngology ECG abbreviation electrocardiogram echo- /ekəυ/ prefix referring to sound echocardiogram / ekəυ kɑ diə r m/ noun a record of heart movements made using ultrasound echocardiography / ekəυkɑ di ɒ rəfi/ noun the use of ultrasound to examine the heart echoencephalography / ekəυen kefə lɒ rəfi/ noun the use of ultrasound to examine the brain echography /e kɒ rəfi/ noun same as ultraecho- echocardiogram | echocardiography | echoencephalography | earache earache / iəreik/ noun pain in the ear. Also called otalgia ear canal / iə kə n l/ noun one of several passages in or connected to the ear, especially the external auditory meatus, the passage from the outer ear to the eardrum eardrum / iədr m/ noun the membrane at the end of the external auditory meatus leading from the outer ear, which vibrates with sound and passes the vibrations on to the ossicles in the middle ear. Also called myringa, tympanum (NOTE: ear canal | eardrum For other terms referring to the eardrum, see words beginning with tympan-, tympano-.) early onset pre-eclampsia early onset pre-eclampsia / li ɒnset pri i kl mpsiə/ noun pre-eclampsia which appears earlier than the 37th week of the pregnancy earwax / iəw ks/ noun same as cerumen Ebola virus /i bəυlə vairəs/ noun a highly contagious virus found in West Africa. Patients who are affected with it vomit, have bloody diarrhoea and blood seeps through their skin. eburnation / i bə neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the conversion of cartilage into a hard mass with a shiny surface like bone ecbolic /ek bɒlik/ noun a substance which produces contraction of the uterus and so induces childbirth or abortion í adjective causing contraction of the uterus ecchymosis / eki məυsis/ noun a dark area on the skin made by blood which has escaped into the tissues after a blow. Also called bruise, con| earwax Ebola virus | eburnation | ecbolic | ecchymosis | tusion eccrine eccrine / ekrin/ adjective referring to a gland, especially a sweat gland, which does not disintegrate and remains intact during secretion. Also called merocrine eccyesis / eksai i sis/ noun same as ectopic eccyesis | pregnancy ECG | echography | sonography echovirus / ekəυ vairəs/ noun one of a group echovirus | of viruses which can be isolated from the intestine and which can cause serious illnesses such as aseptic meningitis, gastroenteritis and respiratory infection in small children. Compare reovirus eclampsia /i kl mpsiə/ noun a serious condition of pregnant women at the end of pregnancy, caused by toxaemia, in which the woman has high blood pressure and may go into a coma. preeclampsia | eclampsia ecmnesia ecmnesia /ek ni ziə/ noun a condition in which someone is not able to remember recent events, while remembering clearly events which happened some time ago E. coli / i kəυlai/ noun same as Escherichia | E. coli coli economy class syndrome economy class syndrome /i kɒnəmi klɑ s sindrəυm/ noun same as deep-vein thrombo| sis (informal ) écraseur écraseur / eikrɑ z / noun a surgical instrument, usually with a wire loop, used to cut a part or a growth off at its base ECT abbreviation electroconvulsive therapy ect- /ekt/ prefix same as ecto- (used before vow| ECT ect- els) ecto- ecto- /ektəυ/ prefix outside -ectomy /ektəmi/ suffix referring to the removal of a part by surgical operation ectoparasite / ektəυ p rəsait/ noun a parasite which lives on the skin. Compare endopara-ectomy ectoparasite | site ectopia ectopia /ek təυpiə/ noun a condition in which an organ or part of the body is not in its usual position | Nursing.fm Page 90 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ectopic 90 ectopic ectopic /ek tɒpik/ adjective not in the usual position. Opposite entopic ectopic heartbeat /ek tɒpik hɑ tbi t/ noun an unusual extra beat of the heart which originates from a point other than the sinoatrial node. Also called extrasystole, premature beat ectopic pacemaker /ek tɒpik peismeikə/ noun an unusual focus of the heart muscle which takes the place of the sinoatrial node ectopic pregnancy /ek tɒpik pre nənsi/ noun a pregnancy where the fetus develops outside the uterus, often in one of the Fallopian tubes. Also called extrauterine pregnancy, eccyesis ectro- /ektrəυ/ prefix referring to a usually congenital absence or lack of something ectrodactyly / ektrəυ d ktili/ noun a congenital absence of all or part of a finger ectromelia / ektrəυ mi liə/ noun a congenital absence of one or more limbs ectropion /ek trəυpiən/ noun a turning of the edge of an eyelid outwards. eversion eczema / eksimə/ noun a non-contagious inflammation of the skin, with an itchy rash and blisters eczematous /ek semətəs/ adjective referring to eczema eczematous dermatitis /ek semətəs d mə taitis/ noun an itchy inflammation or irritation of the skin due to an allergic reaction to a substance which a person has touched or absorbed EDD abbreviation expected date of delivery edentulous /i dentjυləs/ adjective having lost all teeth EDTA / i di ti ei/ noun a colourless chemical that can bind to heavy metals to remove them from the bloodstream. Full form ethylene | ectopic heartbeat | ectopic pacemaker | ectopic pregnancy | ectro- ectrodactyly | ectromelia | ectropion | eczema eczematous | eczematous dermatitis | | EDD edentulous | EDTA diamine tetra-acetate Edwards syndrome Edwards syndrome / edwədz sindrəυm/ noun a severe genetic disorder that results in malformations of the brain, kidney, heart, hands and feet. It is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 18 and those people who have it usually die within six months. EEG abbreviation electroencephalogram EFA abbreviation essential fatty acid effacement /i feismənt/ noun the thinning of the cervix before it dilates in childbirth effective dose /i fektiv dəυs/ noun a size of dose which will produce the effect required effector /i fektə/ noun a nerve ending in muscles or glands which is activated to produce contraction or secretion efferent / efərənt/ adjective carrying something away from part of the body or from the centre. Opposite afferent efferent nerve / efərənt n v/ noun same as EEG EFA effacement | effective dose | effector | efferent efferent nerve motor nerve effleurage effleurage / efl rɑ / noun a form of massage where the skin is stroked in one direction to increase blood flow effort syndrome / efət sindrəυm/ noun same as disordered action of the heart effusion /i fju (ə)n/ noun a discharge of blood, fluid or pus into or out of an internal cavity egg /e / noun a reproductive cell produced in the female body by an ovary, and which, if fertilised by the male sperm, becomes an embryo ego / i əυ/ noun (in psychology) the part of the mind which is consciously in contact with the outside world and is influenced by experiences of the world EHO abbreviation Environmental Health Officer EIA abbreviation exercise-induced asthma Eisenmenger syndrome / aizənmeŋə sindrəυm/ noun heart disease caused by a septal defect between the ventricles, with pulmonary hypertension [Described 1897. After Victor | effort syndrome effusion | egg ego EHO EIA Eisenmenger syndrome Eisenmenger (18641932), German physician.] ejaculate ejaculate /i d kjυleit/ verb to send out semen from the penis ejaculation /i d kjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the sending out of semen from the penis ejaculatio praecox /id kjυ leiʃiəυ pri kɒks/ noun a situation where a man ejaculates too early during sexual intercourse ejaculatory duct /i d kjυlətri d kt/ noun one of two ducts leading from the seminal vesicles through the prostate gland to the urethra. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement elastic cartilage /i l stik kɑ təlid / noun flexible cartilage, e.g. in the ear and epiglottis elastic fibre /i l stik faibə/ noun fibre which can expand easily and is found in elastic cartilage, the skin and the walls of arteries and the lungs. Also called yellow fibre elastic tissue /i l stik tiʃu / noun connective tissue which contains elastic fibres, e.g. in the walls of arteries or of the alveoli in the lungs elastin /i l stin/ noun a protein which occurs in elastic fibres elation /i leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the state of being happy, stimulated and excited elbow / elbəυ/ noun a hinged joint where the upper arm bone (humerus) joins the forearm bones (radius and ulna) elbow crutch / elbəυ kr tʃ/ noun a crutch which surrounds the arms at the elbows and has a handle to hold lower down the shaft elective care /i lektiv keə/ noun hospital care which is planned in advance, rather than a response to an emergency elective surgery /i lektiv s d əri/, elective treatment /i lektiv tri tmənt/ noun surgery or | ejaculation | | ejaculatio praecox | ejaculatory duct | elastic cartilage | elastic fibre | elastic tissue | elastin | elation | elbow elbow crutch elective care | elective surgery | | Nursing.fm Page 91 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 91 treatment which a patient can choose to have but is not urgently necessary to save his or her life electro- /i lektrəυ/ prefix referring to electricity electrocardiogram /i lektrəυ kɑ diə r m/ noun a chart which records the electrical impulses in the heart muscle. Abbreviation ECG, EKG electrocardiograph /i lektrəυ kɑ diə rɑ f/ noun an apparatus for measuring and recording the electrical impulses of the muscles of the heart as it beats electrocardiography /i lektrəυkɑ di ɒ rəfi/ noun the process of recording the electrical impulses of the heart electrocardiophonography /i lektrəυkɑ diəfə nɒ rəfi/ noun the process of electrically recording the sounds of the heartbeats electrocautery /i lektrəυ kɔ təri/ noun same as galvanocautery electroconvulsive therapy /i lektrəυkən v lsiv θerəpi/ noun the treatment of severe depression and some mental disorders by giving someone who has been anaesthetised small electric shocks in the brain to make him or her have convulsions. Abbreviation ECT. Also called elecelectro- | electrocardiogram | | electrocardiograph | | electrocardiography | | electrocardiophonography | | electrocautery | | electroconvulsive therapy | | troplexy electrode electrode /i lektrəυd/ noun the conductor of an electrical apparatus which touches the body and carries an electric shock electroencephalogram /i lektrəυin sefələ r m/ noun a chart on which the electrical impulses in the brainare recorded. Abbreviation EEG electroencephalograph /i lektrəυin sefələ rɑ f/ noun an apparatus which records the electrical impulses in the brain electroencephalography /i lektrəυinsefə lɒ rəfi/ noun the process of recording the electrical impulses in the brain electrolysis /i lek trɒləsis/ noun the destruction of tissue such as unwanted hair by applying an electric current electrophoresis /i lektrəυfə ri sis/ noun the analysis of a substance by the movement of charged particles towards an electrode in a solution electroplexy /i lektrəυpleksi/ noun same as | electroencephalogram | | | | embolus paralysis by using low-frequency electric current to try to revive the muscles element / elimənt/ noun a basic simple chemical substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances. trace element elephantiasis / elifən taiəsis/ noun a condition in which parts of the body swell and the skin becomes hardened, frequently caused by infestation with various species of the parasitic worm Filaria elevate / eliveit/ verb to raise something or to lift something up To control bleeding, apply pressure and elevate the part. elevation sling / eli veiʃ(ə)n sliŋ/ noun a sling tied round the neck, used to hold an injured hand or arm in a high position to control bleeding elevator / eliveitə/ noun 1. a muscle which raises part of the body 2. a surgical instrument used to lift part of a broken bone elimination /i limi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of waste matter from the body elimination diet /i limi neiʃ(ə)n daiət/ noun a structured diet where different foods are eliminated one at a time in order to see the effect on symptoms, used in conditions such as allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ELISA /i laizə/ noun a process in which an enzyme binds to an antibody or antigen and causes a colour change that shows the presence or amount of protein in a sample of biological material. Full form enzyme-linked immunosorbent element elephantiasis | elevate elevation sling | elevator elimination | | elimination diet | | ELISA | assay electroencephalograph electroencephalography | | electrolysis | | electrophoresis | | electroplexy | electroconvulsive therapy electroretinogram /i kektrəυ retinə r m/ noun the printed result of electroretinography. Abbreviation ERG electroretinography /i lektrəυreti nɒ rəfi/ noun the process of recording electrical changes electroretinogram | | electroretinography | | in the retina when stimulated by light electrosurgery /i lektrəυ s d əri/ noun an operation in which the surgeon uses an electrical current to cut or cauterise tissue electrotherapy /i lektrəυ θerəpi/ noun the treatment of a disorder such as some forms of electrosurgery | | electrotherapy | | elixir elixir /i liksə/ noun a sweet liquid which hides the unpleasant taste of a drug elliptocytosis /i liptəυsai təυsis/ noun a condition in which unusual oval-shaped red cells appear in the blood emaciation /i meisi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the fact of being extremely thin and underweight 2. the loss of body tissue emasculation /i m skjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of the penis embalm /im bɑ m/ verb to preserve a dead body by using special antiseptic chemicals to prevent decay embolectomy / embə lektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a blood clot emboli / embəli/ plural of embolus embolisation / embəlai zeiʃ(ə)n/, embolization noun the use of emboli inserted down a catheter into a blood vessel to treat internal bleeding embolism / embəliz(ə)m/ noun the blocking of an artery by a mass of material, usually a blood clot, preventing the flow of blood embolus / embələs/ noun 1. a mass of material which blocks a blood vessel, e.g. a blood clot, air bubble or fat globule 2. material inserted into a | elliptocytosis | | emaciation | | emasculation | | embalm | embolectomy | emboli embolisation | embolism embolus Nursing.fm Page 92 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM embryo 92 blood vessel down a catheter to treat internal bleeding (NOTE: The plural is emboli.) embryo / embriəυ/ noun an unborn baby during the first eight weeks after conception (NOTE: After embryo eight weeks, the unborn baby is called a fetus.) embryological / embriə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective embryological | referring to embryology embryology / embri ɒləd i/ noun the study of the early stages of the development of an embryo embryonic / embri ɒnik/ adjective referring to an embryo embryonic membrane / embriɒnik membrein/ noun one of the two layers around an embryo providing protection and food supply, i.e. the amnion and the chorion emergency /i m d ənsi/ noun a situation where urgent immediate action has to be taken emesis / eməsis/ noun same as vomiting emetic /i metik/ noun a substance which causes vomiting í adjective causing vomiting eminence / eminəns/ noun something which protrudes from a surface, e.g. a lump on a bone or swelling on the skin emissary vein / emisəri vein/ noun a vein through the skull which connects the venous sinuses with the scalp veins emission /i miʃ(ə)n/ noun a discharge or release of fluid emmetropia /emi trəυpiə/ noun the correct focusing of light rays by the eye onto the retina giving normal vision. Compare ametropia emollient /i mɒliənt/ noun a substance which soothes or smooths the skin, e.g. to prevent the development of eczema í adjective smoothening emotion /i məυʃ(ə)n/ noun a strong feeling empathy / empəθi/ noun the ability to understand the problems and feelings of another person emphysema / emfi si mə/ noun a condition in which the walls of the alveoli of the lungs break down, reducing the surface available for gas exchange and resulting in a lower oxygen level in the blood and shortness of breath. It can be caused by smoking, living in a polluted environment, old age, asthma or whooping cough. empirical treatment /im pirik(ə)l tri tmənt/ noun treatment which is based on symptoms and clinical experience rather than on a thorough knowledge of the cause of the disorder empowerment /im paυəmənt/ noun the act of giving someone authority and power to make decisions that will affect them empyema / empai i mə/ noun the collection of pus in a cavity, especially in the pleural cavity. Also called pyothorax emulsion /i m lʃən/ noun a combination of liquids such as oil and water which do not usually mix EN abbreviation enrolled nurse embryology | embryonic | embryonic membrane emergency | emesis emetic | eminence emissary vein emission | emmetropia | emollient | emotion | empathy emphysema | empirical treatment | empowerment | empyema | emulsion | EN en- en- /en, in/ prefix 1. in, into 2. to provide with 3. to cause to be 4. to put into or cover with 5. to go into enalapril /e n ləpril/ noun a drug used for the short-term management of high blood pressure enamel /i n m(ə)l/ noun the hard white shiny outer covering of the crown of a tooth enarthrosis / enɑ θrəυsis/ noun a ball and socket joint, e.g. the hip joint encapsulated /in k psjυleitid/ adjective enclosed in a capsule or in a sheath of tissue encefalin /en kefəlin/ noun another spelling of enalapril | enamel | enarthrosis | encapsulated | encefalin | encephalin encephal- encephal- /enkif l/ prefix same as encephalo- (used before vowels) encephala encephala /en kefələ/ plural of encephalon encephalin /en kefəlin/ noun a peptide produced in the brain which acts as a natural painkiller. endorphin encephalitis /en kefə laitis, en sefə laitis/ noun inflammation of the brain encephalo- /enkefələ/ prefix referring to the brain encephalocele /en kefələυsi l/ noun a condition in which the brain protrudes through a congenital or traumatic gap in the skull bones encephalogram /en kefələ r m/, encephalograph /en kefələ rɑ f/ noun an X-ray photograph of the ventricles and spaces of the brain taken after air has been injected into the cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture encephaloma /en kefə ləυmə/ noun a tumour of the brain encephalomyelitis /en kefələυmaiə laitis/ noun a group of diseases which cause inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord encephalomyelopathy /en kefələυmaiə lɒpəθi/ noun any condition where the brain and spinal cord are diseased encephalon /en kefəlɒn/ noun same as brain | encephalin | encephalitis | | | | encephalo- encephalocele | encephalogram | | encephaloma | | encephalomyelitis | | encephalomyelopathy | | encephalon | (NOTE: The plural is encephala.) encephalopathy /en kefə lɒpəθi/ noun any encephalopathy | | disease of the brain enchondroma / enkən drəυmə/ noun a tumour formed of cartilage growing inside a bone encopresis / enkəυ pri sis/ noun faecal incontinence not associated with a physical condition or disease encysted /en sistid/ adjective enclosed in a capsule like a cyst end- /end/ prefix same as endo- (used before enchondroma | encopresis | encysted | end- vowels) endarterectomy endarterectomy / endɑ tə rektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the lining of a blocked artery. Also called rebore endarteritis / endɑ tə raitis/ noun inflammation of the inner lining of an artery | endarteritis | Nursing.fm Page 93 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 93 endarteritis obliterans endarteritis obliterans / endɑ t raitis ə blitərənz/ noun a condition where inflammation in an artery is so severe that it blocks the artery endaural /end ɔ rəl/ adjective inside the ear endemic /en demik/ adjective referring to any disease which is very common in specific places This disease is endemic to Mediterranean countries. endo- /endəυ/ prefix inside endobronchial / endəυ brɒŋkiəl/ adjective inside the bronchi endocardial / endəυ kɑ diəl/ adjective referring to the endocardium endocardial pacemaker / endəυkɑ diəl peismeikə/ noun a pacemaker attached to the lining of the heart endocarditis / endəυkɑ daitis/ noun inflammation of the membrane lining of the heart endocardium / endəυ kɑ diəm/ noun a membrane which lines the heart. See illustration at HEART in Supplement endocervicitis / endəυs vi saitis/ noun inflammation of the membrane in the neck of the uterus endocervix / endəυ s viks/ noun a membrane which lines the neck of the uterus endochondral / endəυ kɒndrəl/ adjective inside a cartilage endocrine / endəυkrain/ adjective relating to the endocrine glands or the hormones they secrete endocrine gland / endəυkrain l nd/ noun a gland without a duct which produces hormones which are introduced directly into the bloodstream, e.g. the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, the adrenal gland and the gonads. Also called ductless gland. Compare exocrine gland endocrine system / endəυkrain sistəm/ noun a system of related ductless glands endocrinologist / endəυkri nɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in the study of endocrinology endocrinology / endəυkri nɒləd i/ noun the study of the endocrine system, its function and effects endoderm / endəυd m/ noun the inner of three layers surrounding an embryo. Also called | | endaural | endemic | endo- endobronchial | endocardial | endocardial pacemaker endocarditis | endocardium | endocervicitis | endocervix | endochondral | endocrine endocrine gland endocrine system endocrinologist | endocrinology | endoderm entoderm endodermal endodermal / endəυ d m(ə)l/ adjective referring to the endoderm. Also called entoder| mal endothelial endogenous eczema endogenous eczema /en dɒd ənəs eksimə/ noun eczema which is caused by no obvious external factor endolymph / endəυlimf/ noun a fluid inside the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear endometrial / endəυ mi triəl/ adjective referring to the endometrium endometrial laser ablation / endəυmi triəl leizə əb leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a gynaecological surgical procedure using a laser to treat fibroids or other causes of thickening of the lining of the uterus endometriosis / endəυmi tri əυsis/ noun a condition affecting women, in which tissue similar to the tissue of the uterus is found in other parts of the body endometritis / endəυmi traitis/ noun inflammation of the lining of the uterus endometrium / endəυ mi triəm/ noun the mucous membrane lining the uterus, part of which is shed at each menstruation (NOTE: The | endolymph endometrial | endometrial laser ablation | endometriosis | endometritis | endometrium | plural is endometria.) endomyocarditis endomyocarditis / endəυmaiəυkɑ daitis/ noun inflammation of the muscle and inner membrane of the heart endomysium / endəυ misiəm/ noun connective tissue around and between muscle fibres endoneurium / endəυ njυəriəm/ noun fibrous tissue between the individual fibres in a nerve endoparasite / endəυ p rəsait/ noun a parasite which lives inside its host, e.g. in the intestines. Compare ectoparasite endophthalmitis / endɒfθ l maitis/ noun inflammation of the interior of the eyeball endorphin /en dɔ fin/ noun a peptide produced by the brain which acts as a natural painkiller. encephalin endoscope / endəskəυp/ noun an instrument used to examine the inside of the body, made of a thin tube which is passed into the body down a passage. The tube has a fibre optic light, and may have small surgical instruments attached. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography / endəυskɒpik retrə reid kə l nd iəυp ŋkriə tɒ rəfi/ noun a method used to examine the pancreatic duct and bile duct for possible obstructions. Abbreviation ERCP endoscopy /en dɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the inside of the body using an endoscope endoskeleton / endəυ skelit(ə)n/ noun the inner structure of bones and cartilage in an animal endosteum /en dɒstiəm/ noun a membrane lining the bone marrow cavity inside a long bone endothelial / endəυ θi liəl/ adjective referring to the endothelium | endomysium | endoneurium | endoparasite | endophthalmitis | endorphin | endoscope endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography | | endoscopy | endoskeleton endogenous endogenous /en dɒd ənəs/ adjective developing or being caused by something inside an organism. Compare exogenous endogenous depression /en dɒd ənəs di preʃ(ə)n/ noun depression caused by no obvious external factor | endogenous depression | | | endosteum | endothelial | Nursing.fm Page 94 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM endothelioma 94 endothelioma endothelioma / endəυθi li əυmə/ noun a malignant tumour originating inside the endothelium endothelium / endəυ θi liəm/ noun a membrane of special cells which lines the heart, the lymph vessels, the blood vessels and various body cavities. Compare epithelium, mesothelium endotoxin / endəυ tɒksin/ noun a toxic substance released after the death of some bacterial cells endotracheal / endəυ treikiəl/ adjective same as intratracheal endotracheal tube / endəυ treikiəl tju b/ noun a tube passed down the trachea, through either the nose or mouth, in anaesthesia or to help a person breathe end plate / end pleit/ noun the end of a motor nerve, where it joins muscle fibre end stage renal disease / end steid ri n(ə)l di zi z/ noun the stage of kidney disease at which uraemia occurs and dialysis needs to start. Abbreviation ESRD enema / enimə/ noun a liquid substance put into the rectum to introduce a drug into the body, to wash out the colon before an operation or for diagnosis energy / enəd i/ noun the force or strength to carry out activities You need to eat certain types of food to give you energy. enervation / enə veiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. general nervous weakness 2. a surgical operation to remove a nerve engagement /in eid mənt/ noun (in obstetrics) the moment where part of the fetus, usually the head, enters the pelvis at the beginning of labour engorged /in ɔ d d/ adjective excessively filled with liquid, usually blood engorgement /in ɔ d mənt/ noun the excessive filling of a vessel, usually with blood enkephalin /en kefəlin/ noun US another spelling of encephalin enophthalmos / enɒf θ lməs/ noun a condition in which the eyes are very deep in their sockets Enrolled Nurse /in rəυld n s/ noun ‘ sec- infusion of liquid food directly into the intestine. Also called enteral nutrition enteralgia / entər ld ə/ noun same as colic enterally / entərəli/ adverb referring to a method of feeding a person by nasogastric tube or directly into the intestine enteral nutrition / entərəl nju triʃ(ə)n/ noun same as enteral feeding enteric /en terik/ adjective referring to the intestine enteric-coated /en terik kəυtid/ adjective referring to a capsule with a coating which prevents it from being digested and releasing the drug until it reaches the intestine enteritis / entə raitis/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane of the intestine entero- /entərəυ/ prefix referring to the intestine Enterobacteria / entərəυb k tiəriə/ noun a family of Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia and Klebsiella enterobiasis / entərəυ baiəsis/ noun a common childrens disease, caused by threadworms in the large intestine which cause itching round the anus. Also called oxyuriasis Enterobius / entə rəυbiəs/ noun a small thin nematode worm, one species of which, Enterobius vermicularis, infests the large intestine and causes itching round the anus. Also called ond-level nurse enterotomy | endothelium | endotoxin | endotracheal | endotracheal tube | end plate end stage renal disease | enema energy enervation | engagement | engorged | engorgement | enkephalin | enophthalmos | Enrolled Nurse | enteralgia | enterally enteral nutrition | enteric | enteric-coated | enteritis | entero- Enterobacteria | enterobiasis | Enterobius | threadworm, pinworm enterocele / entərəυsi l/, enterocoele / enterəυsi l/ noun a hernia of the intestine enterocolitis / entərəυkə laitis/ noun inflamenterocele enterocolitis | mation of the colon and small intestine enterolith / entərəυliθ/ noun a stone in the intestine enteron / entərɒn/ noun the whole intestinal tract enteropathy / entə rɒpəθi/ noun any disorder of the intestine. gluten-induced enteropathy enteroscope / entərəskəυp/ noun an instrument for inspecting the inside of the intestine enterostomy / entə rɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the small intestine and the abdominal wall enterotomy / entə rɒtəmi/ noun a surgical incision in the intestine enterotoxin / entərəυ tɒksin/ noun a bacterial exotoxin which particularly affects the intestine enterovirus / entərəυ vairəs/ noun a virus which prefers to live in the intestine. Enteroviruses include poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackie viruses and the echoviruses. entoderm / entəυd m/ noun same as endoenterolith enteron enteropathy | enteroscope enterostomy | | ensiform cartilage ensiform cartilage / ensifɔ m kɑ təlid / noun same as xiphoid process ENT abbreviation Ear, Nose & Throat ENT department / i en ti di pɑ tmənt/ noun a department of otorhinolaryngology enter- /entə/ prefix same as entero- (used ENT ENT department | enter- before vowels) enteral / entərəl/ adjective referring to the intestine. Compare parenteral enteral feeding / entərəl fi diŋ/ noun the enteral enteral feeding feeding of a person by a nasogastric tube or by the enterotoxin | enterovirus | entoderm derm entodermal entodermal / entəυ d m(ə)l/ adjective same as endodermal | Nursing.fm Page 95 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 95 Entonox Entonox / entənɒks/ noun a gas consisting of 50% oxygen and 50% nitrous oxide that is used as a painkiller during childbirth entopic /in tɒpik/ adjective located or taking place in the usual position. Opposite ectopic entropion /in trəυpiən/ noun a turning of the edge of the eyelid towards the inside enucleation /i nju kli eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of all of a tumour enuresis / enjυ ri sis/ noun the involuntary passing of urine enuretic / enjυ retik/ adjective referring to enuresis, or causing enuresis environment /in vairənmənt/ noun the conditions and influences under which an organism lives environmental /in vairən ment(ə)l/ adjective referring to the environment Environmental Health Officer /in vairənment(ə)l helθ ɒfisə/ noun an official of a local authority who examines the environment and tests for air pollution, bad sanitation, noise pollution and similar threats to public health. Abbreviation EHO enzyme / enzaim/ noun a protein substance produced by living cells which aids a biochemical reaction in the body (NOTE: The names of entopic | entropion | enucleation | | enuresis | enuretic | environment | environmental | | Environmental Health Officer | enzyme enzymes mostly end with the suffix -ase.) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay / enzaim liŋkt imjυnəυ sɔ bənt sei/ noun full form of ELISA eonism / i əniz(ə)m/ noun cross-dressing, when a male wears female dress eosin / i əυsin/ noun a red crystalline solid used as a biological staining dye eosinopenia / i əυsinə pi niə/ noun a reduction in the number of eosinophils in the blood eosinophil / i əυ sinəfil/ noun a type of cell that can be stained with eosin eosinophilia / i əυsinə filiə/ noun an excess of eosinophils in the blood ependyma /i pendimə/ noun a thin membrane which lines the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord ependymal /i pendim(ə)l/ adjective referring to the ependyma ependymal cell /i pendim(ə)l sel/ noun one of the cells which form the ependyma ependymoma /i pendi məυmə/ noun a tumour in the brain originating in the ependyma ephedrine / efidri n/ noun a drug that relieves asthma and blocked noses by causing the air passages to widen ephidrosis / efi drəυsis/ noun an unusual amount of sweat epi- /epi/ prefix on or over | eonism eosin eosinopenia | eosinophil | eosinophilia | ependyma | ependymal | ependymal cell | ependymoma | ephedrine ephidrosis | epi- | epididymal epiblepharon epiblepharon / epi blefərɒn/ noun an unusual fold of skin over the eyelid, which may press the eyelashes against the eyeball epicanthus / epi k nθəs/, epicanthic fold / epik nθik fəυld/ noun a large fold of skin in the inner corner of the eye, common in babies and also found in adults of some groups such as the Chinese epicardial / epi kɑ diəl/ adjective referring to the epicardium epicardial pacemaker / epikɑ diəl peismeikə/ noun a pacemaker attached to the surface of the ventricle epicardium / epi kɑ diəm/ noun the inner layer of the pericardium which lines the walls of the heart, outside the myocardium. See illustration at HEART in Supplement epicondyle / epi kɒndail/ noun a projecting part of the round end of a bone above the condyle epicondylitis / epikɒndi laitis/ noun same as | epicanthus | epicardial | epicardial pacemaker epicardium | epicondyle | epicondylitis | tennis elbow epicranium epicranium / epi kreiniəm/ noun the five layers of the scalp, the skin and hair on the head covering the skull epicritic / epi kritik/ adjective referring to the nerves which govern the fine senses of touch and temperature epidemic / epi demik/ adjective spreading quickly through a large part of the population The disease rapidly reached epidemic proportions. í noun an outbreak of an infectious disease which spreads very quickly and affects a large number of people epidemiologist / epi di mi ɒləd ist/ noun a person who spees in the study of diseases in groups of people epidemiology / epi di mi ɒləd i/ noun the study of diseases in the community, in particular how they spread and how they can be controlled epidermal / epi d m(ə)l/ adjective referring to the epidermis epidermis / epi d mis/ noun the outer layer of the skin, including the dead skin on the surface. Also called cuticle epidermoid cyst / epid mɔid sist/ noun same as sebaceous cyst epidermolysis / epid mɒləsis/ noun separation of the epidermis from the tissue underneath, usually forming a blister epidermolysis bullosa / epid mɒləsis bυ ləυsə/ noun a group of disorders where blisters form on the skin Epidermophyton / epid mɒfitən/ noun a fungus which grows on the skin and causes athletes foot, among other disorders epididymal / epi didim(ə)l/ adjective referring to the epididymis | epicritic | epidemic | epidemiologist | | epidemiology | | epidermal | epidermis | epidermoid cyst epidermolysis | epidermolysis bullosa | Epidermophyton | epididymal | | Nursing.fm Page 96 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM epididymectomy 96 epididymectomy epididymectomy / epididi mektəmi/ noun the removal of the epididymis epididymis / epi didimis/ noun a long twisting thin tube at the back of the testis, which forms part of the efferent duct of the testis, and in which spermatozoa are stored before ejaculation. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (MALE) in Supplement epididymitis / epididi maitis/ noun inflammation of the epididymis epididymo-orchitis /epi didiməυ ɔ kaitis/ noun inflammation of the epididymis and the testes epidural / epi djυərəl/ adjective on the outside of the dura mater. Also called extradural í noun same as epidural anaesthesia epidural anaesthesia /epi djυərəl nəs θi ziə/ noun a local anaesthesia in which anaesthetic is injected into the space between the vertebral canal and the dura mater epidural block / epidjυərəl blɒk/ noun analgesia produced by injecting an analgesic solution into the space between the vertebral canal and the dura mater epidural space / epidjυərəl speis/ noun a space in the spinal cord between the vertebral canal and the dura mater epigastric / epi strik/ adjective referring to the upper abdomen The patient complained of pains in the epigastric area. epigastrium / epi striəm/ noun the part of the upper abdomen between the ribcage and the navel. Also called the pit of the stomach epiglottis / epi lɒtis/ noun a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue which moves to block the windpipe when food is swallowed, so that the food does not go down the trachea epiglottitis / epi lɒ taitis/ noun inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis epilation / epi leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of removing hair by destroying the hair follicles epilepsy / epilepsi/ noun a disorder of the nervous system in which there are convulsions and loss of consciousness due to a disordered discharge of cerebral neurones epileptic / epi leptik/ adjective having epilepsy, or relating to epilepsy í noun a person with epilepsy (NOTE: The word epileptic to | epididymis | epididymitis | epididymo-orchitis | | epidural | epidural anaesthesia | | epidural block epidural space epigastric | epigastrium | epiglottis | epiglottitis | epilation | epilepsy epileptic | describe a person is now avoided.) epileptic fit / epileptik fit/ noun an attack of epileptic fit convulsions, and sometimes unconsciousness, due to epilepsy epileptiform / epi leptifɔ m/ adjective being similar to epilepsy epiloia / epi lɔiə/ noun a hereditary disease of the brain associated with learning disabilities, epilepsy and tumours on the kidney and heart. Also called tuberose sclerosis epileptiform | epiloia | epimenorrhagia epimenorrhagia / epimenə reid ə/ noun very heavy bleeding during menstruation occurring at very short intervals epimenorrhoea / epimenə ri ə/ noun menstruation at shorter intervals than twenty-eight days epiphora /e pifərə/ noun a condition in which the eye fills with tears either because the lacrimal duct is blocked or because excessive tears are being secreted epiphyseal / epi fiziəl/ adjective referring to an epiphysis epiphysis /e pifəsis/ noun the area of growth in a bone which is separated from the main part of the bone by cartilage until bone growth stops. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement. Compare diaphysis, metaphysis epiplo- /epipləυ/ prefix referring to the omentum epiploon /e pipləυɒn/ noun same as omentum episclera / episkliərə/ noun the outer surface of the sclera of the eyeball episcleritis / episklə raitis/ noun inflammation of the outer surface of the sclera in the eyeball episi- /əpizi/, episio- /əpiziəυ/ prefix referring to the vulva episiorrhaphy /ə pizi ɔ rəfi/ noun a procedure for stitching torn labia majora episiotomy /ə pizi ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical cut of the perineum near the vagina to prevent tearing during childbirth episodic / epi sɒdik/ adjective happening in separate but related incidents, e.g. asthma which occurs in separate attacks epispadias / epi speidiəs/ noun a congenital condition where the urethra opens on the top of the penis and not at the end. Compare hypospa| epimenorrhoea | epiphora | epiphyseal | epiphysis | epiplo- epiploon | episclera episcleritis | episi- episiorrhaphy | | episiotomy | | episodic | epispadias | dias epistaxis epistaxis / epi st ksis/ noun same as nose| bleed epithelial epithelial / epi θi liəl/ adjective referring to the epithelium epithelialisation / epi θi liəlai zeiʃ(ə)n/, epithelialization noun the growth of skin over a wound epithelioma /epiθi li əυmə/ noun a tumour arising from epithelial cells epithelium / epi θi liəm/ noun the layer or layers of cells covering an organ, including the skin and the lining of all hollow cavities except blood vessels, lymphatics and serous cavities. Compare | epithelialisation | | | epithelioma | epithelium | endothelium, mesothelium EpsteinBarr virus / epstain bɑ vairəs/ noun a virus which probably causes glandular fever. Also called EB virus [Isolated and described 1964. After Michael Anthony Epstein (b. 1921), Bristol pathologist; Murray Llewellyn EpsteinBarr virus Nursing.fm Page 97 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 97 Barr (190895), Canadian anatomist and cytologist, head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Western Ontario, Canada.] epulis epulis /i pju lis/ noun a small fibrous swelling on a gum equi- /i kwi, ekwi/ prefix equal equilibrium / i kwi libriəm/ noun a state of balance ER abbreviation 1. US emergency room 2. endoplasmic reticulum Erbs palsy / bz pɔ lzi/, Erbs paralysis / bz pə r ləsis/ noun a condition in which an arm is paralysed because of birth injuries to the brachial plexus. Bells palsy ERCP abbreviation endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography erectile /i rektail/ adjective able to become erect erectile dysfunction /i rektail dis f ŋkʃən/ noun a condition in which a man finds it difficult or impossible to have or maintain an erection during intercourse erection /i rekʃən/ noun a state where a body part such as the penis becomes swollen because of engorgement with blood erector /i rektə/ noun a small muscle which raises a body part erector spinae /i rektə spaini / noun a large muscle starting at the base of the spine, and dividing as it runs up the spine ERG abbreviation electroretinogram ergonomics / ə nɒmiks/ noun the study of humans at work ergot / ət/ noun a disease of rye caused by the fungus Clariceps purpurea ergotamine / ɒtəmi n/ noun a drug that causes narrowing of blood vessels and alleviates migraine, derived from the ergot fungus ergotism / ətiz(ə)m/ noun poisoning caused by eating rye which has been contaminated with the ergot fungus erogenous /i rɒd ənəs/ adjective producing sexual excitement erogenous zone /i rɒd ənəs zəυn/ noun a part of the body which, if stimulated, produces sexual arousal, e.g. the penis, clitoris or nipples erotic /i rɒtik/ adjective relating to or arousing the feeling of sexual desire ERPC abbreviation evacuation of retained products of conception eructation / i r k teiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as | equi- equilibrium | ER Erbs palsy | ERCP erectile | erectile dysfunction | | erection | erector | erector spinae | ERG ergonomics | ergot ergotamine | ergotism erogenous | erogenous zone | erotic | ERPC eructation | belching erythrogenesis erythema erythema / eri θi mə/ noun redness on the skin, caused by hyperaemia of the blood vessels near the surface erythema ab igne / eriθi mə b i nei/ noun a pattern of red lines on the skin caused by exposure to heat erythema induratum / eriθi mə indjυ reitəm/ noun a tubercular disease where ulcerating nodules appear on the legs of young women. Also called Bazins disease erythema multiforme / eriθi mə m ltifɔ mi/ noun the sudden appearance of inflammatory red patches and sometimes blisters on the skin erythema nodosum / eriθi mə nəυ dəυsəm/ noun an inflammatory disease where red swellings appear on the front of the legs erythema pernio / eriθi mə p niəυ/ noun same as chilblain erythematous / eri θi mətəs/ adjective referring to erythema erythr- /eriθr/ prefix same as erythro- (used | erythema ab igne erythema induratum | erythema multiforme erythema nodosum | erythema pernio erythematous | erythr- before vowels) erythrasma erythrasma / eri θr zmə/ noun a persistent bacterial skin infection occurring in a fold in the skin or where two skin surfaces touch, such as between the toes. It is caused by Corynebacterium. erythro- /iriθrəυ/ prefix red erythroblast /i riθrəbl st/ noun a cell which forms an erythrocyte or red blood cell erythroblastosis /i riθrəυbl stəυsis/ noun the presence of erythroblasts in the blood, usually found in haemolytic anaemia erythroblastosis fetalis /i riθrəυbl stəυsis fi tɑ lis/ noun a blood disease affecting newborn babies, caused by a reaction between the rhesus factor of the mother and the fetus erythrocyte /i riθrəsait/ noun a mature red blood cell erythrocyte sedimentation rate /i riθrəsait sedimen teiʃ(ə)n reit/ noun a test that measures how fast erythrocytes settle in a sample of blood plasma, used to confirm whether various blood conditions are present. Abbreviation ESR erythrocytosis /i riθrəsai təυsis/ noun an increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood erythroderma /i riθrə d mə/ noun a condition in which the skin becomes red and flakes off erythroedema /i riθrɔi di mə/ noun same as | erythro- erythroblast | erythroblastosis | | erythroblastosis fetalis | | | | erythrocyte | erythrocyte sedimentation rate | | erythrocytosis | | erythroderma | | erythroedema | | acrodynia eruption eruption /i r pʃən/ noun something which breaks through the skin, e.g. a rash or pimple ery- /eri/ prefix same as erythro| ery- erythrogenesis erythrogenesis /i riθrə d enəsis/, erythropoiesis /i riθrəpɔi i sis/ noun the formation of red blood cells in red bone marrow | | | | Nursing.fm Page 98 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM erythropenia 98 erythropenia erythropenia /i riθrə pi niə/ noun a condition in which a person has a low number of erythrocytes in their blood erythroplasia /i riθrə pleiziə/ noun the formation of lesions on the mucous membrane erythropoiesis /i riθrəpɔi i sis/ noun same as | | erythroplasia | | erythropoiesis | | erythrogenesis erythropoietin erythropoietin /i riθrə pɔiətin/ noun a hormone which regulates the production of red blood cells erythropsia / eri θrɒpsiə/ noun a condition in which someone sees things as if coloured red eschar / eskɑ / noun a dry scab, e.g. one forming on a burn Escherichia / eʃə rikiə/ noun a bacterium commonly found in faeces Escherichia coli /eʃə rikiə kəυlai/ noun a Gram-negative bacterium associated with acute gastroenteritis. Also called E. coli Esmarchs bandage / esmɑ ks b ndid / noun a rubber band wrapped round a limb as a tourniquet before a surgical operation and left in place during the operation so as to keep the site free of blood [Described 1869. After Johann | | erythropsia | eschar Escherichia | Escherichia coli | Esmarchs bandage Friedrich August von Esmarch (18231908), Professor of Surgery at Kiel, Germany.] esotropia /esə trəυpiə/ noun a type of squint, esotropia | where the eyes both look towards the nose. Also called convergent strabismus ESR abbreviation erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESRD abbreviation end-stage renal disease essence / es(ə)ns/ noun a concentrated oil from a plant, used in cosmetics, and sometimes as analgesics or antiseptics essential amino acid /i senʃəl ə mi nəυ sid/ noun an amino acid which is necessary for growth but which cannot be synthesised in the body and has to be obtained from the food supply ESR ESRD essence essential amino acid | | COMMENT: The essential amino acids are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. essential element /i senʃəl elimənt/ noun a essential element | chemical element which is necessary to the bodys growth or function, e.g. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen essential fatty acid /i senʃəl f ti sid/ noun an unsaturated fatty acid which is necessary for growth and health. Abbreviation EFA essential fatty acid | leic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. essential tremor | ethambutol | ethanol ethene ether ethical ethical committee | ethics ethinyloestradiol | | ethmoid | | ethmoidal sinuses | ethmoid bone ethmoidectomy | ethmoiditis | ethnic ethyl alcohol ethanol ethylene ethylene / eθəli n/ noun a gas used as an anaesthetic ethylestrenol / eθ(ə)l estrənɒl/ noun an anabolic steroid etiology / i ti ɒləd i/ noun US same as aetiolethylestrenol | etiology | eucalyptus / ju kə liptəs/ noun a genus of tree growing mainly in Australia, from which a strongly smelling oil is distilled eucalyptus oil / ju kə liptəs ɔil/ noun an aromatic medicinal oil distilled from the leaves of various species of tree in the genus Eucalyptus eugenics /ju d eniks/ noun the study of how to improve the human race by genetic selection eunuch / ju nək/ noun a castrated male | essential hypertension /i senʃəl haipə tenʃən/ noun high blood pressure without any obvious cause essential oil /i senʃəl ɔil/ noun a medicinal or fragrant oil distilled from some part of a plant essential tremor /i senʃəl tremə/ noun an involuntary slow trembling movement of the hands often seen in elderly people | | eucalyptus essential hypertension essential oil essential uterine haemorrhage /i senʃəl ju tərain hem(ə)rid / noun heavy uterine bleeding for which there is no obvious cause ethambutol /i θ mbjυtɒl/ noun a drug that is part of the treatment for bacterial infections such as tuberculosis ethanol / eθənɒl/ noun a colourless liquid, present in alcoholic drinks such as whisky, gin and vodka, and also used in medicines and as a disinfectant. Also called ethyl alcohol ethene / i θi n/ noun same as ethylene ether / i θə/ noun an anaesthetic substance, now rarely used ethical / eθik(ə)l/ adjective concerning ethics ethical committee / eθik(ə)l kə miti/ noun a group of spets who monitor experiments involving human beings or who regulate the way in which members of the medical profession conduct themselves ethics / eθiks/ noun ‘ medical ethics ethinyloestradiol / eθin(ə)l i strə daiɒl/ noun an artificial hormone related to oestrogen that is effective in small doses. It forms part of hormone replacement therapy. ethmoid /eθ mɔid/, ethmoidal /eθ mɔid(ə)l/ adjective referring to the ethmoid bone or near to the ethmoid bone ethmoidal sinuses /eθ mɔid(ə)l sainəsiz/ plural noun air cells inside the ethmoid bone ethmoid bone / eθmɔid bəυn/ noun a bone which forms the top of the nasal cavity and part of the orbits ethmoidectomy / eθmɔi dektəmi/ noun an operation to remove the lining between the sinuses ethmoiditis / eθmɔi daitis/ noun inflammation of the ethmoid bone or of the ethmoidal sinuses ethnic / eθnik/ adjective relating to a culturally or racially distinctive group of people ethyl alcohol / iθail lkəhɒl/ noun same as ogy COMMENT: The essential fatty acids are lino| essential uterine haemorrhage | eucalyptus oil | eugenics | eunuch Nursing.fm Page 99 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 99 euphoria euphoria /ju fɔ riə/ noun a feeling of extreme happiness Eustachian canal /ju steiʃ(ə)n kə n l/ noun a passage through the porous bone forming the outside part of the Eustachian tube Eustachian tube /ju steiʃ(ə)n tju b/ noun the tube which connects the pharynx to the middle ear. See illustration at EAR in Supplement | Eustachian canal | | Eustachian tube | [Described 1562, but actually named after Eustachio by Valsalva a century later. Bartolomeo Eustachio (152074), physician to the Pope and Professor of Anatomy in Rome.] exenteration evulsion evulsion /i v lʃən/ noun the act of extracting something by force Ewings tumour / ju iŋz tju mə/, Ewings sarcoma / ju iŋz sɑ kəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour in the marrow of a long bone [Described | Ewings tumour | 1922. After James Ewing (18661943), Professor of Pathology at Cornell University, New York, USA.] EWS / i d b(ə)lju es/ noun an early warning EWS system designed to alert healthcare professionals to new developments in technologies, pharmaceuticals and treatments ex- /eks/ prefix same as exo- (used before vowex- euthanasia euthanasia / ju θə neiziə/ noun the painless killing of an incurably ill person or someone in a permanent coma in order to end their distress. Also called mercy killing (NOTE: This practice is | illegal in most countries.) euthyroid euthyroid /ju θairɔid/ noun a condition where the thyroid is functioning normally evacuant /i v kjuənt/ noun a medicine which makes a person have a bowel movement evacuation /i v kju eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of removing the contents of something, especially discharging faeces from the bowel evacuation of retained products of conception /iv kju eiʃ(ə)n əv ri teind prɒd kts əv kən sepʃən/ noun a D & C operation performed after an abortion or miscarriage to ensure the uterus is left empty. Abbreviation | evacuant | evacuation | | evacuation of retained products of conception | | | ERPC evaluation evaluation /i v lju eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of examining and calculating the quantity or level of something In further evaluation of these patients no side-effects of the treatment were noted. eventration / i ven treiʃ(ə)n/ noun the pushing of the intestine through the wall of the abdomen eversion /i v ʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of turning towards the outside or turning inside out. See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement evertor /i v tə/ noun a muscle which makes a limb turn outwards evidence-based / evid(ə)ns beist/ adjective based on the results of well-designed trials of specific types of treatment for specific conditions evidence-based practice evidence-based medicine / evid(ə)ns beist med(ə)sin/ noun medical practice where findings from research are used as the basis for decisions evisceration /i visə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of the abdominal viscera. Also called | | eventration | eversion | evertor | evidence-based evidence-based medicine evisceration | | exenteration evolution evolution / i və lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a process of change in organisms which takes place over a very long period involving many generations | els) exacerbation exacerbation /i z sə beiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the fact of making a condition worse 2. a period when a condition becomes worse exanthem /i z nθəm/ noun a skin rash found with infectious diseases like measles or chickenpox exanthematous / eks n θemətəs/ adjective referring to an exanthem or like an exanthem exception /ik sepʃən/ noun 1. something that does not fit into or is excluded from a general rule or pattern 2. the act or condition of being excluded exchange transfusion /iks tʃeind tr ns fju (ə)n/ noun a method of treating leukaemia or erythroblastosis in newborn babies, where almost all the blood is removed from the body and replaced with healthy blood excise /ik saiz/ verb to cut something out excision /ik si (ə)n/ noun an operation by a surgeon to cut and remove part of the body such as a growth. Compare incision excitation / eksi teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the state of being mentally or physically aroused excite /ik sait/ verb 1. to stimulate someone or something 2. to give an impulse to a nerve or muscle excoriation /iks kɔ ri eiʃ(ə)n/ noun a raw skin surface or mucous membrane after rubbing or burning excrement / ekskrimənt/ noun same as fae| | exanthem | exanthematous | exception | exchange transfusion | | excise | excision | excitation | excite | excoriation | | excrement ces excrescence excrescence /ik skres(ə)ns/ noun a growth on the skin excreta /ik skri tə/ plural noun waste material from the body, especially faeces excretion /ik skri ʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of passing waste matter, e.g. faeces, urine or sweat, out of the body excruciating /ik skru ʃieitiŋ/ adjective extremely painful He had excruciating pains in his head. exenteration /ek sentə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as evisceration | excreta | excretion | excruciating | exenteration | | Nursing.fm Page 100 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM exercise 100 exercise exercise / eksəsaiz/ noun 1. physical or mental activity, especially the active use of the muscles as a way of keeping fit, correcting a deformity or strengthening a part Regular exercise is good for your heart. He doesnt do or take enough exercise. 2. a particular movement or action designed to use and strengthen the muscles í verb to take exercise, or exert part of the body in exercise He exercises twice a day to keep fit. exercise-induced asthma / eksəsaiz in dju st smə/ noun asthma which is caused by exercise such as running or cycling. Abbreviation exercise-induced asthma | EIA exfoliation exfoliation /eks fəυli eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the loss of layers of tissue such as sunburnt skin exfoliative /eks fəυlieitiv/ adjective referring to exfoliation exfoliative dermatitis /eks fəυliətiv d mə taitis/ noun a typical form of dermatitis where the skin becomes red and comes off in flakes exhalation / ekshə leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of breathing out. Opposite inhalation exhale /eks heil/ verb to breathe out. Opposite | | exfoliative | exfoliative dermatitis | | exhalation | exhale | inhale exhibitionism exhibitionism / eksi biʃ(ə)niz(ə)m/ noun a desire to show the genitals to a person of the opposite sex exo- /eksəυ/ prefix out of, outside exocrine gland / eksəkrain l nd/ noun a gland with ducts which channel secretions to particular parts of the body such as the liver, the sweat glands, the pancreas and the salivary glands. Compare endocrine gland exogenous /ek sɒd ənəs/ adjective developing or caused by something outside the organism. Compare endogenous exomphalos /ek sɒmfələs/ noun same as | exo- exocrine gland exogenous | exomphalos | umbilical hernia exophthalmic goitre exophthalmic goitre / eksɒfθ lmik ɔitə/ noun a form of hyperthyroidism, in which the neck swells and the eyes protrude. Also called Graves disease expectoration expectoration /ik spektə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of coughing up fluid or phlegm from the respiratory tract experiential learning /ik spiərienʃəl l niŋ/ noun the process of learning from experience expert patient / eksp t peiʃ(ə)nt/ noun a patient with a long-term illness who has been taught how to manage his or her own medical care expiration / ekspə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of breathing out, or pushing air out of the lungs Expiration takes place when the chest muscles relax and the lungs become smaller. Opposite inspiration 2. death expire /ik spaiə/ verb 1. to breathe out 2. to die exploration / eksplə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a procedure or surgical operation where the aim is to discover the cause of symptoms or the nature and extent of an illness exploratory surgery /ik splɒrət(ə)ri s d əri/ noun a surgical operation in which the aim is to discover the cause of a persons symptoms or the nature and extent of an illness expression /ik spreʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the look on a persons face which shows what he or she thinks and feels His expression showed that he was annoyed. 2. the act of pushing something out of the body the expression of the fetus and placenta during childbirth exsanguinate /ik s ŋ wineit/ verb to drain blood from the body exsanguination /ik s ŋ wi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of blood from the body extension /ik stenʃən/ noun 1. the stretching or straightening out of a joint 2. the stretching of a joint by traction extensor /ik stensə/, extensor muscle /ik stensə m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle which makes a joint become straight. Compare flexor exterior /ik stiəriə/ noun the outside of something externa /ik st nə/ ‘ otitis external cardiac massage /ik st n(ə)l kɑ di k m sɑ / noun a method of making someones heart start beating again by rhythmic pressing on the breastbone external ear /ik st n(ə)l iə/ noun same as | | experiential learning | expert patient expiration | expire | exploration | exploratory surgery | expression | exsanguinate | exsanguination | | extension | extensor | | exterior | externa | external cardiac massage | exophthalmos exophthalmos / eksɒf θ lməs/ noun protruding eyeballs exostosis / eksə stəυsis/ noun a benign growth on the surface of a bone exotic /i zɒtik/ adjective referring to a disease which occurs in a foreign country exotoxin / eksəυ tɒksin/ noun a poison, produced by bacteria, which affects parts of the body away from the place of infection, e.g. the toxins which cause botulism or tetanus exotropia / eksəυ trəυpiə/ noun same as | exostosis | exotic | exotoxin | exotropia | divergent strabismus expectant mother /ik spektənt m ðə/ noun expectant mother | a pregnant woman expectorant /ik spekt(ə)rənt/ noun a drug which helps someone to cough up phlegm expectorant | external ear | outer ear external haemorrhoids external haemorrhoids /ik st n(ə)l hemərɔidz/ plural noun haemorrhoids in the skin just outside the anus external iliac artery /ik st n(ə)l ili k ɑ təri/ noun an artery which branches from the aorta in the abdomen and leads to the leg external jugular /ik st n(ə)l d jυlə/ noun the main jugular vein in the neck, leading from the temporal vein external nares /ik st n(ə)l neəri z/ plural noun same as anterior nares | external iliac artery | external jugular | external nares | Nursing.fm Page 101 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 101 external otitis external otitis /ik st n(ə)l ə taitis/ noun same as otitis externa external respiration /ik st n(ə)l respi reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the part of respiration concerned with oxygen in the air being exchanged in the lungs for carbon dioxide from the blood exteroceptor / ekstərəυseptə/ noun a sensory nerve which is affected by stimuli from outside the body, e.g. in the eye or ear extinction /ik stiŋkʃən/ noun 1. the destruction or stopping of something 2. the lessening or stopping of a conditioned behavioural response through lack of reinforcement extirpation / ekst peiʃ(ə)n/ noun the total removal of a structure, an organ or growth by surgery extra- /ekstrə/ prefix outside extracapsular / ekstrə k psjυlə/ adjective outside a capsule extracapsular fracture / ekstrə k psjυlə fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture of the upper part of the femur, which does not involve the capsule round the hip joint extracellular / ekstrə seljυlə/ adjective outside cells extracellular fluid / ekstrəseljυlə flu id/ noun a fluid which surrounds cells extract noun / ekstr kt/ a preparation made by removing water or alcohol from a substance, leaving only the essence í verb /ik str kt/ to take Adrenaline extracted from the out something animals adrenal glands is used in the treatment of asthma. extraction /ik str kʃən/ noun the removal of part of the body, especially a tooth extradural / ekstrə djυərəl/ adjective same as | | external respiration | | exteroceptor extinction | extirpation | extra- extracapsular | extracapsular fracture | extracellular | extracellular fluid extract | extraction | extradural | epidural extrasensory / ekstrə sensəri/ adjective involving perception by means other than the usual five senses extrasystole / ekstrə sistəli/ noun same as | extrasystole | ectopic heartbeat extrauterine / ekstrə ju tərain/ extrauterine | adjective occurring or developing outside the uterus extrauterine pregnancy / ekstrəju tərain pre nənsi/ noun same as ectopic pregnancy extravasation /ek str və seiʃ(ə)n/ noun a situation where a bodily fluid, such as blood or secretions, escapes into tissue extraversion / ekstrə v ʃ(ə)n/ noun same as extrauterine pregnancy extravasation | | extraversion | extroversion extravert / ekstrəv t/ noun same as extrovert extremities /ik stremətiz/ plural noun the extravert extremities | parts of the body at the ends of limbs, e.g. the fingers, toes, nose and ears extremity /ik stremiti/ noun 1. a limb 2. the part of a limb farthest away from the body, especially the hand or foot 3. a situation or state of great distress or danger 4. the greatest intensity of something extrinsic /eks trinsik/ adjective external, originating outside a structure extrinsic factor /eks trinsik f ktə/ noun a former term for vitamin B12, which is necessary for the production of red blood cells extrinsic muscle /eks trinsik m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle which is some way away from the part of the body which it operates extroversion /ekstrə v ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. (in psychology) a condition in which a person is interested in people and things other than themselves 2. a congenital turning of an organ inside out extrovert / ekstrəv t/ noun a person who is interested in people and things in the external world extubation / ekstju beiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of a tube after intubation eye /ai/ noun the part of the body with which a person sees (NOTE: For other terms referring to extremity | extrinsic | extrinsic factor | extrinsic muscle | extroversion | extrovert extradural haematoma extradural haematoma / ekstrə djυərəl hi mə təυmə/ noun a blood clot which forms in the head outside the dura mater, caused by a blow extradural haemorrhage / ekstrə djυərəl hem(ə)rid / noun a serious condition where bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the skull extraembryonic membranes / ekstrə embri ɒnik membreinz/ plural noun membranes which are not part of the embryo extrapleural / ekstrə plυərəl/ adjective outside the pleural cavity extrapyramidal / ekstrəpi r mid(ə)l/ adjective outside the pyramidal tracts extrapyramidal system / ekstrəpi r mid(ə)l sistəm/ noun a motor system which carries motor nerves outside the pyramidal system extrapyramidal tracts / ekstrəpi r mid(ə)l tr kts/ plural noun same as extrapyramidal | | extradural haemorrhage | extraembryonic membranes | | extrapleural | extrapyramidal | extrapyramidal system | extrapyramidal tracts | system eyelid extrasensory extubation | eye the eye, see ocular, optic and words beginning with oculo-, ophth-, ophthalm-, ophthalmo-.) eyeball / aibɔ lz/ noun the round ball of tissue eyeball through which light passes, located in the eye socket and controlled by various muscles eyebrow / aibraυ/ noun an arch of skin with a line of hair above the eye eye drops / ai drɒps/ plural noun medicine in liquid form which is put into the eye in small amounts eyelash / ail ʃ/ noun a small hair which grows out from the edge of the eyelid eyelid / ailid/ noun a piece of skin which covers the eye. Also called blepharon, palpebra eyebrow eye drops eyelash eyelid Nursing.fm Page 102 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM eye socket (NOTE: For other terms referring to the eyelids, see words beginning with blephar-, blepharo-.) eye socket / ai sɒkit/ noun same as orbit eyestrain / aistrein/ noun tiredness in the museye socket eyestrain cles of the eye with a headache, which may be caused by an activity such as reading in bad light 102 or working on a computer screen. Also called asthenopia eyetooth / aitu θ/ noun a canine tooth, one of eyetooth two pairs of pointed teeth next to the incisors (NOTE: The plural is eyeteeth.) Nursing.fm Page 103 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM F F F abbreviation Fahrenheit face /feis/ noun the front part of the head, where the eyes, nose and mouth are placed í verb to have your face towards or to look towards something Please face the screen. face delivery / feis di liv(ə)ri/ noun a birth where the babys face appears first face lift / feis lift/, face-lifting operation / feis liftiŋ ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to remove wrinkles on the face and neck face presentation / feis prez(ə)n teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a position of a baby in the uterus where the face will appear first at birth facet / f sit/ noun a flat surface on a bone facet syndrome / f sit sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which a joint in the vertebrae becomes dislocated facial / feiʃ(ə)l/ adjective relating to, or appearing on, the face The psychiatrist examined the patients facial expression. facial bone / feiʃ(ə)l bəυn/ noun one of the fourteen bones which form the face face face delivery | face lift | face presentation | facet facet syndrome facial facial bone COMMENT: The bones which make up the face are: two maxillae forming the upper jaw; two nasal bones forming the top part of the nose; two lacrimal bones on the inside of the orbit near the nose; two zygomatic or malar bones forming the sides of the cheeks; two palatine bones forming the back part of the top of the mouth; two nasal conchae or turbinate bones which form the sides of the nasal cavity; the mandible or lower jaw; and the vomer in the centre of the nasal septum. facial paralysis / feiʃ(ə)l pə r ləsis/ noun same as Bells palsy facies / feiʃii z/ noun someones facial appearfacial paralysis | facies ance, used as a guide to diagnosis factor / f ktə/ noun 1. something which has an influence or which makes something else take place 2. a substance, variously numbered, e.g. Factor I, Factor II, in the plasma, which makes the blood coagulate when a blood vessel is injured Factor II / f ktə tu / noun same as profactor Factor II thrombin Factor IX Factor IX / f ktə nain/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in people with haemophilia B. Also called Christmas factor Factor VIII / f ktər eit/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in people with haemophilia A Factor XI / f ktər i lev(ə)n/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in people with haemophilia C Factor XII / f ktə twelv/ noun a protein in plasma which promotes the clotting of blood and is lacking in some people with haemophilia. Also called Hageman factor fade away / feid ə wei/ verb to be in the process of dying (informal ) faecal / fi k(ə)l/ adjective referring to faeces faecal impaction / fi kl(ə)l im p kʃən/ noun a condition in which a hardened mass of faeces stays in the rectum faecal incontinence / fi k(ə)l in kɒntinəns/ noun an inability to control the bowel movements faecalith / fi kəliθ/ noun same as coprolith faecal matter / fi k(ə)l m tə/ noun solid waste matter from the bowels faeces / fi si z/ plural noun solid waste matter passed from the bowels through the anus. Also called stools, bowel movement (NOTE: For Factor VIII Factor XI | Factor XII fade away | faecal faecal impaction | faecal incontinence | faecalith faecal matter faeces other terms referring to faeces, see words beginning with sterco-.) Fahrenheit Fahrenheit / f rənhait/, Fahrenheit scale / f rənhait skeil/ noun a scale of temperatures where the freezing and boiling points of water are 32° and 212° under standard atmospheric pressure (NOTE: Used in the US, but less common in the UK. Usually written as an F after the degree sign: 32°F (say: thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit).) fail fail /feil/ verb 1. not to be successful in doing something The doctor failed to see the symptoms. She has failed her pharmacy exams. He failed his medical and was rejected by the police force. 2. to become weaker and less likely to recover failure to thrive / feiljə tə θraiv/ noun same as marasmus failure to thrive Nursing.fm Page 104 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM faint 104 faint faint /feint/ verb to stop being conscious for a short time and, usually, fall down í noun a loss of consciousness for a short period, caused by a temporary reduction in the blood flow to the brain fainting fit / feintiŋ fit/, fainting spell / feintiŋ spel/ noun same as syncope She often had fainting fits when she was dieting. Fairbanks splint / feəb ŋks splint/ noun a special splint used for correcting Erbs palsy faith healing / feiθ hi liŋ/ noun the treatment of pain or illness by a person who prays and may also lay his or her hands on the patient falciform / f lsifɔ m/ adjective in the shape of a sickle falciform ligament / f lsifɔ m li əmənt/ noun a piece of tissue which separates the two lobes of the liver and attaches it to the diaphragm fallen arches / fɔ lən ɑ tʃiz/ plural noun a condition in which the arches in the sole of the foot are not high Fallopian tube /fə ləυpiən tju b/ noun one of two tubes which connect the ovaries to the uterus. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement. Also called oviduct, salpinx fainting fit Fairbanks splint faith healing falciform falciform ligament fallen arches Fallopian tube | (NOTE: For other terms referring to Fallopian tubes, see words beginning with salping-, salpingo-.) [Described 1561. After Gabriele Fallopio (152363), Italian man of medicine. He was Professor of Surgery and Anatomy at Padua, where he was also Professor of Botany.] Fallots tetralogy / f ləυz te tr ləd i/ noun same as tetralogy of Fallot false rib / fɔ ls rib/ noun one of the bottom five Fallots tetralogy | false rib ribs on each side which are not directly attached to the breastbone familial /fə miliəl/ adjective referring to a family familial adenomatous polyposis /fə miliəl də nɒmətəs pɒli pəυsis/ noun a hereditary disorder where polyps develop in the small intestine. Abbreviation FAP familial disorder /fə miliəl dis ɔ də/ noun a hereditary disorder which affects several members of the same family family / f m(ə)li/ noun a group of people who are related to each other, especially mother, father and children family doctor / f m(ə)li dɒktə/ noun a general practitioner family planning / f m(ə)li pl niŋ/ noun the use of contraception to control the number of children in a family family planning clinic / f m(ə)li pl niŋ klinik/ noun a clinic which gives advice on contraception family therapy / f m(ə)li θerəpi/ noun a type of psychotherapy where members of the family of a person with a disorder meet a therapist to discuss the condition and try to come to terms with it familial | familial adenomatous polyposis | | | familial disorder | family family doctor family planning family planning clinic family therapy | famotidine famotidine /fə mɒtidi n/ noun a histamine which reduces the secretion of gastric acid and is used to treat ulcers Fanconi syndrome /f n kəυni sindrəυm/ noun a kidney disorder where amino acids are present in the urine [Described 1927. After Guido | Fanconi syndrome | Fanconi (18921979), Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland.] fantasy / f ntəsi/ noun a series of imaginary fantasy events which someone believes really took place FAP abbreviation familial adenomatous polyposis farcy / fɑ si/ noun a form of glanders which affects the lymph nodes farmers lung / fɑ məz l ŋ/ noun a type of asthma caused by an allergy to rotting hay fascia / feiʃə/ noun fibrous tissue covering a muscle or an organ (NOTE: The plural is fasciae.) fasciculation /fə sikjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun small muscle movements which appear as trembling skin fasciculus /fə sikjυləs/ noun a bundle of nerve fibres (NOTE: The plural is fasciculi.) fasciitis / f ʃi aitis/ noun an inflammation of the connective tissue between muscles or around organs fastigium /f stid iəm/ noun the highest temperature during a bout of fever fat /f t/ adjective big and round in the body You ought to eat less youre getting too fat. (NOTE: fatter fattest) í noun 1. a white oily substance in the body, which stores energy and protects the body against cold 2. a type of food which supplies protein and Vitamins A and D, especially that part of meat which is white, and solid substances like lard or butter produced from animals and used for cooking, or liquid substances like oil If you dont like the fat on the meat, cut it off. Fry the eggs in some fat. (NOTE: FAP farcy farmers lung fascia fasciculation | | fasciculus | fasciitis | fastigium | fat Fat has no plural when it means the substance; the plural fats is used to mean different types of fat. For other terms referring to fats, see also lipid and words beginning with steato-.) fatigue /fə ti / noun very great tiredness fatigue fracture /fə ti fr ktʃə/ noun ‘ stress fracture fatty / f ti/ adjective containing fat fatty acid / f ti sid/ noun an organic acid fatigue | fatigue fracture | fatty fatty acid belonging to a group that occurs naturally as fats, oils and waxes. essential fatty acid fatty degeneration / f ti di d enə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as adipose degeneration fauces / fɔ si z/ noun an opening between the tonsils at the back of the throat, leading to the pharynx FDA abbreviation US Food and Drug Administration fatty degeneration | fauces FDA | Nursing.fm Page 105 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 105 fear fear /fiə/ noun a state where a person is afraid of something fear of flying febricula /fe brikjυlə/ noun a low fever febrifuge / febrifju d / noun a drug which prevents or lowers a fever, e.g. aspirin í adjective preventing or lowering fever febrile / fi brail/ adjective referring to a fever, or caused by a fever febrile convulsion / fi brail kən v lʃ(ə)n/ noun a convulsion in a child, lasting a short time, associated with a fever febrile disease / fi brail di zi z/ noun a disease which is accompanied by fever fecundation / fekən deiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of bringing male and female reproductive matter together. Also called fertilisation feedback / fi db k/ noun 1. information or comments about something which has been done The initial feedback from patients on the new service was encouraging. 2. the linking of the result of an action back to the action itself Fehlings solution / feiliŋz sə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a solution used in Fehlings test to detect sugar in urine [Described 1848. After Hermann Christian febricula | febrifuge febrile febrile convulsion | febrile disease | fecundation | feedback Fehlings solution | von Fehling (181285), Professor of Chemistry at Stuttgart, Germany.] Fehlings test / feiliŋz test/ noun a test for the Fehlings test presence of aldehydes and sugars in a biological sample by means of Fehlings solution felon / felən/ noun same as whitlow Feltys syndrome / felti z sindrəυm/ noun a condition, associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in which the spleen is enlarged and the number of white blood cells increases [Described 1924. felon Feltys syndrome After Augustus Roi Felty (18951963), physician at Hartford Hospital, Connecticut, USA.] female condom / fi meil kɒndɒm/ noun a female condom rubber sheath inserted into the vagina before intercourse, covering the walls of the vagina and the cervix female sex hormone / fi meil seks hɔ məυn/ noun same as oestrogen feminisation / feminai zeiʃ(ə)n/, feminization noun the development of female characteristics in a male femoral / femərəl/ adjective referring to the femur or to the thigh femoral artery / femərəl ɑ təri/ noun a continuation of the external iliac artery, which runs down the front of the thigh and then crosses to the back of the thigh femoral canal / femərəl kə n l/ noun the inner tube of the sheath surrounding the femoral artery and vein femoral head / femərəl hed/ noun the head of the femur, the rounded projecting end part of the thigh bone which joins the acetabulum at the hip female sex hormone feminisation | femoral femoral artery femoral canal | femoral head fertile femoral hernia femoral hernia / femərəl h niə/ noun a hernia of the bowel at the top of the thigh femoral neck / femərəl nek/ noun the narrow part between the head and the diaphysis of the femur. Also called neck of the femur femoral nerve / femərəl n v/ noun a nerve which governs the muscle at the front of the thigh femoral pulse / femərəl p ls/ noun a pulse taken in the groin femoral triangle / femərəl trai ŋ əl/ noun a slight hollow in the groin which contains the femoral vessels and nerve. Also called Scarpas trifemoral neck femoral nerve femoral pulse femoral triangle angle femoral vein femoral vein / femərəl vein/ noun a vein running up the upper leg, a continuation of the popliteal vein femur / fi mə/ noun the bone in the top part of the leg which joins the acetabulum at the hip and the tibia at the knee. Also called thighbone. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement (NOTE: The femur plural is femora.) -fen -fen /fen/ suffix used in names of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen fenestra /fə nestrə/ noun a small opening in the ear fenestra ovalis /fə nestrə əυ vɑ lis/ noun same as oval window fenestra rotunda /fə nestrə rəυ t ndə/ noun same as round window fenestration / fenə streiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to relieve deafness by making a small opening in the inner ear fenoprofen / fenəυ prəυfen/ noun a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that is used to manage the pain of arthritis fentanyl / fentənil/ noun a narcotic drug that is a powerful painkiller fermentation / f men teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a process where carbohydrates are broken down by enzymes from yeast and produce alcohol. Also called zymosis ferric / ferik/ adjective containing iron with a valency of three ferritin / feritin/ noun a protein found in the liver that binds reversibly to iron and stores it for later use in making haemoglobin in red blood cells ferrous / ferəs/ adjective containing iron with a valency of two ferrous sulphate / ferəs s lfeit/ noun a white or pale green iron salt that is used in the treatment of iron-deficient anaemia ferrule / feru l/ noun a metal or rubber cap or ring that strengthens and protects the lower end of a crutch or walking stick í verb to fit a ferrule onto a crutch or walking stick fertile / f tail/ adjective able to produce children. Opposite sterile fenestra | fenestra ovalis | | fenestra rotunda | | fenestration | fenoprofen | fentanyl fermentation | ferric ferritin ferrous ferrous sulphate ferrule fertile Nursing.fm Page 106 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM fertilisation 106 fertilisation fertilisation / f tilai zeiʃ(ə)n/, fertilization noun the joining of an ovum and a sperm to form a zygote and so start the development of an embryo fertility /f tiliti/ noun the fact of being fertile. Opposite sterility fertility rate /f tiliti reit/ noun the number of births per year calculated per 1000 females aged between 15 and 44 FESS abbreviation functional endoscopic sinus surgery fester / festə/ verb (of an infected wound ) to His legs become inflamed and produce pus were covered with festering sores. festination / festi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun a way of walking in which a person takes short steps, seen in people who have Parkinsons disease fetal / fi t(ə)l/ adjective referring to a fetus fetal alcohol syndrome / fi t(ə)l lkə hɒl sindrəυm/ noun damage caused to the fetus by alcohol in the blood of the mother, which affects the growth of the embryo, including its facial and brain development. Abbreviation FAS fetal dystocia / fi t(ə)l dis təυsiə/ noun a difficult childbirth caused by a malformation or malpresentation of the fetus fetal heart / fi t(ə)l hɑ t/ noun the heart of the fetus fetal monitor / fi t(ə)l mɒnitə/ noun an electronic device which monitors the fetus in the uterus fetal position / fi t(ə)l pə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun a position where a person lies curled up on his or her side, like a fetus in the uterus fetishism / fetiʃiz(ə)m/, fetichism noun a psychological disorder in which someone gets sexual satisfaction from touching objects feto- /fi təυ/ prefix fetus fetoprotein / fi təυ prəυti n/ noun ‘ alpha| fertility | fertility rate | FESS fester festination | fetal fetal alcohol syndrome | fetal dystocia | fetal heart fetal monitor fetal position | fetishism feto- fetoprotein | fetoprotein fetor / fi tə/ noun a bad smell fetoscope / fi təskəυp/ noun a stethoscope fetor fetoscope used in fetoscopy fetoscopy /fi tɒskəpi/ noun an examination of a fetus inside the uterus, taking blood samples to diagnose blood disorders fetus / fi təs/ noun an unborn baby from two months after conception until birth, before which it is called an embryo FEV abbreviation forced expiratory volume fever / fi və/ noun 1. a rise in body temperature She is running a slight fever. You must stay in bed until the fever has gone down. 2. a condition when the temperature of the body is higher than usual also called pyrexia fever blister / fi və blistə/ noun same as fetoscopy | fetus FEV fever fever blister fever sore fever sore fever sore / fi və sɔ / noun a cold sore or burning sore, usually on the lips fiber / faibə/ noun US same as fibre fibr- /faibr/ prefix referring to fibres, fibrous fiber fibr- (used before vowels) -fibrate /faibreit/ suffix used in names of lipid-fibrate lowering drugs fibre / faibə/ noun 1. a structure in the body shaped like a thread 2. same as dietary fibre fibre optics / faibər ɒptiks/, fibreoptics / faibər ɒptiks/ noun the use of thin fibres which conduct light and images to examine internal organs fibrescope / faibəskəυp/ noun a device made of bundles of optical fibres which is passed into the body, used for examining internal organs fibrillation / faibri leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fluttering of a muscle fibrin / fibrin/ noun a protein produced by fibrinogen, which helps make blood coagulate fibrin foam / fibrin fəυm/ noun a white material made artificially from fibrinogen, used to prevent bleeding fibrinogen /fi brinəd ən/ noun a substance in blood plasma which produces fibrin when activated by thrombin fibrinolysin / fibri nɒləsin/ noun an enzyme which digests fibrin. Also called plasmin fibrinolysis / fibri nɒləsis/ noun the removal of blood clots from the system by the action of fibrinolysin on fibrin. Also called thrombolysis fibrinolytic / fibrinə litik/ adjective referring fibrinolytic drugs Also called to fibrinolysis fibre fibre optics | fibrescope fibrillation | fibrin fibrin foam fibrinogen | fibrinolysin | fibrinolysis | fibrinolytic | thrombolytic fibro- /faibrəυ/ prefix referring to fibres fibroadenoma / faibrəυ di nəυmə/ noun a fibro- fibroadenoma | | benign tumour formed of fibrous and glandular tissue fibroblast / faibrəυbl st/ noun a long flat cell found in connective tissue, which develops into collagen fibrocartilage / faibrəυ kɑ təlid / noun cartilage and fibrous tissue combined fibrochondritis / faibrəυkɒn draitis/ noun inflammation of the fibrocartilage fibrocyst / faibrəυsist/ noun a benign tumour of fibrous tissue fibrocystic / faibrəυ sistik/ adjective referring to a fibrocyst fibrocystic disease / faibrəυ sistik di zi z/, fibrocystic disease of the pancreas / faibrəυ sistik di zi z əv ðə p ŋkriəs/ noun same as fibroblast fibrocartilage | fibrochondritis | fibrocyst fibrocystic | fibrocystic disease | | | | cystic fibrosis fibrocyte / faibrəυsait/ noun a cell which fibrocyte derives from a fibroblast and is found in connective tissue fibroid / faibrɔid/ adjective like fibre fibroid Nursing.fm Page 107 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 107 fibroid tumour fibroid tumour / faibrɔid tju mə/ noun a benign tumour in the muscle fibres of the uterus. Also called uterine fibroid, fibromyoma fibroma /fai brəυmə/ noun a small benign tumour formed in connective tissue fibromyoma / faibrəυmai əυmə/ noun same as fibroid tumour fibroplasia / faibrəυ pleiziə/ noun ‘ retrolenfibroma | fibromyoma | fibroplasia | tal fibroplasia filiform papillae / filifɔ m pə pili / plural noun papillae on the tongue which are shaped like | threads, and have no taste buds filipuncture / filip ŋktʃə/ noun the procedure of putting a wire into an aneurysm to cause blood clotting filling / filiŋ/ noun a surgical operation carried out by a dentist to fill a hole in a tooth with amalgam filter / filtə/ noun a piece of paper or cloth through which a liquid is passed to remove any solid substances in it í verb to pass a liquid through a membrane, piece of paper or cloth to remove solid substances Impurities are filtered from the blood by the kidneys. FIM abbreviation functional independence measure fimbria / fimbriə/ noun a fringe, especially the fringe of hair-like processes at the end of a Fallopian tube near the ovaries (NOTE: The plural is filipuncture filling filter fibrosarcoma fibrosarcoma / faibrəυsɑ kəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour of the connective tissue, most common in the legs fibrosis /fai brəυsis/ noun the process of replacing damaged tissue by scar tissue fibrositis / faibrə saitis/ noun a painful inflammation of the fibrous tissue which surrounds muscles and joints, especially the muscles of the back fibrous / faibrəs/ adjective made of fibres, or like fibre fibrous capsule / faibrəs k psju l/ noun fibrous tissue surrounding a kidney. Also called | fibrosis | fibrositis | fibrous fibrous capsule renal capsule fibrous joint fibrous joint / faibrəs d ɔint/ noun a joint where fibrous tissue holds two bones together so that they cannot move, as in the bones of the skull fibrous pericardium / faibrəs peri kɑ diəm/ noun the outer part of the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and is attached to the main blood vessels fibrous tissue / faibrəs tiʃu / noun strong white tissue which makes tendons and ligaments and also scar tissue fibula / fibjυlə/ noun the thinner of the two bones in the lower leg between the knee and the ankle. Compare tibia (NOTE: The plural is fibufibrous pericardium | fibrous tissue fibula lae.) FIM fimbria fimbriae.) finger / fiŋ ə/ noun one of the five parts at the finger end of the hand, but usually not including the thumb (NOTE: The names of the fingers are: little finger, third finger or ring finger, middle finger, forefinger or index finger.) finger-nose test / fiŋ ə nəυz test/ noun a finger-nose test test of coordination, where the person is asked to close their eyes, stretch out their arm and then touch their nose with their index finger fingerprint / fiŋ əprint/ noun a mark left by a finger when something is touched. genetic finfingerprint gerprint firm firm /f m/ noun a group of doctors and consultants in a hospital, especially one to which a trainee doctor is attached during clinical studies (informal ) first aid fibular fibular / fibjυlə/ adjective referring to the fibula field of vision / fi ld əv vi (ə)n/ noun same as visual field fight or flight reaction / fait ɔ flait ri kʃən/ noun the theory that an organism which is faced with a threat reacts either by preparing to fight or to escape fil- /fil/ prefix referring to a thread filament / filəmənt/ noun a long thin structure like a thread filamentous / filə mentəs/ adjective like a thread Filaria /fi leəriə/ noun a thin parasitic worm which is found especially in the lymph system, and is passed to humans by mosquitoes (NOTE: field of vision fight or flight reaction | fil- filament filamentous | Filaria | The plural is Filariae.) filariasis / filə raiəsis/ noun a tropical disease filariasis | caused by parasitic threadworms in the lymph system, transmitted by mosquito bites filiform / filifɔ m/ adjective shaped like a thread filiform first-degree relative filiform papillae first aid / f st eid/ noun help given by a nonmedical person to someone who is suddenly ill or injured before full-scale medical treatment can be given She gave him first aid in the street until the ambulance arrived. first-aid kit / f st eid kit/ noun a box with bandages and dressings kept ready to be used in an emergency first-aid post / f st eid pəυst/, first-aid station / f st eid steiʃ(ə)n/ noun a place where injured people can be taken for immediate care first-degree burn / f st di ri b n/ noun a former classification of the severity of a burn, where the skin turns red first-degree haemorrhoids / f st di ri hemərɔidz/ plural noun haemorrhoids which remain in the rectum first-degree relative / f st di ri relətiv/ noun a relative with whom an individual shares 50% of their genes, e.g. a father, mother, sibling or child first-aid kit first-aid post first-degree burn | first-degree haemorrhoids | first-degree relative | Nursing.fm Page 108 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM first intention 108 first intention first intention / f st in tenʃən/ noun the healing of a clean wound where the tissue forms again rapidly and no prominent scar is left first-level nurse / f st lev(ə)l n s/, firstlevel Registered Nurse / f st lev(ə)l red istəd n s/ noun a nurse who has passed qualifying examinations, is registered as such with the Nursing and Midwifery Council and can act in an independent decision-making role. Compare second-level nurse fission / fiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of dividing into two or more parts fissure / fiʃə/ noun a crack or groove in the skin, tissue or an organ fistula / fistjυlə/ noun a passage or opening which has been made unusually between two organs, often near the rectum or anus fit /fit/ adjective strong and physically healthy She exercises every day to keep fit. The doctors decided the patient was not fit for surgery. (NOTE: fitter fittest) í noun a sudden attack of a disorder, especially convulsions and epilepsy She had a fit of coughing. He had an epileptic fit. The baby had a series of fits. í verb 1. to provide a piece of equipment for someone to wear She was fitted with temporary support. 2. to have convulsions The patient has fitted twice. (NOTE: fit| first-level nurse fission fissure fistula fit ting fitted. Note also: you fit someone with an appliance.) fitness / fitnəs/ noun the fact of being strong fitness and healthy Being in the football team demands a high level of physical fitness. He had to pass a fitness test to join the police force. 5-hydroxy-tryptamine / faiv hai drɒksi triptəmi n/ noun a compound which exists in blood platelets and is released after tissue is injured, and is a neurotransmitter important in sleep, mood and vasoconstriction. Also called 5-hydroxy-tryptamine | serotonin fixated /fik seitid/ adjective referring to a perfixated | son who has too close an attachment to another person, often to a parent fixator /fik seitə/ noun a metal rod placed through a bone to keep a part of the body rigid flaccid / fl ksid, fl sid/ adjective soft or flabby flaccidity /fl k siditi, fl siditi/ noun the state of being flaccid Flagyl / fl d ail/ a trade name for metronidazole flail /fleil/ verb to thrash around with uncontrollable or violent movements, particularly of the arms flail chest / fleil tʃest/ noun a condition in which the chest is not stable, because several ribs have been broken flap /fl p/ noun a flat piece attached to something, especially a piece of skin or tissue still attached to the body at one side and used in grafts fixator | flaccid flaccidity | Flagyl flail flail chest flap | flare flare /fleə/ noun red colouring of the skin at an infected spot or in urticaria flashback / fl ʃb k/ noun a repeated and very vivid memory of a traumatic event flat foot / fl t fυt/, flat feet / fl t fi t/ noun a condition in which the soles of the feet lie flat on the ground instead of being arched as usual. Also called pes planus flatulence / fl tjυləns/ noun gas or air which collects in the stomach or intestines causing discomfort flashback flat foot flatulence COMMENT: Flatulence is generally caused by indigestion, but can be made worse if the person swallows air (aerophagy). flatulent / fl tjυlənt/ adjective having flatuflatulent lence, or caused by flatulence flatus / fleitəs/ noun air and gas which collects in the intestines and is painful flea /fli / noun a tiny insect which sucks blood and is a parasite on animals and humans flecainide /fle keinaid/ noun a drug that helps to correct an irregular heartbeat flex /fleks/ verb to bend something flexibilitas cerea /fleksi bilitəs siəriə/ noun a condition in which, if someones arms or legs are moved, they remain in that set position for some time flexion / flekʃən/ noun the act of bending a joint Flexners bacillus / fleksnəz bə siləs/ noun a bacterium which causes bacillary dysentery flexor / fleksə/, flexor muscle / fleksə m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle which makes a joint bend. Compare extensor flexure / flekʃə/ noun 1. a bend in an organ 2. a fold in the skin floaters / fləυtəz/ plural noun same as muscae flatus flea flecainide | flex flexibilitas cerea | flexion Flexners bacillus | flexor flexure floaters volitantes floating kidney floating kidney / fləυtiŋ kidni/ noun same as nephroptosis floating rib / fləυtiŋ rib/ noun one of the two floating rib lowest ribs on each side, which are not attached to the breastbone flooding / fl diŋ/ noun same as menorrhagia floppy baby syndrome / flɒpi beibi sindrəυm/ noun same as amyotonia congenita flora / flɔ rə/ noun bacteria which exist in a particular part of the body florid / flɒrid/ adjective with an unhealthily glowing pink or red complexion flowmeter / fləυmi tə/ noun a meter attached to a pipe, e.g. as in anaesthetic equipment, to measure the speed at which a liquid or gas moves in the pipe flu /flu / noun 1. same as influenza 2. a very bad cold (informal ) (NOTE: Sometimes written flu to flooding floppy baby syndrome flora florid flowmeter flu show it is a short form of influenza.) Nursing.fm Page 109 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 109 flucloxacillin flucloxacillin /flu klɒksəsilin/ noun a drug related to penicillin and effective against streptococcal infections and pneumonia fluconazole /flu kɒnəzəυl/ noun a drug used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis fluctuation / fl ktʃu eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the feeling of movement of liquid inside part of the body or inside a cyst when pressed by the fingers fluid / flu id/ noun 1. a liquid 2. any gas, liquid or powder which flows fluid balance / flu id b ləns/ noun the maintenance of the balance of fluids in the body during dialysis or other treatment fluke /flu k/ noun a parasitic flatworm which settles inside the liver, in the bloodstream and in other parts of the body flunitrazepam / flu nai tr zip m/ noun a tranquilliser that, because of its association with date rape cases, is a controlled drug in the UK fluorescence /flυə res(ə)ns/ noun the sending out of light from a substance which is receiving radiation fluorescent /flυə res(ə)nt/ adjective referring to a substance which sends out light fluoride / flυəraid/ noun a chemical compound of fluorine and sodium, potassium or tin fluoride toothpaste fluorine / flυəri n/ noun a chemical element found in bones and teeth (NOTE: The chemical | fluconazole | fluctuation | fluid fluid balance fluke flunitrazepam | fluorescence | fluorescent | fluoride fluorine symbol is F.) fluoroscope fluoroscope / flυərəskəυp/ noun an apparatus which projects an X-ray image of a part of the body onto a screen, so that the part of the body can be examined as it moves fluoroscopy /flυə rɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the body using X-rays projected onto a screen fluoxetine /flu ɒksəti n/ noun a drug that increases serotonin in the brain and is used to treat anxiety and depression flush /fl ʃ/ noun a red colour in the skin í verb 1. to wash a wound with liquid 2. (of person) to turn red flutter / fl tə/, fluttering / fl təriŋ/ noun a rapid movement, especially of the atria of the heart, which is not controlled by impulses from the sinoatrial node flux /fl ks/ noun an excessive production of liquid from the body focal / fəυk(ə)l/ adjective referring to a focus focal distance / fəυk(ə)l distəns/, focal length / fəυk(ə)l leŋθ/ noun the distance between the lens of the eye and the point behind the lens where light is focused focal epilepsy / fəυk(ə)l epilepsi/ noun epilepsy arising from a localised area of the brain focus / fəυkəs/ noun 1. the point where light rays converge through a lens 2. the centre of an fluoroscopy | fluoxetine | flush flutter flux focal focal distance focal epilepsy focus food intolerance infection (NOTE: The plural is foci.) í verb 1. to adjust a lens until an image is clear and sharp 2. to see clearly He has difficulty in focusing on the object. focus group / fəυkəs ru p/ noun a discussion group of lay people brought together under professional guidance to discuss issues such as care foetal / fi t(ə)l/ adjective another spelling of focus group foetal fetal (NOTE: The spelling foetal is common in general use in British English, but the spelling fetal is the accepted international spelling for technical use.) foetoscope / fi təskəυp/ noun another spelling of fetoscope foetoscopy /fi tɒskəpi/ noun another spelling of fetoscopy foetus / fi təs/ noun another spelling of fetus (NOTE: The spelling foetus is common in general use in British English, but the spelling fetus is the accepted international spelling for technical use.) folacin / fəυləsin/ noun same as folic acid folic acid / fəυlik sid/ noun a vitamin in the foetoscope foetoscopy | foetus folacin folic acid Vitamin B complex found in milk, liver, yeast and green vegetables such as spinach, which is essential for creating new blood cells follicle / fɒlik(ə)l/ noun a tiny hole or sac in the body follicle-stimulating hormone / fɒlik(ə)l stimjυleitiŋ hɔ məυn/ noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates ova in the ovaries and sperm in the testes. Abbreviation FSH follicular /fə likjυlə/, folliculate /fə likjυlət/ adjective referring to follicles folliculitis /fə likjυ laitis/ noun inflammation of the hair follicles, especially where hair has been shaved fomentation / fəυmen teiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as follicle follicle-stimulating hormone follicular | | folliculitis | | fomentation | poultice fomites fomites / fəυmiti z/ plural noun objects touched by someone with a communicable disease which can then be the means of passing on the disease to others fontanelle / fɒntə nel/ noun the soft cartilage between the bony sections of a babys skull food allergen / fu d ləd en/ noun a substance in food which produces an allergy food allergy / fu d ləd i/ noun an allergy to a specific food such as nuts, which causes a severe reaction that may lead to life-threatening anaphylactic shock food canal / fu d kə n l/ noun the passage from the mouth to the rectum through which food passes and is digested food intolerance / fu d in tɒlərəns/ noun an adverse reaction to some foods such as oranges, eggs, tomatoes and strawberries fontanelle | food allergen food allergy food canal | food intolerance | Nursing.fm Page 110 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM food poisoning 110 food poisoning food poisoning / fu d pɔiz(ə)niŋ/ noun an illness caused by eating food which is contaminated with bacteria foot /fυt/ noun the end part of the leg on which a person stands foramen /fə reimən/ noun a natural opening inside the body, e.g. the opening in a bone through which veins or nerves pass (NOTE: The plural is foot foramen | ing autopsies on murdered people or taking blood samples from clothes foreskin / fɔ skin/ noun the skin covering the top of the penis, which can be removed by circumcision. Also called prepuce forewaters / fɔ wɔ təz/ plural noun fluid which comes out of the vagina at the beginning of childbirth when the amnion bursts formaldehyde /fɔ m ldihaid/ noun a gas with an unpleasant smell that is a strong disinfectant. When dissolved in water to make formalin, it is also used to preserve medical specimens. formalin / fɔ məlin/ noun a solution of formaldehyde in water, used to preserve medical specimens formication / fɔ mi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun an itching feeling where the skin feels as if it were covered with insects formula / fɔ mjυlə/ noun 1. a way of indicating a chemical compound using letters and numbers, e.g. H2SO4 2. instructions on how to prepare a drug formulary / fɔ mjυləri/ noun a book that lists medicines together with their formulae fornix / fɔ niks/ noun an arch (NOTE: The plural foreskin forewaters formaldehyde foramina.) | foramen magnum foramen magnum /fə reimən m nəm/ noun the hole at the bottom of the skull where the brain is joined to the spinal cord foramen ovale /fə reimən əυ vɑ lei/ noun an opening between the two parts of the heart in a fetus | foramen ovale | | formalin formication COMMENT: The foramen ovale usually closes at birth, but if it stays open the blood from the veins can mix with the blood going to the arteries, causing cyanosis. forced expiratory volume / fɔ st ek spirət(ə)ri vɒlju m/ noun the maximum forced expiratory volume | amount of air that can be expelled in a given time. Abbreviation FEV forceps / fɔ seps/ noun a surgical instrument with handles like a pair of scissors, made in different sizes and with differently shaped ends, used for holding and pulling forceps delivery / fɔ seps di liv(ə)ri/ noun childbirth where the doctor uses forceps to help the baby out of the mothers uterus fore- /fɔ / prefix in front forearm / fɔ rɑ m/ noun the lower part of the arm from the elbow to the wrist forebrain / fɔ brein/ noun the front part of the brain in an embryo forefinger / fɔ fiŋ ə/ noun the first finger on the hand, next to the thumb foregut / fɔ t/ noun the front part of the gut in an embryo foreign / fɒrin/ adjective 1. not belonging to your own country foreign visitors a foreign language 2. referring to something that is found where it does not naturally belong, especially something found in the human body that comes from a source outside the body a foreign object foreign matter foreign body / fɒrin bɒdi/ noun a piece of material which is not part of the surrounding tissue and should not be there, e.g. sand in a cut, dust in the eye or a pin which has been swallowed The X-ray showed the presence of a foreign body. forensic /fə rensik/ adjective relating to the use of science in solving criminal investigations or settling legal cases forensic medicine /fə rensik med(ə)s(ə)n/ noun the branch of medical science concerned with finding solutions to crimes against people and which involves procedures such as conductforceps forceps delivery | fore- forearm forebrain forefinger foregut foreign foreign body forensic | forensic medicine | | formula formulary fornix is fornices.) fornix cerebri fornix cerebri / fɔ niks seribrai/ noun a section of white matter in the brain between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement foscarnet /fɒs kɑ nət/ noun an antiviral drug administered by intravenous injection that is effective against herpesviruses that are resistant to acyclovir. It is especially used for people with AIDS. fossa / fɒsə/ noun a shallow hollow in a bone or the skin foster children / fɒstə tʃildrən/ plural noun children brought up by people who are not their own parents foster parent / fɒstə peərənt/ noun a woman or man who brings up a child born to other parents Fothergills operation / fɒðə ilz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to correct prolapse of the uterus [After W. E. Fothergill foscarnet | fossa foster children foster parent Fothergills operation | (18651926), British gynaecologist.] foundation hospital /faυn deiʃ(ə)n hɒspit(ə)l/ noun in the UK, a type of hospital foundation hospital | that is independent of its Local Health Authority in financial matters fourchette /fυə ʃet/ noun a fold of skin at the back of the vulva fovea / fəυviə/, fovea centralis / fəυviə sen trɑ lis/ noun a depression in the retina which is the point where the eye sees most clearly. See illustration at EYE in Supplement FP10 / ef pi ten/ noun in the UK, an NHS prescription from a GP fourchette | fovea | FP10 Nursing.fm Page 111 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 111 fracture fracture / fr ktʃə/ verb 1. (of bone) to break The tibia fractured in two places. 2. to break a bone He fractured his wrist. í noun a break in a bone rib fracture or fracture of a rib fragile-X syndrome / fr d ail eks sindrəυm/ noun a hereditary condition in which part of an X chromosome is constricted, causing mental impairment fragilitas ossium /frə d ilitəs ɒsiəm/ noun a hereditary condition where the bones are brittle and break easily, similar to osteogenesis imperfecta frame /freim/ noun 1. the particular size and shape of someones body 2. the main part of a building, ship or bicycle, etc., which holds it together the bicycle has a very light frame Ive broken the frame of my glasses 3. a solid support for something. walking frame, Zimmer fragile-X syndrome fragilitas ossium | frame frame framycetin framycetin /fr maisətin/ noun an antibiotic fraternal twins /frə t n(ə)l twinz/ plural noun same as dizygotic twins freckle / frek(ə)l/ noun a harmless small brownish patch on the skin that becomes more noticeable after exposure to the sun. Freckles are often found in people with fair hair. Also called lentigo í verb to mark something, or become marked with freckles freeze /fri z/ verb to anaesthetise part of the body (informal ) They froze my big toe to remove the nail. Freibergs disease / fraib z di zi z/ noun osteochondritis of the head of the second metatarsus [Described 1914. After Albert Henry Freiberg | fraternal twins | freckle freeze Freibergs disease | (18691940), US surgeon.] fremitus fremitus / fremitəs/ noun vibrations or trembling in part of someones body, felt by the doctors hand or heard through a stethoscope frenectomy /frə nektəmi/ noun an operation to remove a frenum frenotomy /frə nɒtəmi/ noun an operation to split a frenum frenum / fri nəm/, frenulum / frenjυləm/ noun a fold of mucous membrane under the tongue or by the clitoris frequency / fri kwənsi/ noun 1. the number of times something takes place in a given time the frequency of micturition 2. the rate of vibration in oscillations Freudian / frɔidiən/ adjective understandable in terms of Freuds theories, especially with regard to human sexuality í noun someone who is influenced by or follows Freuds theories or methods of psychoanalysis friable / fraiəb(ə)l/ adjective easily broken up into small pieces friars balsam / fraiəz bɔ lsəm/ noun a mixture of various plant oils, including benzoin and frenectomy | frenotomy | frenum frequency Freudian friable friars balsam frontal lobotomy balsam, which can be inhaled as a vapour to relieve bronchitis or congestion friction / frikʃ(ə)n/ noun the rubbing together of two surfaces friction fremitus / frikʃən fremitəs/ noun a scratching sensation felt when the hand is placed on the chest of someone who has pericarditis friction murmur / frikʃən m mə/ noun the sound of two serous membranes rubbing together, heard with a stethoscope in someone who has pericarditis or pleurisy Friedländers bacillus / fri dlendəz bə siləs/ noun the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae which can cause pneumonia [Described friction friction fremitus friction murmur Friedländers bacillus | 1882. After Carl Friedländer (184787), pathologist at the Friedrichshain Hospital, Berlin, Germany.] Friedmans test Friedmans test / fri dmənz test/ noun a test for pregnancy [After Maurice H. Friedman (190391), US physician.] Friedreichs ataxia Friedreichs ataxia / fri draiks ə t ksiə/ noun an inherited nervous disease which affects the spinal cord and is associated with club foot, an unsteady walk and speech difficulties. Also called | dystrophia adiposogenitalis [Described 1863. After Nicholaus Friedreich (182582), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Würzburg, later Professor of Pathology and Therapy at Heidelberg, Germany.] frigidity /fri d iditi/ noun the fact of being unafrigidity | ble to experience orgasm, sexual pleasure or sexual desire fringe medicine / frin med(ə)sin/ noun types of medical practice which are not usually taught in medical schools, e.g. homeopathy or acupuncture (informal ) frog plaster / frɒ plɑ stə/ noun a plaster cast made to keep the legs in an open position after an operation to correct a dislocated hip Fröhlichs syndrome / fr liks sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which someone becomes obese and the genital system does not develop, caused by an adenoma of the pituitary gland fringe medicine frog plaster Fröhlichs syndrome [Described 1901. After Alfred Fröhlich (1871 1953), Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Vienna, Austria.] frontal frontal / fr nt(ə)l/ adjective referring to the forehead or to the front of the head. Opposite occipital frontal bone frontal bone / fr nt(ə)l bəυn/ noun a bone forming the front of the upper part of the skull behind the forehead frontal lobe / fr nt(ə)l ləυb/ noun the front lobe of each cerebral hemisphere frontal lobotomy / fr nt(ə)l ləυ bɒtəmi/ noun formerly, a surgical operation on the brain to treat mental illness by removing part of the frontal lobe frontal lobe frontal lobotomy | Nursing.fm Page 112 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM frontal sinus 112 frontal sinus fundus frontal sinus / fr nt(ə)l sainəs/ noun one of two sinuses in the front of the face above the eyes and near the nose front passage / fr nt p sid / (informal ) 1. same as urethra 2. same as vagina frostbite / frɒstbait/ noun an injury caused by very severe cold which freezes tissue frozen shoulder / frəυz(ə)n ʃəυldə/ noun stiffness and pain in the shoulder, caused by inflammation of the membranes of the shoulder joint after injury or a period of immobility, when deposits may form in the tendons frozen watchfulness / frəυz(ə)n wɒtʃfəlnəs/ noun an expression of petrified fear on a childs face, especially in children who have been abused fructose / fr ktəυs/ noun fruit sugar found in honey and some fruit, which together with glucose forms sucrose frusemide / fru səmaid/ noun same as furo- fundus / f ndəs/ noun the bottom of a hollow organ such as the uterus fungal / f ŋ əl/ adjective relating to, or caused by, fungi a fungal skin infection fungate / f ŋ eit/ verb (of some skin cancers) to increase rapidly at a late stage of tumour formation fungicide / f ŋ isaid/ noun a substance used to kill fungi fungiform papillae / f ŋ ifɔ m pə pili / noun rounded papillae on the tip and sides of the tongue, which have taste buds fungoid / f ŋ ɔid/ adjective like a fungus fungus / f ŋ əs/ noun an organism such as yeast or mould, some of which cause disease semide funiculus front passage frostbite frozen shoulder frozen watchfulness fructose frusemide fungal fungate fungicide fungiform papillae | fungoid fungus (NOTE: The plural is fungi. For other terms referring to fungi, see words beginning with myc-, myco-.) funiculitis /fju nikjυ laitis/ noun inflammafuniculitis | | tion of the spermatic cord funiculus /fju nikjυləs/ noun one of the three parts of the white matter in the spinal cord The three parts are called the lateral, anterior and posterior funiculus. funis / fju nis/ noun an umbilical cord funnel chest / f n(ə)l tʃest/ noun same as | FSH FSH abbreviation follicle-stimulating hormone -fuge /fju d / suffix driving away fulguration / f l ə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of a growth such as a wart by burning with an electric needle. Also called electrodesiccation full thickness burn / fυl θiknəs b n/ noun same as deep dermal burn fulminant / fυlminənt/, fulminating / fυlmineitiŋ/ adjective referring to a dangerous disease which develops very rapidly fumigation / fju mi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of killing insects in an area with gas or smoke function / f ŋkʃən/ noun the particular work done by an organ What is the function of the pancreas? The function of an ovary is to form ova. í verb to work in a particular way The heart and lungs were functioning normally. His kidneys suddenly stopped functioning. functional / f ŋkʃən(ə)l/ adjective referring to a disorder or illness which does not have a physical cause and may have a psychological cause, as opposed to an organic disorder functional endoscopic sinus surgery / f ŋkʃən(ə)l endəskɒpik sainəs s d əri/ noun the removal of soft tissue in the sinuses using an endoscope. Abbreviation FESS functional enuresis / f ŋkʃən(ə)l enjυ ri sis/ noun bedwetting which has a psychological cause functional independence measure / f ŋkʃən(ə)l indi pendəns me ə/ noun a measure of disability. Abbreviation FIM fundoplication / f ndəυpli keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of wrapping the fundus of the stomach round the lower end of the oesophagus -fuge fulguration | full thickness burn fulminant fumigation | function functional functional endoscopic sinus surgery functional enuresis | functional independence measure | fundoplication | funis funnel chest pectus excavatum funny bone / f ni bəυn/ noun same as olecranon (informal ) furfuraceous / f fjə reiʃəs/ adjective referfunny bone furfuraceous | ring to skin which is scaly furor / fjυərɔ / noun an attack of wild violence, especially in someone who is mentally unwell furosemide /fjυ rɒsəmaid/ noun a drug which causes an increase in urine production, used to relieve water retention in the body. Also called furor furosemide | frusemide furred tongue furred tongue / f d t ŋ/ noun a condition when the papillae of the tongue are covered with a whitish coating. Also called coated tongue furuncle / fjυər ŋkəl/ noun same as boil furunculosis /fjυə r ŋkjυ ləυsis/ noun a condition in which several boils appear at the same time fusidic acid /fju sidik sid/ noun an antibiotic used to prevent protein synthesis fusiform / fju zifɔ m/ adjective referring to muscles which are shaped like a spindle, with a wider middle section which becomes narrower at each end fusion / fju (ə)n/ noun the act of joining, especially a surgical operation to relieve pain in the joint by joining the bones at the joint permanently so that they cannot move Fybogel / faibəυd el/ a trade name for ispaghula furuncle furunculosis | fusidic acid | fusiform fusion Fybogel | Nursing.fm Page 113 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM G g g abbreviation gram GABA / bə/ abbreviation gamma aminobutyric acid gag / / noun an instrument placed between the teeth to stop the mouth from closing í verb to experience a reaction similar to that of vomiting Every time the doctor tries to examine her throat, she gags. He started gagging on the endotracheal tube. gait / eit/ noun a way of walking galacto- / əl ktəυ/ prefix referring to milk galactocele / ə l ktəsi l/ noun a breast tumour which contains milk galactorrhoea / ə l ktə riə/ noun the excessive production of milk galactosaemia / ə l ktə si miə/ noun a congenital condition where the liver is incapable of converting galactose into glucose, with the result that a babys development may be affected (NOTE: GABA gag gait galacto- galactocele | galactorrhoea | | galactosaemia | | The treatment is to remove galactose from the diet.) galactose galactose / ə l ktəυs/ noun a sugar which forms part of milk, and is converted into glucose by the liver galea / eiliə/ noun any part of the body shaped like a helmet, especially the loose band of tissue in the scalp (NOTE: The plural is galeae.) gall / ɔ l/ noun same as bile gall bladder / ɔ l bl də/ noun a sac situated underneath the liver, in which bile produced by the liver is stored. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement Gallies operation / liz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation where tissues from the thigh are used to hold a hernia in place [Described | galea gall gall bladder Gallies operation | 1921. After William Edward Gallie (18821959), Professor of Surgery at the University of Toronto, Canada.] gallipot gallipot / lipɒt/ noun a little container for ointment gallium / liəm/ noun a metallic element a radioisotope of which is used to detect tumours or other tissue disorders (NOTE: The chemical symgallium bol is Ga.) gallop rhythm gallop rhythm / ləp rið(ə)m/ noun the rhythm of heart sounds, three to each cycle, when someone is experiencing tachycardia gallstone / ɔ lstəυn/ noun a small stone formed from insoluble deposits from bile in the gall bladder. calculus galvanism / lvəniz(ə)m/ noun a treatment using low voltage electricity galvanocautery / lvənəυ kɔ təri/ noun the removal of diseased tissue using an electrically heated needle or loop of wire. Also called gallstone galvanism galvanocautery | electrocautery gamete / mi t/ noun a sex cell, either a spergamete matozoon or an ovum gamete intrafallopian transfer / mi t intrəfə ləυpiən tr nsf / noun a technique to combine eggs and sperm outside the body and then insert them into the Fallopian tubes. Abbreviation GIFT gametocyte / ə mi təυsait/ noun a cell which is developing into a gamete gametogenesis / ə mi təυ d enəsis/ noun the process by which a gamete is formed gamgee tissue / md i tiʃu / noun a surgical dressing, formed of a layer of cotton wool between two pieces of gauze gamma aminobutyric acid / mə ə mi nəυbju tirik sid/ noun an amino acid neurotransmitter. Abbreviation GABA gamma camera / mə k m(ə)rə/ noun a camera for taking photographs of parts of the body into which radioactive isotopes have been introduced gamma globulin / mə lɒbjυlin/ noun a protein found in plasma, forming antibodies as protection against infection gamma ray / mə rei/ noun a ray which is shorter than an X-ray and is given off by radioactive substances gangli- / ŋ li/ prefix referring to ganglia ganglion / ŋ liən/ noun 1. a mass of nerve cell bodies and synapses usually covered in connective tissue, found along the peripheral nerves with the exception of the basal ganglia 2. a cyst of a tendon sheath or joint capsule, usually at the wrist, which results in a painless swelling congamete intrafallopian transfer | gametocyte | gametogenesis | | gamgee tissue gamma aminobutyric acid | | gamma camera gamma globulin gamma ray gangli- ganglion Nursing.fm Page 114 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM ganglionectomy 114 taining fluid (NOTE: [all senses] The plural is ganglia.) ganglionectomy ganglionectomy / ŋ liə nektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a ganglion gangrene / ŋ ri n/ noun a condition in which tissues die and decay, as a result of bacterial action, because the blood supply has been lost through injury or disease of the artery After she had frostbite, gangrene set in and her toes had to be amputated. gangrenous / ŋ rinəs/ adjective referring to, or affected by, gangrene gargle / ɑ (ə)l/ noun a mildly antiseptic solution used to clean the mouth í verb to put some antiseptic liquid solution into the back of the mouth and then breathe out air through it gargoylism / ɑ ɔiliz(ə)m/ noun a congenital condition of the metabolism which causes polysaccharides and fat cells to accumulate in the body, resulting in mental impairment, swollen liver and coarse features. Also called Hurlers | gangrene gangrenous gargle gargoylism syndrome gas / s/ noun 1. a substance such as nitrogen, gas carbon dioxide or air, which is neither solid nor fluid at ordinary temperatures and can expand infinitely (NOTE: The plural gases is used only when referring to different types of gas.) 2. gas which accumulates in the stomach or alimentary canal and causes pain gas and air analgesia / s ənd eər n(ə)l d i ziə/ noun a form of analgesia used when giving birth, in which a mixture of air and gas is given gas exchange / s iks tʃeind / noun the process by which oxygen in the air is exchanged in the lungs for waste carbon dioxide carried by the blood gas gangrene / s ŋ ri n/ noun a complication of severe wounds in which the bacterium Clostridium welchii breeds in the wound and then spreads to healthy tissue which is rapidly decomposed with the formation of gas gash / ʃ/ noun a long deep cut made accidentally by something sharp She had to have three stitches in the gash in her thigh. í verb to make a long deep cut in something accidentally She gashed her hand on the broken glass. gasp / ɑ sp/ noun a short breath taken with difficulty His breath came in short gasps. í verb to breathe with difficulty taking quick breaths She was gasping for breath. gas pain / s pein/ noun a pain caused by excessive formation of gas in the stomach or intestine. flatus gastr- / str/ prefix same as gastro- (used gas and air analgesia | gas exchange | gas gangrene gash gasp gas pain gastr- before vowels) gastric gastric / strik/ adjective referring to the stomach gastric acid / strik sid/ noun hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach by acid-forming cells gastric flu / strik flu / noun any mild stomach disorder (informal ) gastric juice / strik d u s/ noun the mixture of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, intrinsic factor and mucus secreted by the cells of the lining membrane of the stomach to help the digestion of food (NOTE: Often used in the plural.) gastric lavage / strik l vid / noun a lavage of the stomach, usually to remove a poisonous substance which has been absorbed. Also called gastric acid gastric flu gastric juice gastric lavage stomach washout gastric pit / strik pit/ noun a deep hollow gastric pit in the mucous membrane forming the walls of the stomach gastric ulcer / strik lsə/ noun an ulcer in the stomach. Abbreviation GU gastrin / strin/ noun a hormone which is released into the bloodstream from cells in the lower end of the stomach, stimulated by the presence of protein, and which in turn stimulates the flow of acid from the upper part of the stomach gastrinoma / stri nəυmə/ noun a tumour of the islet cells, leading to excessive gastric acid gastritis / straitis/ noun inflammation of the stomach gastro- / strəυ/ prefix referring to the stomach gastrocele / strəυsi l/ noun a condition in which part of the stomach wall becomes weak and bulges out. Also called stomach hernia gastrocnemius / strɒk ni miəs/ noun a large calf muscle gastrocolic / strəυ kɒlik/ adjective referring to the stomach and colon gastrocolic reflex / strəυkɒlik ri fleks/ noun a sudden peristalsis of the colon produced when food is taken into an empty stomach gastroduodenal / strəυ dju əυ di n(ə)l/ adjective referring to the stomach and duodenum gastroduodenoscopy / strəυ dju əυdi nɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the stomach and duodenum gastroduodenostomy / strəυ dju əυdi nɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the duodenum to the stomach so as to bypass a blockage in the pylorus gastroenteritis / strəυentə raitis/ noun inflammation of the membrane lining the intestines and the stomach, caused by a viral infection and resulting in diarrhoea and vomiting gastroenterology / strəυentə rɒləd i/ noun the study of the digestive system and its disorders gastric ulcer gastrin gastrinoma | gastritis | gastro- gastrocele gastrocnemius | gastrocolic | gastrocolic reflex gastroduodenal | | gastroduodenoscopy | | | | gastroduodenostomy gastroenteritis | | gastroenterology | gastrectomy gastrectomy / strektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the stomach | | Nursing.fm Page 115 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 115 gastroenterostomy gastroenterostomy / strəυentə rɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the small intes| | tine directly to the stomach so as to bypass a peptic ulcer gastroepiploic / strəυepi plɔiik/ adjective referring to the stomach and greater omentum gastroepiploic artery / strəυepi plɔiik ɑ təri/ noun an artery linking the gastroduodenal artery to the splenic artery Gastrografin / strəυ r fin/ a trade name for an enema used in bowel X-rays gastroileac reflex / strəυ ili k ri fleks/ noun automatic relaxation of the ileocaecal valve when food is present in the stomach gastrointestinal / strəυin testin(ə)l/ adjective referring to the stomach and intestine gastrointestinal bleeding. Abbreviation GI gastrojejunostomy / strəυd id u nɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to join the jejunum to the stomach gastrolith / strəυliθ/ noun a calculus in the stomach gastro-oesophageal reflux / strəυ i sɒfəd iəl ri fl ks/, gastro-oesophageal strəυ i sɒfəd iəl ri fl ks reflux disease / di zi z/ noun the return of bitter-tasting, partly digested food from the stomach to the oesophagus gastropexy / strəυpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to attach the stomach to the wall of the abdomen gastroplasty / strəυpl sti/ noun surgery to correct a deformed stomach gastrorrhoea / strə riə/ noun an excessive flow of gastric juices gastroschisis / strəυ saisis/ noun a split in the wall of the abdomen, with viscera passing through it gastroscope / strəskəυp/ noun an instrument formed of a tube or bundle of glass fibres with a lens attached, which a doctor can pass down into the stomach through the mouth to examine the inside of the stomach gastroscopy / strɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the stomach using a gastroscope gastrostomy / strɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to create an opening into the stomach from the wall of the abdomen, so that food can be introduced without passing through the mouth and throat gastrotomy / strɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to open up the stomach Gauchers disease / əυʃeiz di zi z/ noun an enzyme disease where fatty substances accumulate in the lymph glands, spleen and liver, causing anaemia, a swollen spleen and darkening of the skin. The disease can be fatal in children. gastroepiploic | | gastroepiploic artery | | Gastrografin | gastroileac reflex | gastrointestinal | gastrojejunostomy | gastrolith gastro-oesophageal reflux | | | gastropexy gastroplasty gastrorrhoea | gastroschisis | gastroscope gastroscopy | gastrostomy | gastrotomy | Gauchers disease | [Described 1882. After Philippe Charles Ernest Gaucher (18541918), French physician and dermatologist.] general hospital gauze gauze / ɔ z/ noun a thin light material used to make dressings gauze dressing / ɔ z dresiŋ/ noun a dressing of thin light material gavage / vɑ / noun the forced feeding of someone who cannot eat or who refuses to eat gay / ei/ adjective relating to sexual activity among people of the same sex GDC abbreviation General Dental Council Gehrigs disease / eiri z di zi z/ noun same as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Geiger counter / ai ə kaυntə/ noun an instrument for the detection and measurement of radiation [Described 1908. After Hans Geiger gauze dressing gavage | gay GDC Gehrigs disease | Geiger counter (18821945), German physicist who worked with Rutherford at Manchester University, UK] gel /d el/ noun a suspension that sets into a jellygel like solid gelatin / d elətin/ noun a protein found in collagen which is soluble in water, used to make capsules for medicines gelatinous /d ə l tinəs/ adjective referring to gelatin or something with a texture like jelly gemellus /d i meləs/ noun either of the two muscles arising from the ischium. Also called gelatin gelatinous | gemellus | gemellus superior muscle, gemellus inferior muscle gender / d endə/ noun the fact of being of the gender male or female sex gender reassignment surgery / d endə ri ə sainmənt s d əri/ noun surgery to change someones sex gender reorientation / d endə ri ɔ riən teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the alteration of a persons sex through surgical and drug treatment gene /d i n/ noun a unit of DNA on a chromosome which governs the synthesis of a protein sequence and determines a particular characteristic general amnesia / d en(ə)rəl m ni ziə/ noun a sudden and complete loss of memory, to the extent that a person does not even remember who he or she is general anaesthesia / d en(ə)rəl nəs θi ziə/ noun loss of feeling and loss of sensation throughout the body, after being given an anaesthetic general anaesthetic / d en(ə)rəl nəs θetik/ noun a substance given to make someone lose consciousness so that a major surgical operation can be carried out General Dental Council / d en(ə)rəl dent(ə)l kaυnsəl/ noun in the UK, the official body that registers and supervises dentists. Abbreviation GDC general hospital / d en(ə)rəl hɒspit(ə)l/ noun a hospital which does not spee in particular types of illness or particular age groups gender reassignment surgery | gender reorientation | | gene general amnesia | general anaesthesia | general anaesthetic | General Dental Council general hospital Nursing.fm Page 116 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM General Household Survey 116 General Household Survey General Household Survey / d en(ə)rəl haυshəυld s vei/ noun a survey of households carried out continuously by the Office for National Statistics generalised / d en(ə)rəlaizd/, generalized adjective 1. spreading throughout the body. Opposite localised 2. not having a specific cause generalised anxiety disorder / d en(ə)rəlaizd ŋ zaiəti dis ɔ də/ noun a state of continual anxiety for which there is no specific cause General Medical Council / d en(ə)rəl medik(ə)l kaυnsəl/ noun in the UK, the official body that licenses qualified doctors to practise medicine. Abbreviation GMC General Optical Council / d en(ə)rəl ɒptik(ə)l kaυnsəl/ noun in the UK, the official body that registers and supervises opticians general practice / d en(ə)rəl pr ktis/ noun a medical practice where doctors offer first-line medical care for all types of illness to people who live locally, refer them to hospital if necessary and encourage health promotion general practitioner / d en(ə)rəl pr k tiʃ(ə)nə/ noun a doctor who provides first-line medical care for all types of illness to people who live locally, refers them to hospital if necessary and encourages health promotion. Abbreviation generalised generalised anxiety disorder | | General Medical Council General Optical Council general practice general practitioner | GP gene replacement therapy gene replacement therapy / d i n ri pleismənt θerəpi/ noun the replacement of missing genes or damaging gene variations in cells by the insertion of appropriate genes to treat a genetic disorder. Also called gene therapy | COMMENT: Gene replacement therapy has been used successfully in animals, and is in the early stages of research in humans, but may be useful in the future treatment of cystic fibrosis, thalassaemia and other genetic disorders. generic generic /d ə nerik/ adjective 1. referring to medicine which does not have a special trademark or brand name given to it by its manufacturer 2. referring to a genus The generic name of this type of bacterium is Staphylococcus. -genesis /d enəsis/ suffix production or origin gene therapy / d i n θerəpi/ noun same as | -genesis gene therapy gene replacement therapy genetic genetic /d ə netik/ adjective referring to genes genetic code /d ə netik kəυd/ noun the characteristics of the DNA of a cell which are passed on when the cell divides and so are inherited by a child from its parents genetic counselling /d ə netik kaυnsəliŋ/ noun advice and support given to people if they or their children might be affected by inherited genetic disorders | genetic code | genetic counselling | genetic disorder genetic disorder /d ə netik dis ɔ də/ noun a disorder or disease caused by a damaging gene variation that may be inherited genetic engineering /d ə netik end i niəriŋ/ noun same as genetic modification | | genetic engineering | | (informal ) genetic fingerprint genetic fingerprint /d ə netik fiŋ əprint/ noun the pattern of sequences of genetic material unique to an individual. Also called DNA finger| print genetic fingerprinting genetic fingerprinting /d ə netik fiŋ ə printiŋ/ noun a method of revealing an individuals genetic profile, used in paternity queries and criminal investigations. Also called DNA finger| | printing geneticist geneticist /d ə netisist/ noun a person who spees in the study of the way in which characteristics and diseases are inherited through the genes genetic modification /d ə netik mɒdifi keiʃ(ə)n/, genetic manipulation /d ə netik mə nipjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the combination of genetic material from different sources to produce organisms with altered characteristics genetics /d ə netiks/ noun the study of genes, and of the way characteristics and diseases are inherited through the genes genetic screening /d ə netik skri niŋ/ noun the process of testing large numbers of people to see if anyone has a particular genetic disorder gene tracking / d i n tr kiŋ/ noun the method used to trace throughout a family the inheritance of a gene such as those causing cystic fibrosis or Huntingtons Chorea, in order to diagnose and predict genetic disorders -genic /d enik/ suffix referring to a product or something which produces genicular /d e nikjυlə/ adjective referring to the knee genital / d enit(ə)l/ adjective referring to the reproductive organs í plural noun genitals same as genital organs genitalia / d eni teiliə/ noun the genital organs genital organs / d enit(ə)l ɔ ənz/ plural noun the external organs for reproduction, i.e. the penis and testicles in males and the vulva in females. Also called genitals, genitalia genital wart / d enit(ə)l wɔ t/ noun a wart in the genital or anal area, caused by a sexually transmitted virus genito- /d enitəυ/ prefix referring to the reproductive system genitourinary / d enitəυ jυərinəri/ adjective referring to both the reproductive and urinary systems. Abbreviation GU genitourinary system / d enitəυ jυərinəri sistəm/ noun the organs of reproduction and urination, including the kidneys | genetic modification | | | | | genetics | genetic screening | gene tracking -genic genicular | genital genitalia | genital organs genital wart genito- genitourinary | genitourinary system | Nursing.fm Page 117 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 117 genome genome / d i nəυm/ noun the set of all the genes of an individual genotype / d enətaip/ noun the genetic makeup of an individual. Compare phenotype gentamicin / d entə maisin/ noun an antibiotic that is effective against a variety of different disease-causing organisms. Patients usually receive it by injection and it can cause serious side effects. gentian violet / d enʃən vaiələt/ noun an antiseptic blue dye, used to paint on skin infections and also to stain specimens. Also called genotype gentamicin | gentian violet crystal violet genu / d enju / noun the knee genu genucubital position | | genupectoral position | | genus genu valgum genu varum bow legs geri- /d eri/ prefix referring to old age Gesells developmental chart | | | gestation | period gestational age gestational age /d e steiʃ(ə)n(ə)l eid / noun the age of a fetus, calculated from the | mothers last period to the date of birth gestational diabetes /d e steiʃ(ə)n(ə)l daiə bi ti z/ noun a form of diabetes mellitus which develops in a pregnant woman gestation period /d e steiʃ(ə)n piəriəd/ noun the period, usually of 266 days, from conception to birth, during which the baby develops in the mothers womb. Also called pregnancy gestodene / d estədi n/ noun an oral contraceptive get better / et betə/ verb 1. to become healthy again after being ill He was seriously ill, but seems to be getting better. 2. (of an illness) to stop or become less severe Her cold has got better. getting on / etiŋ ɒn/ adjective becoming elderly Her parents are getting on. GFR abbreviation glomerular filtration rate GH abbreviation growth hormone Ghons focus / ɒnz fəυkəs/ noun a spot on the lung produced by the tuberculosis bacillus | gestation period | gestodene get better getting on GFR geri- GH geriatric geriatric / d eri trik/ adjective 1. referring to old people 2. speing in the treatment of old people geriatric unit geriatrician / d eriə triʃ(ə)n/ noun a doctor who spees in the treatment or study of diseases of old people geriatrics / d eri triks/ noun the study of the diseases and disorders of old people. Compare | geriatrician | geriatrics | paediatrics germ /d m/ noun 1. a microorganism which germ causes a disease, e.g. a virus or bacterium (informal ) Germs are not visible to the naked eye. 2. a part of an organism capable of developing into a new organism German measles / d mən mi z(ə)lz/ noun same as rubella germ cell / d m sel/ noun a cell which is capable of developing into a spermatozoon or ovum. Also called gonocyte germinal epithelium / d min(ə)l epi θi liəm/ noun the outer layer of the ovary germ layer / d m leiə/ noun one of two or three layers of cells in animal embryos which form the organs of the body gerontologist / d erən tɒləd ist/ noun a spet in gerontology German measles germ cell germinal epithelium | | | | genual / d enjuəl/ adjective referring to the knee genucubital position / d enju kju bit(ə)l pə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun the position of someone resting on their knees and elbows genupectoral position / d enju pektər(ə)l pə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun the position of someone resting on their knees and upper chest genus / d i nəs/ noun a category of related living organisms A genus is divided into different species. (NOTE: The plural is genera.) genu valgum / d enju v l əm/ noun same as knock-knee genu varum / d enju veərəm/ noun same as gerontologist gerontology / d erən tɒləd i/ noun the study of the process of ageing and the diseases of old people Gesells developmental chart / ə zels di veləp ment(ə)l tʃɑ t/ noun a chart showing the development of motor reactions and growth patterns in children gestation /d e steiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the process of development of a baby from conception to birth in the mothers womb 2. same as gestation gestational diabetes genual germ layer gigantism gerontology Ghons focus [Described 1912. After Anton Ghon (1866 1936), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Prague, Czech Republic.] GI abbreviation gastrointestinal Giardia /d i ɑ diə/ noun a microscopic protoGI Giardia | zoan parasite which causes giardiasis giardiasis / d i ɑ daiəsis/ noun a disorder of the intestine caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia, usually with no symptoms, but in heavy infections the absorption of fat may be affected, causing diarrhoea. Also called lambliasis giddiness / idinəs/ noun a condition in which someone has difficulty in standing up and keeping their balance because of a feeling that everything is turning around He began to experience attacks of giddiness. GIFT / ift/ noun a procedure in which a surgeon removes eggs from a womans ovary, mixes them with sperm and places them in one of her Fallopian tubes to help her conceive a child. Full form giardiasis | giddiness GIFT gamete intrafallopian transfer gigantism /d ai ntiz(ə)m/ noun a condigigantism | tion in which someone grows very tall, caused by excessive production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland Nursing.fm Page 118 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM Gilberts syndrome 118 Gilberts syndrome Gilberts syndrome / ilbəts sindrəυm/ noun an inherited disorder where the liver does not deal with bilirubin correctly Gilliams operation / iliəmz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to correct retroversion of the uterus [After David Tod Gilliam (1844 Gilliams operation | 1923), physician, Columbus, Ohio, USA.] gingiv- gingiv- /d ind iv/ prefix referring to the gums gingiva /d in d aivə/ noun same as gum gingiva | (NOTE: The plural is gingivae.) gingival / d ind iv(ə)l/ adjective relating to the gums gingivectomy / d ind i vektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of excess gum tissue gingivitis / d ind i vaitis/ noun inflammation of the gums as a result of bacterial infection ginglymus / d iŋ liməs/ noun a joint which allows movement in two directions only, e.g. the knee or elbow. Also called hinge joint. Compare gingivectomy | gingivitis | ginglymus ball and socket joint ginseng / d insen / noun a plant root widely ginseng girdle Girdlestones operation | Girdlestone (18811950), Nuffield Professor of Orthopaedics at Oxford, UK] glabella / lə belə/ noun a flat area of bone in glabella | the forehead between the eyebrows gladiolus / l di əυləs/ noun the middle section of the sternum gland / l nd/ noun an organ in the body containing cells that secrete substances such as hormones, sweat or saliva which act elsewhere glanders / l ndəz/ noun a bacterial disease of horses, which can be caught by humans, with symptoms of high fever and inflammation of the lymph nodes glandular / l ndjυlə/ adjective referring to glands glandular fever / l ndjυlə fi və/ noun same as infectious mononucleosis glans / l nz/ noun a rounded part at the end of the penis or clitoris. See illustration at UROGENIgladiolus | gland glanders glandular glandular fever glans in Supplement glare / leə/ noun 1. a long stare that expresses a negative emotion such as anger 2. an uncomfortably or dazzlingly bright light 3. scattered bright light when examining something with a microscope í verb 1. to stare angrily 2. to shine uncomfortably brightly 3. to be very obvious or conspicuous Glasgow coma scale / lɑ s əυ kəυmə skeil/, Glasgow scoring system / lɑ s əυ Glasgow coma scale glaucoma | gleet | glenohumeral joint | glenoid glenoid cavity glia used as a tonic and a traditional Chinese herbal remedy girdle / d(ə)l/ noun a set of bones making a ring or arch Girdlestones operation / dəlstəυnz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to relieve osteoarthritis of the hip [After Gathorne Robert glare glass eye glenohumeral gingival TAL SYSTEM (MALE) skɔ riŋ sistəm/ noun a seven-point scale for evaluating someones level of consciousness glass eye / lɑ s ai/ noun an artificial eye made of glass glaucoma / lɔ kəυmə/ noun a condition of the eyes, caused by unusually high pressure of fluid inside the eyeball, resulting in disturbances of vision and blindness gleet / li t/ noun a thin discharge from the vagina, penis, a wound or an ulcer glenohumeral / li nəυ hu mərəl/ adjective referring to both the glenoid cavity and the humerus glenohumeral joint / li nəυ hu mərəl d ɔint/ noun the shoulder joint glenoid / li nɔid/ adjective shaped like a small shallow cup or socket glenoid cavity / li nɔid k viti/, glenoid fossa / li nɔid fɒsə/ noun a socket in the shoulder joint into which the head of the humerus fits glia / li ə/ noun connective tissue of the central nervous system, surrounding cell bodies, axons and dendrites. Also called neuroglia glial cell / li əl sel/ noun a cell in the glia glial tissue / li əl tiʃu / noun same as glia glibenclamide / li beŋkləmaid/ noun a sulphonylurea drug used to treat Type II diabetes mellitus gliclazide / likləzaid/ noun an antibacterial drug used to treat Type II diabetes mellitus glio- / laiəυ/ prefix referring to brain tissue glioma / lai əυmə/ noun any tumour of the glial tissue in the brain or spinal cord gliomyoma / laiəυmai əυmə/ noun a tumour of both the nerve and muscle tissue glipizide / lipizaid/ noun a drug used to reduce the glucose level in the blood Glissons capsule / lis(ə)nz k psju l/ noun a tissue sheath in the liver containing the blood vessels [After Francis Glisson (1597 glial cell glial tissue glibenclamide | gliclazide glio- glioma | gliomyoma | glipizide Glissons capsule 1677), philosopher, physician and anatomist at Cambridge and London, UK] globin / ləυbin/ noun a protein which comglobin bines with other substances to form compounds such as haemoglobin and myoglobin globule / lɒbju l/ noun a round drop, especially of fat globulin / lɒbjυlin/ noun a protein, present in blood, belonging to a group that includes antibodies globus / ləυbəs/ noun any ball-shaped part of the body globus hystericus / ləυbəs hi sterikəs/ noun a feeling of not being able to swallow, caused by worry or embarrassment glomerular / lɒ merυlə/ adjective referring to a glomerulus globule globulin globus globus hystericus | glomerular | Nursing.fm Page 119 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 119 glomerular capsule glomerular capsule / lɒ merυlə k psju l/ noun same as Bowmans capsule glomerular filtration rate / lɒ merυlə fil treiʃ(ə)n reit/ noun the rate at which the kid| glomerular filtration rate | | neys filter blood and remove waste matter glomerular tuft / lɒ merυlə t ft/ noun a group of blood vessels in the kidney which filter the blood glomeruli plural of glomerulus glomerulitis / lɒ merυ laitis/ noun inflammation causing lesions of glomeruli in the kidney glomerulonephritis / lɒ merυləυne fraitis/ noun same as Brights disease glomerulus / lɒ merυləs/ noun a group of blood vessels which filter waste matter from the blood in a kidney (NOTE: The plural is glomerglomerular tuft | glomeruli glomerulitis | | glomerulonephritis | | glomerulus | uli.) glycaemia glucose glucose / lu kəυz/ noun a simple sugar found in some fruit, but also broken down from white sugar or carbohydrate and absorbed into the body or secreted by the kidneys. Also called dextrose glucose tolerance test / lu kəυz tɒlərəns test/ noun a test for diabetes mellitus, in which someone eats glucose and his or her urine and blood are tested at regular intervals. Abbreviation glucose tolerance test GTT glue ear glue ear / lu iə/ noun a condition in which fluid forms behind the eardrum and causes deafness. Also called secretory otitis media glue-sniffing / lu snifiŋ/ noun ‘ solvent glue-sniffing abuse glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase / lu t mik ɒksələυə si tik tr ns mineiz/ noun an enzyme used to test for viral hepatitis glutamic pyruvic transaminase / lu t mik pai ru vik tr ns mineiz/ noun an enzyme produced in the liver and released into the blood if the liver is damaged gluteal / lu tiəl/ adjective referring to the buttocks gluteal artery / lu tiəl ɑ təri/ noun one of the two arteries supplying the buttocks, the inferior gluteal artery or the superior gluteal artery gluteal muscle / lu tiəl m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle in the buttock. gluteus gluteal vein / lu tiəl vein/ noun one of two veins draining the buttocks, the inferior gluteal vein and the superior gluteal vein gluten / lu t(ə)n/ noun a protein found in some cereals, which makes the grains form a sticky paste when water is added gluten enteropathy / lu t(ə)n entə rɒpəθi/ same as gluten-induced enteropathy gluten-induced enteropathy / lu t(ə)n in dju st entə rɒpəθi/ noun 1. an allergic disease mainly affecting children, in which the lining of the intestine is sensitive to gluten, preventing the small intestine from digesting fat 2. a condition in adults where the villi in the intestine become smaller and so reduce the surface which can absorb nutrients (NOTE: Symptoms include a | | | glutamic pyruvic transaminase gloss- gloss- / lɒs/ prefix same as glosso- (used before vowels) glossa / lɒsə/ noun same as tongue glossal / lɒs(ə)l/ adjective relating to the glossa glossal tongue glossectomy / lɒ sektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the tongue glossitis / lɒ saitis/ noun inflammation of the surface of the tongue glosso- / lɒsəυ/ prefix referring to the tongue glossodynia / lɒsəυ diniə/ noun pain in the tongue glossopharyngeal / lɒsəυf rin d i əl/ adjective relating to the tongue and pharynx glossopharyngeal nerve / lɒsəυf rin d i əl n v/ noun the ninth cranial nerve which controls the pharynx, the salivary glands and part of the tongue glossoplegia / lɒsəυ pli d ə/ noun paralysis of the tongue glossotomy / lɒ sɒtəmi/ noun a surgical incision into the tongue glottis / lɒtis/ noun an opening in the larynx between the vocal cords, which forms the entrance to the main airway from the pharynx gluc- / lu k/ prefix referring to glucose glucagon / lu kə ɒn/ noun a hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which increases the level of blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen glucagonoma / lu kə ɒ nəυmə/ noun a tumour of the cells of the pancreas that produces glucagon glucocorticoid / lu kəυ kɔ tikɔid/ noun any corticosteroid which breaks down carbohydrates and fats for use by the body, produced by the adrenal cortex gluconeogenesis / lu kəυ ni əυ d enəsis/ noun the production of glucose in the liver from protein or fat reserves glossectomy | glossitis | glosso- glossodynia | glossopharyngeal | glossopharyngeal nerve | glossoplegia | glossotomy | glottis gluc- glucagon glucagonoma | glucocorticoid | gluconeogenesis | | | | | gluteal gluteal artery gluteal muscle gluteal vein gluten gluten enteropathy | gluten-induced enteropathy | | swollen abdomen, pale diarrhoea, abdominal pains and anaemia.) also called coeliac disease gluteus / lu tiəs/ noun one of three muscles in gluteus the buttocks, responsible for movements of the hip. The largest is the gluteus maximus, while the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are smaller. glyc- / laik/ prefix same as glyco- (used before glyc- vowels) glycaemia glycaemia / lai si miə/ noun the level of glucose found in the blood. hypoglycaemia, | hyperglycaemia Nursing.fm Page 120 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM glycerin 120 glycerin glycerin / lisərin/, glycerine, glycerol / lisərɒl/ noun a colourless viscous sweet-tasting liquid present in all fats (NOTE: Synthetic glycerin is used in various medicinal preparations and also as a lubricant in items such as toothpaste and cough medicines.) glyco- / laikəυ/ prefix referring to sugar glycogen / laikəd ən/ noun a type of starch, glyco- glycogen converted from glucose by the action of insulin, and stored in the liver as a source of energy glycogenesis / laikəυ d enəsis/ noun the process by which glucose is converted into glycogen in the liver glycogenolysis / laikəυd ə nɒləsis/ noun the process by which glycogen is broken down to form glucose glycolysis / lai kɒləsis/ noun the metabolic breakdown of glucose to release energy glycoside / laikəυsaid/ noun a chemical compound of a type which is formed from a simple sugar and another compound (NOTE: Many of glycogenesis | glycogenolysis | glycolysis | glycoside the drugs produced from plants are glycosides.) glycosuria / laikəυ sjυəriə/ noun a high glycosuria | level of sugar in the urine, a symptom of diabetes mellitus GMC abbreviation General Medical Council gnathic / n θik/ adjective referring to the jaw gnathoplasty / n θəυ pl sti/ noun surgery on the jaw gnawing / nɔ iŋ/ adjective referring to a physical or emotional feeling that is persistent and uncomfortable a gnawing pain gnawing anxiety goblet cell / ɒblət sel/ noun a tube-shaped cell in the epithelium which secretes mucus GOC abbreviation General Optical Council goitre / ɔitə/ noun an excessive enlargement of the thyroid gland, seen as a swelling round the neck, caused by a lack of iodine (NOTE: The US GMC gnathic gnathoplasty | gnawing goblet cell GOC goitre spelling is goiter.) gold / əυld/ noun a soft yellow-coloured pregold cious metal, used as a compound in various drugs, and sometimes as a filling for teeth (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Au.) golden hour golden hour / əυld(ə)n aυə/ noun the first hour after a serious injury when the most difference can be made to the patients health golfers elbow / ɒlfəz elbəυ/ noun inflammation of the tendons of the elbow Golgi apparatus / ɒld i pə reitəs/ noun a folded membranous structure inside the cell cytoplasm which stores and transports enzymes and hormones [Described 1898. After Camillo Golgi golfers elbow Golgi apparatus | (18431926), Professor of Histology and later Rector of the University of Pavia, Italy. In 1906 he shared the Nobel Prize with Santiago Ramón y Cajal for work on the nervous sytem.] Golgi cell Golgi cell / ɒld i sel/ noun a type of nerve cell in the central nervous system, either with long axons (Golgi Type 1) or without axons (Golgi Type 2) gomphosis / ɒm fəυsis/ noun a joint which cannot move, like that between a tooth and the jaw gonad / əυn d/ noun a sex gland which produces gametes and also sex hormones, e.g. a testicle in males or an ovary in females gonadotrophic hormone / əυnədəυ trɒfik hɔ məυn/ noun one of two hormones, the follicle-stimulating hormone and the luteinising hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland which have an effect on the ovaries in females and on the testes in males gonadotrophin / əυnədəυ trəυfin/ noun any of a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates the sex glands at puberty. human chorionic gonadotrophin goni- / əυni/ prefix same as gonio- (used gomphosis | gonad gonadotrophic hormone | gonadotrophin | goni- before a vowel ) gonio- gonio- / ɒniəυ/ prefix referring to an angle gonion / əυniɒn/ noun the outer point at which the lower jawbone angles upwards goniopuncture / əυniəυ p ŋktʃə/ noun a surgical operation for draining fluid from the eyes of someone who has glaucoma goniotomy / əυni ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to treat glaucoma by cutting Schlemms canal gonococcal / ɒnə kɒk(ə)l/ adjective referring to gonococcus gonococcus / ɒnə kɒkəs/ noun a type of bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoea, which causes gonorrhoea (NOTE: The plural is gonococci.) gonocyte / ɒnəsait/ noun same as germ cell gonorrhoea / ɒnə ri ə/ noun a sexually transmitted disease which produces painful irritation of the mucous membrane and a watery discharge from the vagina or penis goose bumps / u s b mps/, goose flesh / u s fleʃ/, goose pimples / u s pimp(ə)lz/ noun a reaction of the skin when someone is cold or frightened, the skin being raised into many little bumps by the action of the arrector pili muscles. Also called cutis anserina gorget / ɔ d it/ noun a surgical instrument used to remove stones from the bladder gouge / aυd / noun a surgical instrument like a chisel, used to cut bone gout / aυt/ noun a disease in which unusual quantities of uric acid are produced and form crystals in the cartilage round joints. Also called gonion goniopuncture | goniotomy | gonococcal | gonococcus | gonocyte gonorrhoea | goose bumps gorget gouge gout podagra GP GP abbreviation general practitioner Nursing.fm Page 121 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 121 GP co-op GP co-op / d i pi kəυ ɒp/ noun a group of GPs who work together to provide out-of-hours care without making any profit graft graft / rɑ ft/ noun the act of transplanting an organ or tissue to replace one which is not functioning or which is diseased a skin graft í verb to take a healthy organ or tissue and transplant it in place of diseased or malfunctioning organ or The surgeons grafted a new section of tissue bone at the side of the skull. autograft, homograft graft versus host disease graft versus host disease / rɑ ft v səs həυst di zi z/ noun a condition which develops when cells from the grafted tissue react against the persons own tissue, causing skin disorders. Abbreviation GVHD grain / rein/ noun 1. a very small piece of something hard such as salt 2. a measure of weight equal to 0.0648 grams. Symbol gr -gram / r m/ suffix a record in the form of a picture Gram-negative bacterium / r m ne ətiv b k tiəriəm/ noun a bacterium which takes up the red counterstain, after the alcohol has washed out the first violet dye Gram-positive bacterium / r m pɒzitiv b k tiəriəm/ noun a bacterium which retains violet dye and appears blue-black when viewed under the microscope Grams stain / r mz stein/ noun a method of staining bacteria so that they can be identified | grain -gram Gram-negative bacterium | Gram-positive bacterium | Grams stain [Described 1884. After Hans Christian Joachim Gram (18531938), Professor of Medicine in Copenhagen, Denmark. He discovered the stain by accident as a student in Berlin, Germany.] grand mal grand mal / rɒn m l/ noun a type of epilepsy, in which someone becomes unconscious and falls down, while the muscles become stiff and twitch violently grand multiparity / r n m lti p riti/ noun the fact of having given birth to more than four children granular / r njυlə/ adjective made up of granules granular cast / r njυlə kɑ st/ noun a cast composed of cells filled with protein and fatty granules granular leucocyte / r njυlə lu kəsait/ noun same as granulocyte granulation / r njυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the formation of rough red tissue on the surface of a wound or site of infection, the first stage in the healing process granulation tissue / r njυ leiʃ(ə)n tiʃu / noun soft tissue, consisting mainly of tiny blood vessels and fibres, which forms over a wound grand multiparity | granular granular cast granular leucocyte granulation | granulation tissue | greater vestibular glands granule granule / r nju l/ noun a very small piece of something hard granulocyte / r njυləsait/ noun a type of leucocyte or white blood cell which contains granules, e.g. a basophil, eosinophil or neutrophil granulocytopenia / r njυləυ saitəυ pi niə/ noun a usually fatal disease caused by the lowering of the number of granulocytes in the blood due to bone marrow malfunction granuloma / r njυ ləυmə/ noun a mass of granulation tissue which forms at the site of bacterial infections (NOTE: The plural is granulogranulocyte granulocytopenia | | granuloma | mata or granulomas.) granulomatosis granulomatosis / r njυləυmə təυsis/ noun persistent inflammation leading to the for| mation of nodules graph / rɑ f/ noun a diagram which shows the relationship between quantities as a line graph- / r f/ prefix writing -graph / rɑ f/ suffix a machine which records something as pictures -grapher / rəfə/ suffix a technician who operates a machine which records -graphy / rəfi/ suffix the technique of study through pictures grattage / r tɑ / noun a procedure that involves scraping the surface of an ulcer which is healing slowly to make it heal more rapidly gravel / r v(ə)l/ noun small stones which pass from the kidney to the urinary system, causing pain in the ureter Graves disease / reivz di zi z/ noun same as exophthalmic goitre [Described 1835. After graph graph- -graph -grapher -graphy grattage | gravel Graves disease | Robert James Graves (17961853), Irish physician at the Meath Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, where he was responsible for introducing clinical ward work for medical students.] gravid / r vid/ adjective pregnant gravides multiparae / r vidi z m lti pɑ ri / plural noun women who have given birth gravid gravides multiparae | to at least four live babies gravity / r viti/ noun the importance or potential danger of a disease or situation Grawitz tumour / rɑ vits tju mə/ noun a malignant tumour in kidney cells [Described gravity Grawitz tumour 1883. After Paul Albert Grawitz (18501932), Professor of Pathology at Greifswald, Germany.] gray / rei/ noun an SI unit of measurement of absorbed radiation equal to 100 rads. Symbol Gy. rad graze / reiz/ noun a scrape on the skin surface, making some blood flow í verb to scrape the gray graze skin surface accidentally greater curvature / reitə k vətʃə/ noun a convex line of the stomach greater vestibular glands / reitə ve stibjυlə l ndz/ noun same as Bartholins greater curvature greater vestibular glands | glands Nursing.fm Page 122 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM great toe great toe great toe / reit təυ/ noun same as big toe greenstick fracture / ri nstik fr ktʃə/ noun a type of fracture occurring in children, where a long bone bends, but is not completely broken grey commissure / rei kɒmisjυə/ noun part of the grey matter nearest to the central canal of the spinal cord, where axons cross over each other grey matter / rei m tə/ noun nerve tissue which is of a dark grey colour and forms part of the central nervous system greenstick fracture grey commissure grey matter 122 body which encourages particular cells to grow a nerve growth factor growth hormone / rəυθ hɔ məυn/ noun a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland during deep sleep, which stimulates growth of the long bones and protein synthesis. Also called somatgrowth hormone ropin grumbling appendix grumbling appendix / r mbliŋ ə pendiks/ noun a vermiform appendix that is always slightly inflamed (informal ) chronic appendi| citis GU abbreviation 1. gastric ulcer 2. genitourinary guanine / wɑ ni n/ noun one of the four basic GU guanine COMMENT: In the brain, grey matter encloses the white matter, but in the spinal cord, white matter encloses the grey matter. grief counsellor grief counsellor / ri f kaυns(ə)lə/ noun a person who helps someone to cope with the feelings they have when someone such as a close relative dies gripe water / raip wɔ tə/ noun a solution of glucose and alcohol, used to relieve abdominal pains in babies groin / rɔin/ noun a junction at each side of the body where the lower abdomen joins the top of the thighs He had a dull pain in his groin. gripe water groin (NOTE: For other terms referring to the groin, see inguinal.) grommet / rɒmit/ noun a tube which can be grommet passed from the external auditory meatus into the middle ear, usually to allow fluid to drain off, as in someone who has glue ear ground substance / raυnd s bstəns/ noun same as matrix group / ru p/ noun several people, animals or things which are all close together A group of patients were waiting in the surgery. í verb to bring things or people together in a group, or come together in a group The drugs are grouped under the heading antibiotics. group practice / ru p pr ktis/ noun a medical practice where several doctors or dentists share the same office building and support services group therapy / ru p θerəpi/ noun a type of psychotherapy where a group of people with the same disorder meet together with a therapist to discuss their condition and try to help each other growing pains / rəυiŋ peinz/ plural noun pains associated with adolescence, which can be a form of rheumatic fever growth / rəυθ/ noun 1. the process of increasing in size the growth in the population since 1960 The disease stunts childrens growth. 2. a cyst or tumour The doctor found a cancerous growth on the left breast. He had an operation to remove a small growth from his chin. growth factor / rəυθ f ktə/ noun a chemical, especially a polypeptide, produced in the ground substance group group practice group therapy growing pains growth growth factor chemicals in DNA guardian ad litem / ɑ diən d li təm/ noun a person who acts on behalf of a minor who is a defendant in a court case guardian Caldicott / ɑ diən kɔ ldikɒt/ noun in the UK, a person appointed by a hospital or Health Trust to make sure that information about patients is kept confidential, following the Caldicott Report of 1997 Guillain-Barré syndrome / i j n b rei sindrəυm/ noun a nervous disorder in which, after a non-specific infection, demyelination of the spinal roots and peripheral nerves takes place, leading to generalised weakness and sometimes respiratory paralysis. Also called Landrys guardian ad litem guardian Caldicott Guillain-Barré syndrome paralysis [Described 1916. After Georges Guillain (18761961), Professor of Neurology in Paris, France, Jean Alexandre Barré (1880 1967), Professor of Neurology in Strasbourg, France.] guillotine / iləti n/ noun a surgical instrument guillotine for cutting out tonsils guinea worm / ini w m/ noun same as Draguinea worm cunculus Gulf War syndrome Gulf War syndrome / lf wɔ sindrəυm/ noun a collection of unexplained symptoms, including fatigue, skin disorders, and muscle pains, affecting some soldiers who fought in the Gulf War in 1991 gullet / lit/ noun same as oesophagus gum / m/ noun the soft tissue covering the part of the jaw which surrounds the teeth Her gums are red and inflamed. A build-up of tartar can lead to gum disease. Also called gingiva (NOTE: gullet gum For other terms referring to the gums, see words beginning with gingiv-.) gumboil / mbɔil/ noun an abscess on the gumboil gum near a tooth gustation / steiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of tasting gustatory / stət(ə)ri/ adjective referring to the sense of taste gut / t/ noun 1. the tubular organ for the digestion and absorption of food. Also called intestine 2. a type of thread, made from the intestines of sheep. It is used to sew up internal incisions and gustation | gustatory gut Nursing.fm Page 123 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 123 dissolves slowly so does not need to be removed. catgut Guthrie test Guthrie test / θri test/ noun a test used on babies to detect the presence of phenylketonuria [After R. Guthrie (191695), US paediatrician.] gutta gutta / tə/ noun a drop of liquid, as used in treatment of the eyes (NOTE: The plural is guttae.) gutter splint gutter splint / tə splint/ noun a shaped container in which a broken limb can rest without being completely surrounded GVHD GVHD abbreviation graft versus host disease gyn- / ain/ prefix same as gynae- (used before gyn- a vowel ) gynae- gynae- referring to women gyrus gynaecological gynaecological / ainikə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to the treatment of diseases of | women gynaecologist / aini kɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in the treatment of diseases of women gynaecology / aini kɒləd i/ noun the study of female sex organs and the treatment of diseases of women in general gynaecomastia / ainikə m stiə/ noun the unusual development of breasts in a male gyne / aini/ same as gynaecology, gynaecological (informal ) a gyne appointment gypsum / d ipsəm/ noun calcium sulphate, used as plaster of Paris gyrus / d aiərəs/ noun a raised part of the cerebral cortex between the sulci gynaecologist | gynaecology | gynaecomastia | gyne gypsum gyrus Nursing.fm Page 124 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM H H2-receptor antagonist H2-receptor antagonist / eitʃ tu ri septər n t ənist/ noun a drug that inhibits the production of stomach acid and so relieves indigestion and gastric ulcers habit / h bit/ noun 1. an action which is an automatic response to a stimulus 2. a regular way of doing something He got into the habit of swimming every day before breakfast. Shes got out of the habit of taking any exercise. habit-forming drug / h bit fɔ miŋ dr / noun a drug which is addictive habitual abortion /hə bitʃuəl ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which a woman has abortions with successive pregnancies habituation /hə bitʃu eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of being psychologically but not physically addicted to or dependent on a drug, alcohol or other substance habitus / h bitəs/ noun the general physical appearance of a person, including build and posture haem /hi m/ noun a molecule containing iron which binds proteins to form haemoproteins such as haemoglobin and myoglobin haem- /hi m/ prefix same as haemo- (used | | habit habit-forming drug habitual abortion | | habituation | | habitus haem haem- before vowels) haemato- haemato- /hi mətəυ/ prefix referring to blood haematocolpos / hi mətəυ kɒlpəs/ noun a condition in which the vagina is filled with blood at menstruation because the hymen has no opening haematocrit / hi mətəυkrit/ noun same as haematocolpos | haematocrit packed cell volume haematocyst / hi mətəυsist/ noun a cyst haematocyst which contains blood haematological / hi mətəυ lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to haematology haematologist / hi mə tɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in haematology haematology / hi mə tɒləd i/ noun the scientific study of blood, its formation and its diseases haematoma / hi mə təυmə/ noun a mass of blood under the skin caused by a blow or by the effects of an operation haematometra / hi mə tɒmitrə/ noun excessive bleeding in the uterus haematomyelia / hi mətəυmai i liə/ noun a condition in which blood leaks into the spinal cord haematopoiesis / hi mətəυpɔi i sis/ noun same as haemopoiesis haematosalpinx / hi mətəυ s lpiŋks/ noun same as haemosalpinx haematozoon / hi mətəυ zəυɒn/ noun a parasite living in the blood (NOTE: The plural is haehaematological | haematologist | haematology | haematoma | haematometra | haematomyelia | haematopoiesis | haematosalpinx haemagglutination haemagglutination / hi mə lu ti neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the clumping of red blood cells, often used | to test for the presence of antibodies haemangioma / hi m nd i əυmə/ noun a harmless tumour which forms in blood vessels and appears on the skin as a birthmark haemarthrosis / hi mɑ θrəυsis/ noun pain and swelling caused by blood leaking into a joint haematemesis / hi mə teməsis/ noun a condition in which someone vomits blood, usually because of internal bleeding haematic /hi m tik/ adjective referring to blood haematin / hi mətin/ noun a substance which forms from haemoglobin when bleeding takes place haematinic / hi mə tinik/ noun a drug which increases haemoglobin in blood, used to treat anaemia, e.g. an iron compound haemangioma | haemarthrosis | haematemesis | haematic | haematin haematinic | | haematozoon | matozoa.) haematuria haematuria / hi mə tjυəriə/ noun the unusual presence of blood in the urine, as a result of injury or disease of the kidney or bladder haemin / hi min/ noun a salt derived from haemoglobin, used in the treatment of porphyria haemo- /hi məυ/ prefix referring to blood haemochromatosis / hi məυkrəυmə təυsis/ noun an inherited disease in which the body absorbs and stores too much iron, causing cirrhosis of the liver and giving the skin a dark colour. Also called bronze diabetes haemoconcentration / hi məυ kɒnsən treiʃ(ə)n/ noun an increase in the percentage of red blood cells because the volume of plasma is reduced. Compare haemodilution | haemin haemo- haemochromatosis | haemoconcentration | | Nursing.fm Page 125 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 125 haemocytometer haemorrhagic disorder haemoperitoneum haemocytometer / hi məυsai tɒmitə/ noun a glass jar in which a sample of blood is diluted and the blood cells counted haemodialysed patient / hi məυdaiəlaizd peiʃ(ə)nt/ noun someone who has undergone haemodialysis haemodialysis / hi məυdai ləsis/ noun same as kidney dialysis haemodilution / hi məυdai lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a decrease in the percentage of red blood cells because the volume of plasma has increased. Compare haemoconcentration haemoglobin / hi mə ləυbin/ noun a red respiratory pigment formed of haem and globin in red blood cells which gives blood its red colour. It absorbs oxygen in the lungs and carries it in the blood to the tissues. Abbreviation Hb. oxyhae- haemoperitoneum / hi məυperitə ni əm/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the moglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin Haemophilus | haemodialysed patient haemodialysis | haemodilution | haemoglobin | | peritoneal cavity haemophilia A / hi məυfiliə ei/ noun the most common type of haemophilia, in which the inability to synthesise Factor VIII, a protein that promotes blood clotting, means that the blood clots very slowly haemophilia B / hi məfiliə bi / noun a less common type of haemophilia, in which the inability to synthesise Factor IX, a protein that promotes blood clotting, means that the blood clots very slowly. Also called Christmas disease haemophiliac / hi mə fili k/ noun a person who has haemophilia haemophilic / hi məυ filik/ adjective referring to haemophilia Haemophilus /hi mɒfiləs/ noun a genus of bacteria which needs specific factors in the blood to grow Haemophilus influenzae /hi mɒfiləs influ enzə/ noun a bacterium which lives in healthy throats, but which can cause pneumonia if a persons resistance is lowered by a bout of flu Haemophilus influenzae type b /hi mɒfiləs influ enzə taip bi / noun a bacterium which causes meningitis. Abbreviation Hib haemophthalmia / hi mɒf θ lmiə/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the vitreous humour of the eye haemopneumothorax / hi məυ nju məυ θɔ r ks/ noun same as pneumohaemothorax haemopoiesis / hi məυpɔi i sis/ noun the continual production of blood cells and blood platelets in the bone marrow. Also called blood haemophilia A haemophilia B haemophiliac | haemophilic | | haemoglobinaemia haemoglobinaemia / hi məυ ləυbi ni miə/ noun a comdition in which haemoglobin is found in blood plasma haemoglobinopathy / hi məυ ləυbi nɒpəθi/ noun an inherited disease of a group which result from damaging variations in the production of haemoglobin, e.g. sickle-cell anaemia haemoglobinuria / hi məυ ləυbi njυəriə/ noun a condition in which haemoglobin is found in the urine haemogram / hi məυ r m/ noun the printed result of a blood test haemolysin / hi məυ laisin/ noun a protein which destroys red blood cells haemolysis /hi mɒləsis/ noun the destruction of red blood cells haemolytic / hi məυ litik/ adjective destroying red blood cells í noun a substance which destroys red blood cells, e.g. snake venom haemolytic anaemia / hi məlitik ə ni miə/ noun a condition in which the destruction of red blood cells is about six times the usual rate, and the supply of new cells from the bone marrow cannot meet the demand haemolytic disease of the newborn / hi məυlitik di zi z əv ðə nju bɔ n/ noun a condition in which the red blood cells of the fetus are destroyed because antibodies in the mothers blood react against them haemolytic jaundice / hi məυlitik d ɔ ndis/ noun jaundice caused by haemolysis of the red blood cells. Also called prehepatic | haemoglobinopathy | haemoglobinuria | haemogram haemolysin | haemolysis | haemolytic | haemolytic anaemia | haemolytic disease of the newborn | haemolytic jaundice jaundice Haemophilus influenzae | | Haemophilus influenzae type b | | haemophthalmia | haemopneumothorax | | haemopoiesis | formation haemopoietic haemopoietic / hi məυpɔi etik/ adjective referring to the formation of blood in the bone marrow haemoptysis /hi mɒptəsis/ noun a condition in which someone coughs blood from the lungs, caused by a serious illness such as anaemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis or cancer haemorrhage / hem(ə)rid / noun the loss of a large quantity of blood, especially from a burst blood vessel He died of a brain haemorrhage. í verb to bleed heavily The injured man was haemorrhaging from the mouth. haemorrhagic / hemə r d ik/ adjective referring to heavy bleeding haemorrhagic disease of the newborn / hemər d ik di zi z əv ðə nju bɔ n/ noun a disease of newly born babies, which makes them haemorrhage easily, caused by temporary lack of prothrombin haemorrhagic disorder /hemə r d ik dis ɔ də/ noun a disorder in which haemorrhages occur, e.g. haemophilia | haemoptysis | haemorrhage haemorrhagic | haemorrhagic disease of the newborn haemolytic uraemic syndrome haemolytic uraemic syndrome / hi məυlitik jυ ri mik sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which haemolytic anaemia damages the kidneys haemopericardium / hi məυperi kɑ diəm/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the pericardium | haemopericardium | | haemorrhagic disorder | | Nursing.fm Page 126 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM haemorrhagic stroke 126 haemorrhagic stroke hallucinogen haemorrhagic stroke / hemər d ik strəυk/ noun a stroke caused by a burst blood vessel haemorrhoidectomy / hemərɔi dektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of haemorrhoids haemorrhoids / hemərɔidz/ plural noun swollen veins in the anorectal passage. Also called piles haemosalpinx /hi məυ s lpiŋks/ noun the accumulation of blood in the Fallopian tubes haemosiderosis / hi məυsidə rəυsis/ noun a disorder in which iron forms large deposits in the tissue, causing haemorrhaging and destruction of red blood cells haemostasis / hi məυ steisis/ noun the process of stopping bleeding or slowing the movement of blood haemostat / hi məυst t/ noun a device which stops bleeding, e.g. a clamp haemostatic / hi məυ st tik/ adjective stopping bleeding í noun a drug which stops bleeding haemothorax / hi məυ θɔ r ks/ noun a condition in which blood is found in the pleural cavity Hageman factor / hɑ əmən f ktə/ noun same as Factor XII HAI abbreviation Hospital Acquired Infection hair cell / heə sel/ noun a receptor cell which converts fluid pressure changes into nerve impulses carried in the auditory nerve (NOTE: For hallucinogen / h lu sinəd ən/ noun a drug which causes hallucinations, e.g. cannabis or LSD hallucinogenic /hə lu sinə d enik/ adjective referring to a substance which produces hallucinations a hallucinogenic fungus hallux / h ləks/ noun the big toe (NOTE: The other terms referring to hair, see words beginning with pilo-, trich-, tricho-.) hamstring muscles haemorrhoidectomy | haemorrhoids haemosalpinx | haemosiderosis | haemostasis | haemostat haemostatic | haemothorax | Hageman factor HAI hair cell hair follicle hair follicle / heə fɒlik(ə)l/ noun the cells and tissue that surround the root of a hair hairline fracture / heəlain fr ktʃə/ noun a very slight crack in a bone caused by injury hair papilla / heə pə pilə/ noun a part of the skin containing capillaries which feed blood to the hair half-life / hɑ f laif/ noun 1. a measurement of the period of time taken before the concentration of a drug has reached half of what it was when it was administered 2. the time taken for half the atoms in a radioactive isotope to decay halitosis / h li təυsis/ noun a condition in which a person has breath which smells unpleasant. Also called bad breath hallucinate /hə lu sineit/ verb to have hallucinations The patient was hallucinating. hallucination /hə lu si neiʃ(ə)n/ noun an experience of seeing an imaginary scene or hearing an imaginary sound as clearly as if it were really there hallucinatory /hə lu sinət(ə)ri/ adjective referring to a drug which causes hallucinations hairline fracture hair papilla | half-life halitosis | hallucinate | hallucination | | hallucinatory | | hallucinogenic | | hallux plural is halluces.) hallux valgus hallux valgus / h ləks v l əs/ noun a condition of the foot, where the big toe turns towards the other toes and a bunion is formed haloperidol / h ləυ peridɒl/ noun a tranquilliser used in the treatment of schizophrenia, mania and psychoses halo splint / heiləυ splint/ noun a device used to keep the head and neck still so that they can recover from injury or an operation halothane / h ləυθein/ noun a general anaesthetic that is given by inhalation hamartoma / h mɑ təυmə/ noun a benign tumour containing tissue from any organ hamate / heimeit/, hamate bone / heimeit bəυn/ noun one of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist, shaped like a hook. Also called unciform bone. See illustration at HAND in Supplement hammer / h mə/ noun same as malleus hammer toe / h mə təυ/ noun a toe which has the middle joint permanently bent downwards hamstring / h mstriŋ/ noun one of a group of tendons behind the knee, which link the thigh muscles to the bones in the lower leg hamstring muscles / h mstriŋ m s(ə)lz/ plural noun a group of muscles at the back of the thigh, which flex the knee and extend the gluteus maximus hand /h nd/ noun the part at the end of the arm, beyond the wrist, which is used for holding things He injured his hand with a saw. hand, foot and mouth disease / h nd fυt ən maυθ di zi z/ noun a mild viral infection in children, causing small blisters handicap / h ndik p/ noun a physical or mental condition which prevents someone from doing some everyday activities í verb to prevent someone from doing an everyday activity (NOTE: haloperidol | halo splint halothane hamartoma | hamate hammer hammer toe hamstring hand hand, foot and mouth disease | handicap The word handicap is now usually avoided.) handicapped handicapped / h ndik pt/ adjective referring to a person who has a disability (NOTE: The word handicapped is now usually avoided.) hangnail hangnail / h ŋneil/ noun a piece of torn skin at the side of a nail hangover / h ŋəυvə/ noun a condition occurring after a person has drunk too much alcohol, with dehydration caused by inhibition of the antidiuretic hormone in the kidneys. The symptoms include headache, inability to stand noise and trembling of the hands. hangover Nursing.fm Page 127 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 127 Hansens disease Hansens disease / h nsənz di zi z/ noun same as leprosy haploid / h plɔid/ adjective referring to a cell such as a gamete where each chromosome occurs only once. In humans the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. hapt- /h pt/ prefix relating to the sense of touch hardening of the arteries / hɑ d(ə)niŋ əv ðə ɑ təriz/ noun same as atherosclerosis harelip / heəlip/ noun same as cleft lip Harrisons sulcus / h risənz s lk(ə)s/, Harrisons groove / h ris(ə)nz ru v/ noun a hollow on either side of the chest which develops in children who have difficulty in breathing, seen especially in cases of rickets Harriss operation / h risiz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgical removal of the prostate gland | haploid hapt- hardening of the arteries harelip Harrisons sulcus Harriss operation | [After S.H. Harris (18801936), Australian surgeon.] Hartmanns solution / hɑ tmənz sə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a chemical solution used in drips Hartmanns solution | to replace body fluids lost in dehydration, particularly as a result of infantile gastroenteritis Health and Safety Executive Hb Hb abbreviation haemoglobin HBV abbreviation hepatitis B virus hCG abbreviation human chorionic gonadotrophin HCHS abbreviation Health and Community Health Services HDL abbreviation high density lipoprotein head /hed/ noun 1. the round top part of the body, which contains the eyes, nose, mouth, brain, etc (NOTE: For other terms referring to the HBV hCG HCHS HDL head head, see words beginning with cephal-, cephalo-.) 2. a rounded top part of a bone which fits into a socket head of humerus head of femur headache / hedeik/ noun a pain in the head, caused by changes in pressure in the blood vessels feeding the brain which act on the nerves. Also called cephalalgia head cold / hed kəυld/ noun a minor illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, excess mucus in the nose and sneezing head louse / hed laυs/ noun a small insect of the Pediculus genus, which lives on the scalp and sucks blood. Also called Pediculus capitis headache head cold head louse [Described 1932. After Alexis Frank Hartmann (18981964), paediatrician, St Louis, Missouri, USA.] Hartnup disease / hɑ tnəp di zi z/ noun an (NOTE: The plural is head lice.) Heaf test / hi f test/ noun a test in which tuber- inherited condition affecting amino acid metabolism and producing thick skin and impaired mental development [After the name of the family in test Hartnup disease | which this hereditary disease was first recorded.] harvest / hɑ vist/ verb to take something for harvest use elsewhere, e.g. a piece of skin for a graft or eggs for IVF Hashimotos disease /h ʃi məυtəz di zi z/ noun a type of goitre in middle-aged women, where the woman is sensitive to secretions from her own thyroid gland, and, in extreme cases, the face swells and the skin turns yellow [Described Hashimotos disease | | 1912. After Hakuru Hashimoto (18811934), Japanese surgeon.] hashish / h ʃiʃ/ noun ‘ cannabis haustrum / hɔ strəm/ noun a sac on the outside of the colon (NOTE: The plural is haustra.) HAV abbreviation hepatitis A virus Haversian canal /hə v ʃ(ə)n kə n l/ noun a hashish haustrum HAV Haversian canal | | fine canal which runs vertically through the Haversian systems in compact bone, containing blood vessels and lymph ducts [Described 1689. After Clopton Havers (16571702), English surgeon.] Haversian system /hə v ʃ(ə)n sistəm/ noun a unit of compact bone built around a Haversian system | Haversian canal, made of a series of bony layers which form a cylinder. Also called osteon hayfever / heifi və/ noun inflammation in the nasal passage and eyes caused by an allergic reaction to plant pollen hayfever Heaf test culin is injected into the skin to find out whether a person is immune to tuberculosis. Mantoux heal heal /hi l/ verb 1. (of wound ) to return to a healthy state After six weeks, her wound had still not healed. A minor cut will heal faster if it is left without a bandage. 2. to make someone or something get better healing / hi liŋ/ noun the process of getting better a substance which will accelerate the healing process healing by first intention / hi liŋ bai f st in tenʃən/ noun the healing of a clean wound where the tissue reforms quickly healing by second intention / hi liŋ bai sekənd in tenʃən/ noun the healing of an infected wound or ulcer, which takes place slowly and may leave a permanent scar health /helθ/ noun the general condition of the mind or body Hes in good health. She had suffered from bad health for some years. The council said that fumes from the factory were a danger to public health. All cigarette packets carry a government health warning. Health and Safety at Work Act / helθ ən seifti ət w k kt/ noun in the UK, an Act of Parliament which rules how the health of workers should be protected by the companies they work for Health and Safety Executive / helθ ən seifti i zekjυtiv/ noun in the UK, a government organisation responsible for overseeing the health and safety of workers healing healing by first intention | healing by second intention | health Health and Safety at Work Act Health and Safety Executive | Nursing.fm Page 128 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM health authority 128 health authority / helθ ɔ θɒrəti/ noun ‘ Strahealth authority | tegic Health Authority healthcare / helθkeə/, health care noun the healthcare general treatment of people with medical disorders, especially the use of measures to stop a disease from occurring healthcare assistant / helθkeər ə sistənt/ noun someone who assists health professionals in looking after a sick or dependent person Healthcare Commission / helθkeə kə miʃ(ə)n/ noun the independent inspection body for the NHS healthcare delivery / helθkeə di liv(ə)ri/ noun the provision of care and treatment by the health service healthcare professional / helθkeə prə feʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ noun a qualified person who works in an occupation related to health care, e.g. a nurse healthcare system / helθkeə sistəm/ noun any organised set of health services health centre / helθ sentə/ noun a public building in which a group of doctors practise health education / helθ edjυkeiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of teaching people, both school children and adults, to do things to improve their health, e.g. to take more exercise Health Education Authority / helθ edjυ keiʃ(ə)n ɔ θɒriti/ noun a government health promotion agency in England designed to help people make aware of how they can improve their health. Abbreviation HEA health food / helθ fu d/ noun food that is regarded as good for health, especially containing ingredients such as cereals, dried fruit and nuts and without additives health inequality / helθ ini kwɒləti/ noun the differences that exist in health across the social classes, with poorer people tending to experience poorer health health information service / helθ infə meiʃ(ə)n s vis/ noun a nation-wide information service delivered via a free telephone helpline. Abbreviation HIS health insurance / helθ in ʃυərəns/ noun insurance which pays the cost of treatment for illness Health Ombudsman / helθ ɒmbυdzmən/ noun same as Health Service Commissioner health promotion / helθ prə məυʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of improving the health of a particular community or of the public generally, e.g. using health education, immunisation and screening Health Protection Agency / helθ prə tekʃ(ə)n eid ənsi/ noun a national organisation for England and Wales, established in 2003, dedicated to the protection of peoples health, especially by reducing the impact of infectious diseases, chemicals, poisons and radiation. It healthcare assistant | Healthcare Commission | healthcare delivery | healthcare professional | healthcare system health centre health education Health Education Authority | | health food health inequality | health information service | health insurance | Health Ombudsman health promotion | Health Protection Agency | brings together existing sources of expertise in public health, communicable diseases, emergency planning, infection control, poisons and radiation hazards. Abbreviation HPA health service / helθ s vis/ noun an organisation which is in charge of providing health care to a particular community Health Service Commissioner / helθ s vis kə miʃ(ə)nə/, Health Service Ombudsman / helθ s vis ɒmbυdzmən/ noun in the UK, an official who investigates complaints from the public about the National Health Service health service manager / helθ s vis m nid ə/ noun someone who is responsible for the provision of local health care, through the management of hospital, GP, and community health services health service planning / helθ s vis pl niŋ/ noun the process of deciding what the health care needs of a community are, with the help of statistics, and what resources can be provided for that community health service reforms / helθ s vis ri fɔ mz/ plural noun any of several reforms to the NHS, the most recent package of reforms being that introduced in 2002 health visitor / helθ vizitə/ noun a registered nurse with qualifications in midwifery or obstetrics and preventive medicine, who visits mothers and babies and sick people in their homes and advises on treatment hear /hiə/ verb to sense sounds with the ears I cant hear what youre saying. (NOTE: hearing health service Health Service Commissioner | health service manager health service planning health service reforms | health visitor hear heard) hearing hearing / hiəriŋ/ noun the ability to hear, or the function performed by the ear of sensing sounds and sending sound impulses to the brain His hearing is failing. (NOTE: For other terms referring to hearing, see words beginning with audi-, audio-.) hearing aid hearing aid / hiəriŋ eid/ noun a small electronic device fitted into or near the ear, to improve someones hearing by making the sounds louder hearing-impaired / hiəriŋ im peəd/ adjective having a degree of hearing loss hearing loss / hiəriŋ lɒs/ noun partial or complete loss of the ability to hear heart /hɑ t/ noun the main organ in the body, which maintains the circulation of the blood around the body by its pumping action The doctor listened to his heart. She has heart trouble. hearing-impaired | hearing loss heart (NOTE: For other terms referring to the heart, see also words beginning with cardi-,cardio-.) heart attack heart attack / hɑ t ə t k/ noun a condition in which the heart has a reduced blood supply because one of the arteries becomes blocked by a blood clot, causing myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction (informal ) | Nursing.fm Page 129 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 129 heartbeat heartbeat / hɑ tbi t/ noun the regular noise made by the heart as it pumps blood heart block / hɑ t blɒk/ noun the slowing of the action of the heart because the impulses from the sinoatrial node to the ventricles are delayed or interrupted. There are either longer impulses (first degree block) or missing impulses (second degree block) or no impulses at all (complete heart block), in which case the ventricles continue to beat slowly and independently of the sinoatrial node. heartburn / hɑ tb n/ noun indigestion which causes a burning feeling in the stomach and oesophagus, and a flow of acid saliva into the mouth (informal ) heart bypass / hɑ t baipɑ s ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/, heart bypass operation noun same as coroheart block heartburn heart bypass | nary artery bypass graft heart disease / hɑ t di zi z/ noun any disease heart disease | of the heart in general heart failure / hɑ t feiljə/ noun the failure of the heart to maintain the output of blood to meet the demands of the body. It may affect the left or right sides of the heart, or both sides. heart-lung machine / hɑ t l ŋ mə ʃi n/ noun a machine used to pump blood round the body and maintain the supply of oxygen to the blood during heart surgery heart-lung transplant / hɑ t lŋ tr nsplɑ nt/ noun an operation to transplant a new heart and lungs into someone heart massage / hɑ t m sɑ / noun a treatment which involves pressing on the chest to make a heart which has stopped beating start working again heart murmur / hɑ t m mə/ noun an unusual sound made by turbulent blood flow, sometimes as a result of valve disease heart rate / hɑ t reit/ noun the number of times the heart beats per minute heart sounds / hɑ t saυndz/ plural noun two different sounds made by the heart as it beats. heart failure heart-lung machine | heart-lung transplant heart massage heart murmur heart rate heart sounds lubb-dupp heart surgeon heart surgeon / hɑ t s d ən/ noun a surgeon who spees in operations on the heart heart surgery / hɑ t s d əri/ noun a surgical operation to remedy a condition of the heart heart tamponade / hɑ t t mpə neid/ noun same as cardiac tamponade heart transplant / hɑ t tr nsplɑ nt/ noun a surgical operation to transplant a heart into someone heat rash / hi t r ʃ/ noun same as miliaria heat spots / hi t spɒts/ plural noun little red spots which develop on the face in very hot weather heatstroke / hi tstrəυk/ noun a condition in which someone becomes too hot and his or her heart surgery heart tamponade | heart transplant heat rash heat spots heatstroke helium body temperature rises abnormally, leading to headaches, stomach cramps and sometimes loss of consciousness heat therapy / hi t θerəpi/, heat treatment / hi t tri tmənt/ noun same as thermotherapy heavy period / hevi piəriəd/ noun a monthly period during which a woman loses an unusually large amount of blood. It is often painful and sometimes indicates possible health problems, such as fibroids or hypothyroidism. Heberdens node / hi bədənz nəυd/ noun a small bony lump which develops on the end joints of fingers in osteoarthritis [Described 1802. After heat therapy heavy period Heberdens node William Heberden (17671845), British physician, spet in rheumatic diseases.] hebetude hebetude / hebitju d/ noun dullness of the senses during acute fever, which makes the person uninterested in his or her surroundings and unable to respond to stimuli hectic / hektik/ adjective recurring regularly hectic fever / hektik fi və/ noun an attack of fever which occurs each day in someone who has tuberculosis heel /hi l/ noun the back part of the foot heel bone / hi l bəυn/ noun the bone forming the heel, beneath the talus. Also called calhectic hectic fever heel heel bone caneus Hegars sign Hegars sign / hei əz sain/ noun a way of detecting pregnancy, by inserting the fingers into the uterus and pressing with the other hand on the pelvic cavity to feel if the neck of the uterus has become soft [After Alfred Hegar (18301914), Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Freiburg, Germany.] Heimlich manoeuvre Heimlich manoeuvre / haimlik mə nu və/ noun an emergency treatment for choking, in | which a strong upward push beneath the breastbone of a patient clasped from behind forces the blockage out of the windpipe helco- /helkəυ/ prefix relating to an ulcer helcoplasty / helkəυpl sti/ noun a skin graft to cover an ulcer to aid healing Helicobacter pylori / helikəυb ktə pai lɔ ri / noun a bacterium found in gastric secretions, strongly associated with duodenal ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Abbreviation H pylori helicopter-based emergency medical services / helikɒptə beist i m d ənsi medik(ə)l s visiz/ plural noun full form of helco- helcoplasty Helicobacter pylori | helicopter-based emergency medical services | HEMS helio- helio- /hi liəυ/ prefix relating to the sun heliotherapy / hi liəυ θerəpi/ noun treatment by sunlight or sunbathing helium / hi liəm/ noun a very light gas used in combination with oxygen, especially to relieve asthma or sickness caused by decompression heliotherapy | helium (NOTE: The chemical symbol is He.) Nursing.fm Page 130 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM helix 130 helix helix / hi liks/ noun the curved outer edge of the ear Hellers operation / heləz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as cardiomyotomy [After E. Heller (1877 medical emergency by helicopter and then transporting patients to the nearest major hospital or spet unit. Full form helicopter-based 1964), German surgeon.] Hellers test / heləz test/ noun a test for protein in the urine [After Johann Florenz Heller (181371), Austrian physician.] Hellins law / helinz lɔ / noun a finding which Hendersons model / hendəs(ə)nz mɒd(ə)l/ noun a model of nursepatient relationships based on 14 basic principles of nursing. The main idea is that "the nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength, the will, and the knowledgebut that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible". Henles loop / henli z lu p/ noun same as Hellers operation | Hellers test Hellins law states that twins should occur naturally once in 90 live births, triplets once in 8,100 live births, quadruplets once in 729, 000 live births, and quintuplets once in 65, 610, 000 live births (NOTE: Since the 1960s the numbers have changed due to fertility treatment. For example, twins now occur once in only 38 births.) HELLP syndrome / help sindrəυm/ noun a HELLP syndrome serious pre-eclamptic disorder which makes it necessary to terminate a pregnancy. Full form haemolysis-elevated liver enzymeslow platelet count syndrome helminth / helminθ/ noun a parasitic worm, helminth e.g. a tapeworm or fluke helminthiasis / helmin θaiəsis/ noun infestation with parasitic worms heloma /hi ləυmə/ noun same as corn helper T-cell / helpə ti sel/ noun a type of white blood cell that stimulates the production of cells that destroy antigens hemeralopia / hemərə ləυpiə/ noun a usually congenital condition in which someone is able to see better in bad light than in ordinary daylight. Also called day blindness hemi- /hemi/ prefix half hemianopia / hemiə nəυpiə/ noun a state of partial blindness in which someone has only half the usual field of vision in each eye hemiarthroplasty / hemi ɑ θrəυpl sti/ noun an operation to repair a joint which replaces one of its surfaces with an artificial substance, often metal hemiballismus / hemibə lizməs/ noun a sudden movement of the limbs on one side of the body, caused by a disease of the basal ganglia hemicolectomy / hemikə lektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of part of the colon hemimelia / hemi mi liə/ noun a congenital condition in which someone has absent or extremely short arms or legs hemiparesis / hemipə ri sis/ noun slight paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body hemiplegia / hemi pli d ə/ noun severe paralysis affecting one side of the body due to damage of the central nervous system. Compare diplegia hemisphere / hemisfiə/ noun half of a sphere HEMS /hemz/ plural noun a system of delivering a paramedic crew to the scene of an accident or helminthiasis | heloma | helper T-cell hemeralopia | hemi- hemianopia | hemiarthroplasty | hemiballismus | hemicolectomy | hemimelia | hemiparesis | hemiplegia | hemisphere HEMS emergency medical services Hendersons model Henles loop loop of Henle [Described 1862. After Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (180985), Professor of Anatomy at Göttingen, Germany.] Henoch-Schönlein purpura Henoch-Schönlein purpura / henək ʃ nlain p pjυrə/, Henochs purpura / henəks p pjυrə/ noun a condition in which blood vessels become inflamed and bleed into the skin, causing a rash called purpura and also pain in the stomach and the joints, vomiting and diarrhoea. It often occurs after an upper respiratory infection, mostly in children aged two to 11. [Described 1832 by Schönlein and 1865 by Henoch. Eduard Heinrich Henoch (18201910), Professor of Paedriatrics at Berlin, Germany; Johannes Lukas Schönlein (17931864), physician and pathologist at Würzburg, Zürich and Berlin.] heparin heparin / hepərin/ noun an anticoagulant substance found in the liver and lungs, and also produced artificially for use in the treatment of thrombosis hepat- /hip t/ prefix same as hepato- (used hepat- before vowels) hepatectomy hepatectomy / hepə tektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of part of the liver hepatic /hi p tik/ adjective referring to the liver hepatic artery /hi p tik ɑ təri/ noun an artery which takes the blood to the liver hepatic cell /hi p tik sel/ noun an epithelial cell of the liver acini hepatic duct /hi p tik d kt/ noun a duct which links the liver to the bile duct leading to the duodenum hepatic flexure /hi p tik flekʃə/ noun a bend in the colon, where the ascending and transverse colons join hepaticostomy /hi p ti kɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the hepatic duct taking bile from the liver hepatic portal system /hi p tik pɔ t(ə)l sistəm/ noun a group of veins linking to form the portal vein, which brings blood from the pancreas, spleen, gall bladder and the abdominal part of the alimentary canal to the liver | hepatic | hepatic artery | hepatic cell | hepatic duct | hepatic flexure | hepaticostomy | | hepatic portal system | Nursing.fm Page 131 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 131 hepatic vein hepatic vein /hi p tik vein/ noun a vein which takes blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava hepatitis / hepə taitis/ noun inflammation of the liver through disease or drugs hepatitis A / hepətaitis ei/ noun a relatively mild form of viral hepatitis that is transmitted through contaminated food and water hepatitis A virus / hepətaitis ei vairəs/ noun a virus which causes hepatitis A. Abbreviation HAV hepatitis B / hepətaitis bi / noun a severe form of viral hepatitis that is transmitted by contact with infected blood or other body fluids hepatitis B virus / hepətaitis bi vairəs/ noun a virus which causes hepatitis B. Abbreviation HBV hepatitis C / hepətaitis si / noun a form of viral hepatitis that is transmitted by contact with infected blood or other body fluids but is often without symptoms (NOTE: It was formerly called | hepatitis | hepatitis A hepatitis A virus hepatitis B hepatitis B virus hepatitis C non-A, non-B hepatitis.) hepatitis C virus hepatitis C virus / hepətaitis si vairəs/ noun a virus which causes hepatitis C. Abbreviation HCV hepato- /hepətəυ/ prefix referring to the liver hepatocellular / hepətəυ seljυlə/ adjective referring to liver cells hepatocellular jaundice / hepətəυ seljυlə d ɔ ndis/ noun jaundice caused by injury to or disease of the liver cells hepatocirrhosis / hepətəυsi rəυsis/ noun same as cirrhosis hepatocyte / hepətəυsait, hi p təsait/ noun a liver cell which synthesises and stores substances, and produces bile hepatogenous / hepə tɒd ənəs/ noun referring to or originating in the liver hepatogenous jaundice hepatolenticular degeneration / hepətəυlen tikjυlə di d enə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as Wilsons disease hepatoma / hepə təυmə/ noun a malignant tumour of the liver formed of mature cells, especially found in people with cirrhosis hepatomegaly / hepətəυ me əli/ noun a condition in which the liver becomes very large hepatosplenomegaly / hepətəυ spli nəυ me əli/ noun enlargement of both the liver and the spleen, as occurs in leukaemia or lymphoma hepatotoxic / hepətəυ tɒksik/ adjective destroying the liver cells herbalism / h bəliz(ə)m/ noun ‘ herbal hepato- hepatocellular | hepatocellular jaundice | hepatocirrhosis | hepatocyte | hepatogenous | hepatolenticular degeneration | | | hepatoma | hepatomegaly | hepatosplenomegaly | | hepatotoxic | herbalism medicine herbalist herbalist / h bəlist/ noun a person who treats illnesses or disorders with substances extracted from plants herpes simplex herbal medicine herbal medicine / h b(ə)l med(ə)sin/ noun a system of medical treatment involving the use of substances extracted from plants herbal remedy / h b(ə)l remədi/ noun a medicine made from plants, e.g. an infusion made from dried leaves or flowers in hot water herd immunity / h d i mju niti/ noun the fact of a group of people being resistant to a specific disease, because many individuals in the group are immune to or immunised against the microorganism which causes it hereditary /hə redit(ə)ri/ adjective passed as from parents to children through the genes hereditary spherocytosis /hi redit(ə)ri sfiərəυsai təυsis/ noun same as acholuric herbal remedy herd immunity | hereditary | hereditary spherocytosis | | jaundice heredity heredity /hə rediti/ noun the process by which genetically controlled characteristics pass from parents to children Hering-Breuer reflexes / heriŋ brɔiə ri fleksiz/ plural noun the reflexes which maintain the usual rhythmic inflation and deflation of the lungs hermaphrodite /h m frədait/ noun a person with both male and female characteristics hermaphroditism /h m frədaitiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which a person has both male and female characteristics hernia / h niə/ noun a condition in which an organ bulges through a hole or weakness in the wall which surrounds it. Also called rupture hernial / h niəl/ adjective referring to a hernia hernial sac / h niəl s k/ noun a sac formed where a membrane has pushed through a cavity in the body herniated / h nieitid/ adjective referring to an organ which has developed a hernia herniation / h ni eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the development of a hernia hernio- /h niəυ/ prefix relating to a hernia hernioplasty / h niəυ pl sti/ noun a surgical operation to reduce a hernia herniorrhaphy / h ni ɔ rəfi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a hernia and repair the organ through which it protruded herniotomy / h ni ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a hernial sac heroin / herəυin/ noun a narcotic drug in the form of a white powder derived from morphine herpes / h pi z/ noun inflammation of the skin or mucous membrane, caused by a virus, where small blisters are formed herpes simplex / h pi z simpleks/ noun 1. (Type I) a virus that produces a painful blister, called a cold sore, usually on the lips 2. (Type II) a sexually transmitted disease which forms blisters in the genital region. Also called genital her| Hering-Breuer reflexes hermaphrodite | hermaphroditism | hernia hernial hernial sac herniated herniation | hernio- hernioplasty | herniorrhaphy | herniotomy | heroin herpes herpes simplex pes Nursing.fm Page 132 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM herpesvirus 132 herpesvirus herpesvirus / h pi z vairəs/ noun one of a group of viruses which cause herpes and chickenpox (herpesvirus Type I), and genital herpes (herpesvirus Type II) herpes zoster / h pi z zɒstə/ noun inflammation of a sensory nerve, characterised by pain along the nerve and causing a line of blisters to form on the skin, usually found mainly on the abdomen or back, or on the face. Also called | herpes zoster shingles, zona herpetic /h petik/ adjective referring to herherpetic | pes hetero- /hetərəυ/ prefix different heterochromia / hetərəυ krəυmiə/ noun a condition in which the irises of the eyes are different colours heterogeneous / hetərəυ d i niəs/ adjective having different characteristics or qualities hetero- heterochromia | heterogeneous | (NOTE: Do not confuse with heterogenous.) heterogenous / hetə rɒd inəs/ adjective coming from a different source (NOTE: Do not confuse with heterogeneous.) heterograft / hetərəυ rɑ ft/ noun tissue taken heterogenous | heterograft from one species and grafted onto an individual of another species. Compare homograft heterologous / hetə rɒlə əs/ adjective of a different type heterophoria / hetərəυ fɔ riə/ noun a condition in which if an eye is covered it tends to squint heteroplasty / hetərəυpl sti/ noun same as heterologous | heterophoria | heteroplasty heterograft heteropsia heteropsia / hetə rɒpsiə/ noun a condition in which the two eyes see differently heterosexual / hetərəυ sekʃuəl/ adjective attracted to people of the opposite sex or relating to relations between males and females í noun a person who is sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex. Compare bisexual, homosexual heterosexuality / hetərəυsekʃu liti/ noun sexual attraction towards persons of the opposite sex heterotopia / hetərəυ təυpiə/ noun 1. a state where an organ is placed in a different position from usual or is malformed or deformed 2. the development of tissue which is not natural to the part in which it is produced heterotropia / hetərəυ trəυpiə/ noun same as | heterosexual | heterosexuality | heterotopia | heterotropia | strabismus heterozygous heterozygous / hetərəυ zai əs/ adjective having two or more different versions of a specific gene. Compare homozygous hex- /heks/ prefix same as hexa- (NOTE: used | hex- before vowels) hexa- /heksə/ prefix six HFEA abbreviation Human Fertilization and hexa- HFEA Embryology Authority hGH abbreviation human growth hormone hGH HGPRT HGPRT abbreviation hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. HPRT hiatus /hai eitəs/ noun an opening or space hiatus hernia /hai eitəs h niə/, hiatal hernia /hai eit(ə)l h niə/ noun a hernia where the stomach bulges through the opening in the diaphragm muscle through which the oesophagus passes Hib /hib/ abbreviation Haemophilus influenzae type B Hib vaccine / hib v ksi n/ noun a vaccine used to inoculate against the bacterium Haemophilius influenzae that causes meningitis hiccup / hik p/, hiccough noun a spasm in the diaphragm which causes a sudden inhalation of breath followed by sudden closure of the glottis which makes a characteristic sound She had an attack of hiccups or had a hiccuping attack or got the hiccups. Also called singultus Hickman catheter / hikmən k θitə/, Hickman line / hikmən lain/ noun a plastic tube which is put into the large vein above the heart so that drugs can be given and blood samples can be taken easily hidr- /haidr/ prefix referring to sweat hidradenitis / haidrədə naitis/ noun inflammation of the sweat glands hidrosis /hai drəυsis/ noun sweating, especially when it is excessive hidrotic /hai drɒtik/ adjective referring to sweating í noun a substance which makes someone sweat high-altitude sickness / hai ltitju d siknəs/ noun same as altitude sickness high blood pressure / hai bl d preʃə/ noun same as hypertension high-calorie diet /hai k ləri daiət/ noun a diet containing over 4000 calories per day high-density lipoprotein / hai densiti lipəυ prəυti n/ noun a lipoprotein with a low percentage of cholesterol. Abbreviation HDL high-fibre diet / hai faibə daiət/ noun a diet which contains a high percentage of cereals, nuts, fruit and vegetables high-protein diet / hai prəυti n daiət/ noun a diet containing mostly foods high in protein and low in carbohydrates and saturated fat, adopted by people who are trying to lose weight hilar / hailə/ adjective referring to a hilum hilum / hailəm/ noun a hollow where blood vessels or nerve fibres enter an organ such as a kidney or lung (NOTE: The plural is hila.) hindbrain / haindbrein/ noun the part of brain of an embryo from which the medulla oblongata, the pons and the cerebellum eventually develop hindgut / haind t/ noun part of an embryo which develops into the colon and rectum hiatus | hiatus hernia | | Hib Hib vaccine hiccup Hickman catheter hidr- hidradenitis | hidrosis | hidrotic | high-altitude sickness high blood pressure high-calorie diet high-density lipoprotein | high-fibre diet high-protein diet hilar hilum hindbrain hindgut Nursing.fm Page 133 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 133 hinge joint hinge joint / hind d ɔint/ noun same as ginglymus hip /hip/ noun a ball and socket joint where the thigh bone or femur joins the acetabulum of the hip bone hip bone / hip bəυn/ noun a bone made of the ilium, the ischium and the pubis which are fused together, forming part of the pelvic girdle. Also called innominate bone hip fracture / hip fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture of the ball at the top of the femur hip girdle / hip d(ə)l/ noun same as pelvic hip bone hip fracture hip girdle girdle | histiocytosis | histiocytosis X | histo- histocompatible | hip joint hip joint / hip d ɔint/ noun the place where the hip is joined to the upper leg. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement Hippel-Lindau / hipəl lindaυ/ ‘ von HippelHippel-Lindau Lindau syndrome hippocampus hippocampus / hipəυ k mpəs/ noun a long rounded elevation projecting into the lateral ventricle in the brain Hippocratic oath / hipəkr tik əυθ/ noun an ethical code observed by doctors, by which they will treat patients equally, put patients welfare first and not discuss openly the details of a patients case hip replacement / hip ri pleismənt/ noun a surgical operation to replace the whole ball and socket joint at the hip with an artificial one Hirschsprungs disease / hiəʃspr ŋz di zi z/ noun a congenital condition where parts of the lower colon lack nerve cells, making peristalsis impossible, so that food accumulates in the upper colon which becomes swollen [Described | Hippocratic oath hip replacement | Hirschsprungs disease | 1888. After Harald Hirschsprung (18301916), Professor of Paediatrics in Copenhagen, Denmark.] hirsute / h sju t/ adjective with a lot of hair hirsutism / h sju tiz(ə)m/ noun the condition hirsute hirsutism of having excessive hair, especially a condition in which a woman grows hair on the body in the same way as a man hirudin /hi ru din/ noun an anticoagulant substance produced by leeches, which is injected into the bloodstream while the leech is feeding on a body HIS abbreviation Health Information Service hist- /hist/ same as histo- (NOTE: used before hirudin | HIS hist- vowels) histamine / histəmi n/ noun a substance released in response to allergens from mast cells throughout the body. Histamines dilate blood vessels, constrict the cells of smooth muscles and cause an increase in acid secretions in the stomach. histamine test / histəmi n test/ noun a test to determine the acidity of gastric juice histamine test histaminic / histə minik/ adjective referring to histamines histiocyte / histiəυsait/ noun a macrophage of the connective tissue, involved in tissue defence histiocytosis / histiəυsai təυsis/ noun a condition in which histiocytes are present in the blood histiocytosis X / histiəυsai təυsis eks/ noun any form of histiocytosis where the cause is not known, e.g. Hand-Schüller-Christian disease histo- /histəυ/ prefix relating to the bodys tissue histology histocompatible / histəυkəm p tib(ə)l/ adjective referring to tissues from two individuals which have compatible antigens histogram / histə r m/ noun a way of displaying frequency values as columns whose height is proportional to the corresponding frequency a histogram showing numbers of patients with the condition in each age group histological / histə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to histology histological grade / histəlɒd ik(ə)l reid/ noun a system of classifying tumours according to how malignant they are histology /hi stɒləd i/ noun the study of the anatomy of tissue cells and minute cellular structure histolysis /hi stɒləsis/ noun the disintegration of tissue histotoxic / histəυ tɒksik/ adjective referring to a substance which is poisonous to tissue HIV abbreviation human immunodeficiency virus hives /haivz/ noun same as urticaria (NOTE: histiocyte hip histamine Hodgkins disease histaminic histogram histological | histological grade histology | histolysis | histotoxic | HIV hives Takes a singular verb.) HIV-negative / eitʃ ai vi ne ətiv/ adjective HIV-negative referring to someone who has been tested and shown not to have HIV HIV-positive / eitʃ ai vi pɒzitiv/ adjective referring to someone who has been tested and shown to have HIV HLA abbreviation human leucocyte antigen HLA system / eitʃ el ei sistəm/ noun a system of HLA antigens on the surface of cells which need to be histocompatible to allow transplants to take place HMO abbreviation US Health Maintenance Organization hobnail liver / hɒbneil livə/ noun same as HIV-positive HLA HLA system HMO hobnail liver atrophic cirrhosis Hodgkins disease Hodgkins disease / hɒd kinz di zi z/ noun a malignant disease in which the lymph glands are enlarged and there is an increase in the lymphoid tissues in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is frequently fatal if not treated early. [Described | 1832. After Thomas Hodgkin (17981866), British physician.] Nursing.fm Page 134 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM hoist 134 hoist hoist /hɔist/ noun a device with pulleys and wires for raising a bed or a patient hole in the heart / həυl in ðə hɑ t/ noun same as septal defect (informal ) holism / həυliz(ə)m/ noun the theory that all of a persons physical, mental and social conditions should be considered in the treatment of his or her illness holistic /həυ listik/ adjective referring to a method of treatment involving all of someones mental and family circumstances rather than just dealing with the condition from which he or she is suffering holistic care /həυ listik keə/ noun the care and treatment of a whole person rather than just of his or her medical symptoms holo- /hɒləυ/ prefix entire, complete holocrine / hɒləkrin/ adjective referring to a gland where the secretions are made up of disintegrated cells of the gland itself Homans sign / həυmənz sain/ noun pain in the calf when the foot is bent back, a sign of deepvein thrombosis [Described 1941. After John hole in the heart holism holistic | holistic care | holo- holocrine Homans sign Homans (18771954), Professor of Clinical Surgery at Harvard, USA.] home help / həυm help/ noun 1. a person who home help is paid to carry out ordinary domestic tasks such as cleaning and cooking for people who are unable to carry out these tasks for themselves 2. same as home help service home help service / həυm help s vis/ noun a publicly funded support service provided mainly for elderly and disabled people which offers help with ordinary household tasks of a non-nursing nature, such as cooking and washing to help people in their own homes homeo- /həυmiəυ/ prefix like or similar homeopathic / həυmiə p θik/, homoeopathic adjective 1. referring to homeopathy a homeopathic clinic She is having a course of homeopathic treatment. 2. referring to a drug which is given in very small quantities homeopathist / həυmi ɒpəθist/, homoeopathist noun a person who practises homeopathy homeopathy / həυmi ɒpəθi/, homoeopathy noun the treatment of a condition by giving the person very small quantities of a substance which, when given to a healthy person, would cause symptoms like those of the condition being treated. Compare allopathy homeostasis / həυmiəυ steisis/ noun the process by which the functions and chemistry of a cell or internal organ are kept stable, even when external conditions vary greatly homo- /həυməυ/ prefix the same homoeo- /həυmiəυ/ prefix another spelling of home help service homeo- homeopathic | homeopathist | homeopathy | homeostasis | homo- homoeo- homeo- (used before vowels) homogenise /hə mɒd ənaiz/, homogenize verb to give something a uniform nature homogenise | homograft homograft / hɒmə rɑ ft/ noun the graft of an organ or tissue from a donor to a recipient of the same species, e.g. from one person to another. Also called allograft. Compare heterograft homolateral / hɒmə l t(ə)rəl/ adjective same as ipsilateral homologous /hɒ mɒlə əs/ adjective 1. of the same type 2. referring to chromosomes which form a pair homonymous hemianopia /hə mɒniməs hemiə nəυpiə/ noun a condition in which the same half of the field of vision is lost in each eye homosexual / həυməυ sekʃuəl/ adjective referring to homosexuality í noun a person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex. Compare bisexual, heterosexual (NOTE: homolateral | homologous | homonymous hemianopia | | homosexual | Although homosexual can apply to both males and females, it is commonly used for males only, and lesbian is used for females.) homosexuality / həυməυsekʃu liti/ noun homosexuality | sexual attraction to people of the same sex or sexual relations with people of the same sex homozygous / həυməυ zai əs/ adjective having two identical versions of a specific gene. Compare heterozygous hookworm / hυkw m/ noun a parasitic worm hookworm disease / hυkw m di zi z/ noun homozygous | hookworm hookworm disease | ‘ ancylostomiasis hordeolum /hɔ di ələm/ noun an infection of hordeolum | the gland at the base of an eyelash. Also called stye horizontal fissure horizontal fissure / hɒrizɒnt(ə)l fiʃə/ noun ANAT a horizontal groove between the superior and middle lobes of a lung. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement hormone / hɔ məυn/ noun a substance which is produced by one part of the body, especially the endocrine glands and is carried to another part of the body by the bloodstream where it has particular effects or functions hormone replacement therapy / hɔ məυn ri pleismənt θerəpi/, hormone therapy noun 1. treatment for someone whose endocrine glands have been removed 2. treatment to relieve the symptoms of the menopause by supplying oestrogen and reducing the risk of osteoporosis abbreviation HRT Horners syndrome / hɔ nəz sindrəυm/ noun a condition caused by paralysis of the sympathetic nerve in one side of the neck, making the eyelids hang down and the pupils contract hormone hormone replacement therapy | Horners syndrome [Described 1869. After Johann Friedrich Horner (183186), Professor of Ophthalmology in Zürich, Switzerland.] horny / hɔ ni/ adjective referring to skin which is very hard (NOTE: For terms referring to horny tissue, see words beginning with kerat-, kerato-.) horny Nursing.fm Page 135 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 135 horseshoe kidney horseshoe kidney / hɔ sʃu kidni/ noun a congenital condition of the kidney, where sometimes the upper but usually the lower parts of both kidneys are joined together Hortons syndrome / hɔ t(ə)nz sindrəυm/ noun a severe headache, often with constant pain around one eye, which starts usually within a few hours of going to sleep. It is caused by the release of histamine in the body. [After Bayard Taylor Hortons syndrome Horton (18951980), US physician.] hospice hospice / hɒspis/ noun a hospital which offers palliative care for terminally ill people hospital / hɒspit(ə)l/ noun a place where sick or injured people are looked after hospital-acquired infection / hɒspit(ə)l ə kwaiəd in fekʃən/ noun a disease caught during a stay in hospital Hospital Activity Analysis / hɒspit(ə)l k tiviti ə n ləsis/ noun a regular detailed report on patients in hospitals, including information about treatment, length of stay and outcome hospital care / hɒspit(ə)l keə/ noun treatment in a hospital hospital doctor / hɒspit(ə)l dɒktə/ noun a doctor who works only in a hospital and does not receive people in his or her own surgery hospital gangrene / hɒspit(ə)l ŋ ri n/ noun gangrene caused by insanitary hospital conditions hospital infection / hɒspit(ə)l in fekʃən/ noun an infection which someone gets during a hospital visit, or one which develops among hospital staff hospital hospital-acquired infection | | Hospital Activity Analysis | | hospital care hospital doctor hospital gangrene hospital infection | COMMENT: Hospital infection is an increasingly common problem due to growing antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use. Strains of bacteria such as MRSA have evolved which seem to be more easily transmitted between patients and are difficult to treat. hospitalise / hɒspit(ə)laiz/, hospitalize verb humectant hourglass stomach hourglass stomach / aυə lɑ s st mək/ noun a condition in which the wall of the stomach is pulled in so that it is divided into two cavities, cardiac and pyloric houseman / haυsmən/ noun same as house houseman officer house officer house officer / haυs ɒfisə/ noun a doctor who works in a hospital as a house surgeon or house physician during the final year of training before registration by the General Medical Council HPA abbreviation Health Protection Agency HPRT / eitʃ pi ɑ ti / noun an enzyme that is lacking in children, usually boys, who have Lesch-Nyhan disease. Full form hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase. Also called HPA HPRT HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) HPV HPV abbreviation human papillomavirus H pylori abbreviation Helicobacter pylori HRT abbreviation hormone replacement therapy human / hju mən/ adjective referring to any man, woman or child í noun a person Most animals are afraid of humans. human anatomy / hju mən ə n təmi/ noun the structure, shape and functions of the human body human being / hju mən bi iŋ/ noun a person human chorionic gonadotrophin / hju mən kɔ ri ɒnik əυnədə trəυfin/ noun a hormone produced by the placenta, which suppresses the mothers usual menstrual cycle during pregnancy. It is found in the urine during pregnancy, and can be given by injection to encourage ovulation and help a woman to become pregnant. Abbreviation hCG human crutch / hju mən kr tʃ/ noun a method of helping an injured person to walk, where they rest one arm over the shoulders of the person helping human immunodeficiency virus / hju mən imjυnəυdi fiʃ(ə)nsi vairəs/ noun a virus which causes AIDS. Abbreviation HIV human leucocyte antigen / hju mən lu kəsait ntid (ə)n/ noun any of the system of antigens on the surface of cells which need to be histocompatible to allow transplants to take place. Abbreviation HLA. HLA system human nature / hju mən neitʃə/ noun the general behavioural characteristics of human beings human papillomavirus / hju mən p pi ləυmə vairəs/ noun a virus that causes genital warts in humans. Abbreviation HPV humectant /hju mektənt/ adjective able to absorb or retain moisture í noun a substance that can absorb or retain moisture, e.g. a skin lotion H pylori HRT human human anatomy | human being human chorionic gonadotrophin | | human crutch hospitalise to send someone to hospital He is so ill that he has had to be hospitalised. hospital trust / hɒspit(ə)l tr st/ noun same as hospital trust self-governing hospital host /həυst/ noun a person or animal on which host a parasite lives hot /hɒt/ adjective very warm or having a high temperature hot flush / hɒt fl ʃ/ noun a condition in menopausal women, in which the woman becomes hot and sweats, and which is often accompanied by redness of the skin hotpack / hɒtp k/ noun a cloth bag or a pad filled with gel or grains which can be heated and applied to the skin to relieve pain or stiffness hourglass contraction / aυə lɑ s kən tr kʃən/ noun a condition in which an organ such as the stomach is constricted in the centre hot hot flush hotpack hourglass contraction | human immunodeficiency virus | human leucocyte antigen human nature human papillomavirus | humectant | Nursing.fm Page 136 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM humeroulnar joint 136 humeroulnar joint humeroulnar joint / hju mərəυ lnə d ɔint/ noun part of the elbow joint, where the trochlea of | the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna move next to each other humerus / hju mərəs/ noun the top bone in the arm, running from the shoulder to the elbow humerus (NOTE: The plural is humeri.) humoral / hju mərəl/ adjective relating to humoral human body fluids, in particular blood serum humour / hju mə/ noun a fluid in the body hunchback / h ntʃb k/ noun ‘ kyphosis hunger / h ŋ ə/ noun a need to eat hunger pains / h ŋ ə peins/ plural noun pains in the abdomen when a person feels hungry, sometimes a sign of a duodenal ulcer Hunters syndrome / h ntəz sindrəυm/ noun an inherited disorder caused by an enzyme deficiency, which leads to learning difficulties Huntingtons chorea / h ntiŋtənz kɔ ri ə/ noun a progressive hereditary disease which affects adults, where the outer layer of the brain degenerates and the person makes involuntary jerky movements and develops progressive dementia [Described 1872. After George Sumhumour hunchback hunger hunger pains Hunters syndrome Huntingtons chorea | ner Huntington (18501916), US physician.] Hurlers syndrome / h ləz sindrəυm/ noun same as gargoylism [Described 1919. After Gertrud Hurler (18891965), German paediatrician.] hurt /h t/ noun 1. emotional pain 2. a painful area (used by children) She has a hurt on her knee. í verb to have pain Hes hurt his hand. í adjective 1. feeling physical pain He was Hurlers syndrome hurt slightly hurt in the car crash. Two players got hurt in the football game. 2. feeling emotional pain Her parents divorce hurt her deeply. Hutchinsons teeth / h tʃinsənz ti θ/, Hutchinsons tooth / h tʃinsənz tu θ/ plural noun incisor teeth which are narrower than usual and have a crescent-shaped notch at the biting edge. They are seen especially in children with congenital syphilis, but can also occur naturally. Hutchinsons teeth (NOTE: takes either a singular or a plural verb) hyal- /haiəl/ prefix like glass (used before vowels) hyalin / haiəlin/ noun a transparent substance hyal- hyalin produced from collagen and deposited around blood vessels and scars when some tissues degenerate hyaline / haiəlin/ adjective nearly transparent like glass hyaline cartilage / haiəlin kɑ tilid / noun a type of cartilage found in the nose, larynx and joints. It forms most of the skeleton of the fetus. See illustration at CARTILAGINOUS JOINT in Suphyaline hyaline cartilage plement hyaline hyaline membrane disease membrane disease / haiəlin membrein di zi z/ noun same as respiratory | distress syndrome hyalitis hyalitis / haiə laitis/ noun inflammation of the vitreous humour or the hyaloid membrane in the eye. Also called vitritis hyaloid membrane / haiəlɔid membrein/ noun a transparent membrane round the vitreous humour in the eye hybrid / haibrid/ noun an organism that is a result of a cross between individuals that are not genetically the same as each other HYCOSY abbreviation hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography hydatid / haidətid/ noun any cyst-like structure hydatid cyst / haidətid sist/ noun the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus hydatid disease / haidətid di zi z/, hydatidosis / haidəti dəυsis/ noun an infection, usually in the lungs or liver, caused by expanding hydatid cysts that destroy the tissues of the infected organ hydatid mole / haidətid məυl/ noun an abnormal pregnancy from a pathologic ovum, resulting in a mass of cysts shaped like a bunch of grapes hydr- /haidr/ prefix same as hydro- (used | hyaloid membrane hybrid HYCOSY hydatid hydatid cyst hydatid disease | | hydatid mole hydr- before vowels) hydraemia /hai dri miə/ noun an excess of hydraemia | water in the blood hydralazine /hai dr ləzi n/ noun a drug that lowers blood pressure. People usually receive it in combination with other drugs that increase the output of urine. hydramnios /hai dr mniɒs/ noun an unusually large amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus hydrarthrosis / haidrɑ θrəυsis/ noun swelling caused by excess synovial liquid at a joint hydrate / haidreit/ verb to give water to someone so as to re-establish or maintain fluid balance í noun a chemical compound containing water molecules that can usually be driven off by heat without altering the compounds structure hydro- /haidrəυ/ prefix referring to water hydroa /hai drəυə/ noun an eruption of small itchy blisters, e.g. those caused by sunlight hydrocalycosis / haidrəυ k li kəυsis/ noun same as caliectasis hydrocele / haidrəυsi l/ noun the collection of watery liquid found in a cavity such as the scrotum hydrocephalus / haidrəυ kefələs/ noun an excessive quantity of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain hydrochloric acid / haidrəklɒrik sid/ noun an acid found in the gastric juices which helps to break apart the food hydrocortisone / haidrəυ kɔ tizəυn/ noun a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex or produced synthetically, used in the treatment of hydralazine | hydramnios | hydrarthrosis | hydrate hydro- hydroa | hydrocalycosis | | hydrocele hydrocephalus | hydrochloric acid hydrocortisone | Nursing.fm Page 137 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 137 rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory and allergic conditions hydrogen / haidrəd ən/ noun a chemical element, a gas which combines with oxygen to form water, and with other elements to form acids, and is present in all animal tissue (NOTE: The chemihydrogen cal symbol is H.) hydrogen peroxide hydrogen peroxide / haidrəd ən pə rɒksaid/ noun a solution used as a disinfectant hydrolysis /hai drɒləsis/ noun the breaking down of a chemical compound when it reacts with water to produce two or more different compounds, as in the conversion of starch to glucose hydroma /hai drəυmə/ noun same as hygroma hydrometer /hai drɒmitə/ noun an instrument which measures the density of a liquid hydromyelia / haidrəυmai i liə/ noun a condition in which fluid swells the central canal of the spinal cord hydronephrosis / haidrəυne frəυsis/ noun swelling of the pelvis of a kidney caused by accumulation of water due to infection or a kidney stone blocking the ureter hydropericarditis / haidrəυ perikɑ daitis/, hydropericardium / haidrəυ peri kɑ diəm/ noun an accumulation of liquid round the heart hydroperitoneum / haidrəυ peritə ni əm/ noun a build-up of fluid in the peritoneal cavity | hydrolysis | hydroma | hydrometer | hydromyelia | hydronephrosis | hydropericarditis | | | | hydroperitoneum | | (NOTE: The plural is hydroperitoneums or hydroperitonea.) hydrophobia hydrophobia / haidrə fəυbiə/ noun same as | rabies hydropneumoperitoneum hydropneumoperitoneum / haidrəυ nju məυ peritə ni əm/ noun a condition in which watery fluid and gas collect in the peritoneal cavity hydropneumothorax / haidrəυ nju məυ θɔ r ks/ noun a condition in which watery fluid and gas collect in the pleural cavity (NOTE: The | | | hydropneumothorax | | plural is hydropneumothoraxes or hydropneumothoraces.) hyperadrenalism hydroureter hydroureter / haidrəυju ri tə/ noun a condition in which water or urine collect in the ureter because it is blocked hygiene / haid i n/ noun the procedures and principles designed to keep things clean and to keep conditions healthy Nurses have to maintain a strict personal hygiene. hygienist / haid i nist/ noun a person who spees in hygiene and its application hygr- /hai r/ prefix same as hygro- (used | hygiene hygienist hygr- before vowels) hygro- /hai rəυ/ prefix relating to moisture hygroma /hai rəυmə/ noun a kind of cyst hygro- hygroma | which contains a thin fluid hymen / haimen/ noun a membrane which partially covers the vaginal passage in a female who has never had sexual intercourse hymenectomy / haimə nektəmi/ noun 1. the surgical removal of the hymen, or an operation to increase the size of the opening of the hymen 2. the surgical removal of any membrane hymenotomy / haimə nɒtəmi/ noun an incision of the hymen during surgery hyo- /haiəυ/ prefix relating to the hyoid bone hyoglossus / haiəυ lɒsəs/ noun a muscle which is attached to the hyoid bone and depresses the tongue hyoid / haiɔid/ adjective relating to the hyoid bone hyoid bone / haiɔid bəυn/ noun a small Ushaped bone at the base of the tongue hyoscine / haiəυsi n/ noun a drug used as a sedative, in particular for treatment of motion sickness hyp- /haip/ prefix same as hypo- (used before hymen hymenectomy | hymenotomy | hyo- hyoglossus | hyoid hyoid bone hyoscine hyp- vowels) hypalgesia hypalgesia / haipəl d i ziə/ noun low sensitivity to pain hyper- /haipə/ prefix higher or too much. Opposite hypohyperacidity / haipərə siditi/ noun the production of more acid in the stomach than is usual. Also called acidity, acid stomach hyperacousia / haipərə kju ziə/ noun same as hyperacusis hyperactive / haipər ktiv/ adjective very or unusually active hyperactivity / haipər k tivəti/ noun a condition in which something or someone, e.g. a gland or a child, is too active hyperacusis / haipərə kju sis/ noun a condition in which someone is very sensitive to sounds hyperadrenalism / haipərə dri n(ə)liz(ə)m/ noun a disorder in which too many adrenal hormones are produced, e.g. because of pituitary gland malfunction, a tumour of the adrenal gland or high doses of steroids | hyper- hyperacidity | hydrops hydrops / haidrɒps/ noun same as oedema (NOTE: The plural is hydropses.) hydrosalpinx hydrosalpinx / haidrəυ s lpiŋks/ noun an occasion when watery fluid collects in one or both of the Fallopian tubes, causing swelling (NOTE: | The plural is hydrosalpinges.) hydrotherapy hydrotherapy / haidrəυ θerəpi/ noun a type of physiotherapy involving treatment in water, where people are put in hot baths or are encouraged to swim hydrothorax / haidrəυ θɔ r ks/ noun the collection of liquid in the pleural cavity hydrotubation / haidrəυtju beiʃ(ə)n/ noun an act of putting a fluid through the neck of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes under pressure to check whether the tubes are blocked | hydrothorax | hydrotubation | hyperacousia | hyperactive | hyperactivity | hyperacusis | hyperadrenalism | Nursing.fm Page 138 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM hyperaemia 138 hyperaemia hyperaemia / haipər i miə/ noun excess blood in any part of the body hyperaesthesia / haipəri s θi ziə/ noun an extremely high sensitivity in the skin hyperalgesia / haipər l d i ziə/ noun an increased sensitivity to pain hyperalimentation / haipər limen teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the feeding of large amounts of nutrients by mouth or intravenously to someone with serious nutritional deficiency hyperandrogenism / haipər n drɒd əniz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which a woman produces too many androgens, associated with many problems such as hirsutism, acne, infertility and polycystic ovarian disease hyperbaric / haipə b rik/ adjective referring to a treatment in which someone is given oxygen at high pressure, used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning hypercalcaemia / haipək l si miə/ noun an excess of calcium in the blood hypercalcinuria / haipək lsi njυəriə/ noun a condition in which an unusually high amount of calcium occurs in the urine hypercapnia / haipə k pniə/ noun an unusually high concentration of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream hypercatabolism / haipəkə t bəliz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the body breaks down its own tissues or a particular substance too much. It causes weight loss and wasting. hyperchloraemia / haipəklɔ ri miə/ noun a condition in which there is too much chloride in the blood hyperchlorhydria / haipəklɔ haidriə/ noun an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach hyperdactylism / haipə d ktiliz(ə)m/ noun the condition of having more than the usual number of fingers or toes. Also called polydac| hyperaesthesia | hyperalgesia | hyperalimentation | | hyperandrogenism | hyperbaric | hypercalcaemia | hypercalcinuria | hypercapnia | hypercatabolism | hyperchloraemia | hyperchlorhydria | hyperdactylism | tylism hyperinsulinism hyperinsulinism / haipər insjυliniz(ə)m/ noun the reaction of a diabetic to an excessive dose of insulin or to hypoglycaemia hyperkalaemia / haipək li miə/ noun a condition in which too much potassium occurs in the blood, which can result in cardiac arrest. Various possible causes include kidney failure and chemotherapy. hyperkeratosis / haipəkerə təυsis/ noun a condition in which the outer layer of the skin becomes unusually thickened hyperkinesia / haipəki ni ziə/ noun a condition in which there is unusually great strength or movement hyperlipidaemia / haipəlipi di miə/ noun the pathological increase of the amount of lipids, or fat, in the blood hypermetropia / haipəmi trəυpiə/, hyperopia / haipə rəυpiə/ noun a condition in which someone sees more clearly objects which are a long way away, but cannot see objects which are close. Also called longsightedness, hyperopia hypernatraemia / haipən tri miə/ noun a serious condition occurring most often in babies or elderly people, in which too much sodium is present in the blood as a result of loss of water and electrolytes through diarrhoea, excessive sweating, not drinking enough or excessive salt intake hypernephroma / haipənə frəυmə/ noun same as Grawitz tumour hyperopia / haipə rəυpiə/ noun same as | hyperkalaemia | hyperkeratosis | hyperkinesia | hyperlipidaemia | hypermetropia | | hypernatraemia | hypernephroma | hyperopia | hypermetropia hyperostosis hyperostosis /haipərɒ stəυsis/ noun excessive overgrowth on the outside surface of a bone, especially the frontal bone hyperparathyroidism / haipə p rə θairɔidiz(ə)m/ noun an unusually high concentration of parathyroid hormone in the body. It causes various medical problems including damage to the kidneys. hyperphagia / haipə feid iə/ noun long-term compulsive overeating hyperpiesia / haipəpai i ziə/ noun same as | hyperparathyroidism | | hyperphagia hyperemesis hyperemesis / haipər emisis/ noun excessive vomiting (NOTE: The plural is hyperemeses.) hyperemesis gravidarum / haipəremisis r vi deərəm/ noun uncontrollable vomiting in pregnancy hyperextension / haipərik stenʃən/ noun the act of stretching an arm or leg beyond its usual limits of movement hyperflexion / haipə flekʃən/ noun the act of flexing a joint beyond the usual limit a hyperflexion injury hypergalactia / haipə ə l ktiə/, hypergalək təυsis/ noun a condition lactosis / haipə in which too much milk is secreted hyperglycaemia / haipə lai si miə/ noun an excess of glucose in the blood hyperhidrosis / haipəhai drəυsis/ noun a condition in which too much sweat is produced | hyperemesis gravidarum | hyperextension | hyperflexion | hypergalactia | | | hyperglycaemia | hyperhidrosis | | hyperpiesia | hypertension hyperpituitarism hyperpituitarism / haipə pitju itəriz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the pituitary gland is overactive hyperplasia / haipə pleiziə/ noun a condition in which there is an increase in the number of cells in an organ hyperpyrexia / haipəpai reksiə/ noun a body temperature of above 41.1°C hypersecretion / haipəsi kri ʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which too much of a substance is secreted hypersensitive / haipə sensitiv/ adjective referring to a person who reacts more strongly than usual to an antigen | hyperplasia | hyperpyrexia | hypersecretion | hypersensitive | Nursing.fm Page 139 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 139 hypersensitivity hypersensitivity / haipəsensi tiviti/ noun a condition in which someone reacts very strongly to something such as an allergic substance her Anaphylactic shock hypersensitivity to dust shows hypersensitivity to an injection. hypersplenism / haipə spleniz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which too many red blood cells are destroyed by the spleen, which is often enlarged hypertelorism / haipə teləriz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which there is too much space between two organs or parts of the body hypertension / haipə tenʃən/ noun arterial blood pressure that is higher than the usual range for gender and age. Also called high blood pressure, hyperpiesia. Compare hypotension hypertensive / haipə tensiv/ adjective referring to high blood pressure hypertensive headache / haipətensiv hedeik/ noun a headache caused by high blood pressure hyperthermia / haipə θ miə/ noun a very high body temperature hyperthyroidism / haipə θairɔidiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the thyroid gland is too active and releases unusual amounts of thyroid hormones into the blood, giving rise to a rapid heartbeat, sweating and trembling. It can be treated with carbimazole. Also called thyrotoxi| hypersplenism | hypertelorism | hypertension | hypertensive | hypertensive headache hyperthermia | hyperthyroidism | cosis hypodermic needle ber forgotten events in the past and will do whatever the hypnotist tells him or her to do hypnotherapy / hipnəυ θerəpi/ noun treatment by hypnosis, used in treating some addictions hypnotic /hip nɒtik/ adjective 1. relating to hypnosis and hypnotism 2. referring to a state which is like sleep but which is caused artificially 3. referring to a drug which causes sleep hypnotism / hipnətiz(ə)m/ noun the techniques used to induce hypnosis hypo / haipəυ/ noun (informal ) 1. same as hypodermic syringe 2. an attack of hypoglycaemia, experienced, e.g., by people who are diabetic hypo- /haipəυ/ prefix less, too little or beneath hypoaesthesia / haipəυi s θi ziə/ noun a condition in which someone has a diminished sense of touch hypocalcaemia / haipəυk l si miə/ noun an unusually low amount of calcium in the blood, which can cause tetany hypocapnia / haipəυ k pniə/ noun a condition in which there is not enough carbon dioxide in the blood hypochloraemia / haipəυklɔ ri miə/ noun a condition in which there are not enough chlorine ions in the blood hypochlorhydria / haipəυklɔ haidriə/ noun a condition in which there is not enough hydrochloric acid in the stomach hypochondria / haipəυ kɒndriə/ noun a condition in which a person is too worried about his or her own health and believes he or she is ill hypochondriac / haipəυ kɒndri k/ noun a person who worries about his or her health too much hypochondriac region / haipəυ kɒndri k ri d ən/ noun one of two parts of the upper abdomen, on either side of the epigastrium below the floating ribs hypochondrium / haipəυ kɒndriəm/ noun one of the two hypochondriac regions in the upper part of the abdomen hypochromic / haipəυ krəυmik/ adjective referring to blood cells or body tissue which do not have the usual amount of pigmentation hypochromic scars hypodermic / haipə d mik/ adjective beneath the skin í noun a hypodermic syringe, needle or injection (informal ) hypodermic injection / haipəd mik in d ekʃən/ noun an injection of a liquid, e.g. a painkilling drug, beneath the skin. Also called hypnotherapy | hypnotic | hypnotism hypo hypo- hypoaesthesia | hypocalcaemia | hypocapnia | hypochloraemia | hypochlorhydria | hypertonia hypertonia / haipə təυniə/ noun an increased rigidity and spasticity of the muscles hypertonic / haipə tɒnik/ adjective 1. referring to a solution which has a higher osmotic pressure than another specified solution 2. referring to a muscle which is under unusually high tension hypertrichosis / haipətri kəυsis/ noun a condition in which someone has excessive growth of hair on the body or on part of the body hypertrophic / haipə trɒfik/ adjective associated with hypertrophy hypertrophy /hai p trəfi/ noun an increase in the number or size of cells in a tissue hyperventilation / haipəventi leiʃ(ə)n/ noun very fast breathing which can be accompanied by dizziness or tetany hypervitaminosis / haipə vitəmi nəυsis/ noun a condition caused by taking too many synthetic vitamins, especially Vitamins A and D hypervolaemia / haipəvɒ li miə/ noun a condition in which there is too much plasma in the blood hyphaema /hai fi miə/ noun bleeding into the front chamber of the eye hypn- /hipn/ prefix referring to sleep hypnosis /hip nəυsis/ noun a state like sleep, but caused artificially, where a person can remem| hypertonic | hypertrichosis | hypertrophic | hypertrophy | hyperventilation | hypervitaminosis | hypervolaemia | hyphaema | hypn- hypnosis | | hypochondria | hypochondriac | hypochondriac region | hypochondrium | hypochromic | hypodermic | hypodermic injection | subcutaneous injection hypodermic needle hypodermic needle / haipəd mik ni d(ə)l/ noun a needle for injecting liquid under the skin Nursing.fm Page 140 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM hypodermic syringe 140 hypodermic syringe hypodermic syringe / haipəd mik si rind / noun a syringe fitted with a hypodermic needle for injecting liquid under the skin hypofibrinogenaemia / haipəυ fibrinəυd ə ni miə/ noun a condition in which there is not enough fibrinogen in the blood, e.g. because of several blood transfusions or as an inherited condition hypogammaglobulinaemia / haipəυ mə lɒbjυlin i miə/ noun an unusually low concentration of gamma globulin in the blood that causes an immune deficiency. It may be present from birth or acquired later in life. hypogastrium / haipə striəm/ noun the part of the abdomen beneath the stomach hypoglossal / haipəυ lɒsəl/ adjective 1. underneath or on the lower side of the tongue 2. relating to the hypoglossal nerve hypoglossal nerve /haipə lɒs(ə)l n v/ noun the twelfth cranial nerve which governs the muscles of the tongue hypoglycaemia / haipəυ lai si miə/ noun a low concentration of glucose in the blood hypoglycaemic / haipəυ lai si mik/ adjective having hypoglycaemia hypoglycaemic coma / haipəυ lai si mik kəυmə/ noun a state of unconsciousness affecting diabetics after taking an overdose of insulin hypohidrosis / haipəυhai drəυsis/, hypoidrosis / haipəυi drəυsis/ noun a condition in which someone produces too little sweat hypoinsulinism / haipəυ insjυliniz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the body does not have enough insulin, often because of a problem with the pancreas hypokalaemia / haipəυk li miə/ noun a deficiency of potassium in the blood hypomania / haipəυ meiniə/ noun a state of mild mania or overexcitement, especially when part of a manic-depressive cycle hypometropia / haipəυmi trəυpiə/ noun same as myopia hyponatraemia / haipəυn tri miə/ noun a lack of sodium in the body hypoparathyroidism / haipəυ p rə θairɔidiz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the parathyroid glands do not secrete enough parathyroid hormone, leading to low blood calcium and muscle spasms hypopharynx / haipəυ f riŋks/ noun the part of the pharynx between the hyoid bone and the bottom of the cricoid cartilage (NOTE: The plural | hypofibrinogenaemia | | hypogammaglobulinaemia | | hypogastrium | hypoglossal | hypoglossal nerve | hypoglycaemia | hypoglycaemic | hypoglycaemic coma | hypohidrosis | | hypoinsulinism | hypokalaemia | hypomania | hypometropia | hyponatraemia | hypoparathyroidism | | hypopharynx | is hypopharynxes or hypopharynges.) hypophyseal / haipə fiziəl/ adjective referhypophyseal | ring to the pituitary gland hypophysectomy /hai pɒfi sektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the pituitary gland hypophysectomy | | hypophysis cerebri hypophysis cerebri /hai pɒfəsis serəbri/ noun same as pituitary gland hypopiesis / haipəυpai i sis/ noun a condition in which the blood pressure is too low hypopituitarism / haipəυpi tju itəriz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which the pituitary gland is underactive hypoplasia / haipəυ pleiziə/ noun a lack of development or incorrect formation of a body tissue or an organ hypoplastic left heart /haipəυ pl stik left hɑ t/ noun a serious heart disorder in which the left side of the heart does not develop properly, leading to death within six weeks of birth unless surgery is performed hypoproteinaemia / haipəυprəυti ni miə/ noun a condition in which there is not enough protein in the blood hypoprothrombinaemia / haipəυprəυ θrɒmbi ni miə/ noun a condition in which there is not enough prothrombin in the blood, so that the person bleeds and bruises easily hypopyon / haipə paiən/ noun an accumulation of pus in the aqueous humour in the front chamber of the eye hyposensitive / haipəυ sensitiv/ adjective being less sensitive than usual hypospadias / haipə speidiəs/ noun a congenital condition of the wall of the male urethra or the vagina, so that the opening occurs on the under side of the penis or in the vagina. Compare | hypopiesis | hypopituitarism | hypoplasia | hypoplastic left heart | hypoproteinaemia | hypoprothrombinaemia | | hypopyon | hyposensitive | hypospadias | epispadias hypostasis hypostasis /hai pɒstəsis/ noun a condition in which fluid accumulates in part of the body because of poor circulation hypostatic / haipəυ st tik/ adjective referring to hypostasis hypostatic eczema / haipəυst tik eksimə/ noun same as varicose eczema hypostatic pneumonia / haipəυst tik nju məυniə/ noun pneumonia caused by fluid accumulating in the lungs of a bedridden person with a weak heart hyposthenia / haipɒs θi niə/ noun a condition of unusual bodily weakness hypotension / haipəυ tenʃən/ noun a condition in which the pressure of the blood is unusually low. Also called low blood pressure. Compare hypertension hypotensive / haipə tensiv/ adjective having low blood pressure hypothalamic / haipəυθə l mik/ adjective referring to the hypothalamus hypothalamic hormone / haipəυθə l mik hɔ məυn/ noun same as releasing hormone hypothalamus / haipəυ θ ləməs/ noun the part of the brain above the pituitary gland, which controls the production of hormones by the pitui| hypostatic | hypostatic eczema hypostatic pneumonia | hyposthenia | hypotension | hypotensive | hypothalamic | hypothalamic hormone | hypothalamus | Nursing.fm Page 141 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 141 tary gland and regulates important bodily functions such as hunger, thirst and sleep. See illustration at BRAIN in Supplement hypothalmus / haipəυ θ lməs/ noun same as hypothalmus | hypothalamus (NOTE: The plural is hypothalmuses or hypothalmi.) hypothenar /hai pɒθinə/ adjective referring to hypothenar | the soft fat part of the palm beneath the little finger hypothenar eminence /hai pɒθinə eminəns/ noun a lump on the palm beneath the little finger. Compare thenar hypothermia / haipəυ θ miə/ noun a reduction in body temperature below normal, for medical purposes taken to be below 35°C hypothesis /hai pɒθəsis/ noun a suggested explanation for an observation or experimental result, which is then refined or disproved by further investigation hypothyroidism / haipəυ θairɔidiz(ə)m/ noun underactivity of the thyroid gland hypotonia / haipəυ təυniə/ noun reduced tone of the skeletal muscles hypotonic / haipəυ tɒnik/ adjective 1. showing hypotonia 2. referring to a solution with a lower osmotic pressure than plasma hypotrichosis / haipəυtri kəυsis/ noun a condition in which less hair develops than usual. Compare alopecia (NOTE: The plural is hypotrihypothenar eminence | hypothermia | hypothesis | hypothyroidism | hypotonia | hypotonic | hypotrichosis | choses.) hypotropia / haipəυ trəυpiə/ noun a form of squint where one eye looks downwards hypoventilation / haipəυventi leiʃ(ə)n/ noun very slow breathing hypovitaminosis / haipəυ vitəmi nəυsis/ noun a lack of vitamins hypoxaemia / haipɒk si miə/ noun an inadequate supply of oxygen in the arterial blood hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl trans/ haipəυz nθi n fɒsfə ribəsil ferase tr nsfəreis/ noun full form of HPRT hypoxia /hai pɒksiə/ noun 1. an inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue as a result of a lack of oxygen in the arterial blood 2. same as hypoxae| hypoventilation | hypovitaminosis | | hypoxaemia | hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase | hypoxia | mia hyster- /histə/ prefix same as hystero- (used before vowels) hysteralgia / histər ld ə/ noun pain in the uterus hysterectomy / histə rektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the uterus, often either to treat cancer or because of the presence of fibroids hysteria /hi stiəriə/ noun a term formerly used in psychiatry, but now informally used for a condition in which the person appears unstable, and may scream and wave their arms about, but also is repressed, and may be slow to react to outside stimuli (dated ) hysterical /hi sterik(ə)l/ adjective referring to a reaction showing hysteria (informal ) hysterics /hi steriks/ noun an attack of hysteria (dated ) hystero- /histərəυ/ prefix referring to the uterus hystero-oöphorectomy / histərəυ əυəfə rektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of the uterus, the uterine tubes and the ovaries hysteroptosis / histərɒp təυsis/ noun prolapse of the uterus hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography / histerəυ s lpiŋ əυ kɒntrɑ st sɒn ɒ rəfi/ noun examination of the uterus and Fallopian tubes by ultrasound. Abbreviation HYCOSY hysterosalpingography / histərəυ s lpiŋ ɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the uterus and Fallopian tubes following injection of radio-opaque material. Also called uterosalp| hysterectomy | hysteria | hysterical | hysterics | hystero- hystero-oöphorectomy | hysteroptosis | hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography | | hysterosalpingography | | ingography hysterosalpingosonography hypotropia hyster- hysterotrachelorrhaphy hysteralgia hysterosalpingosonography / histərəυ s lpiŋ əυsə nɒ rəfi/ noun examination of the uterus and Fallopian tubes by ultrasound hysterosalpingostomy / histərəυ s lpiŋ ɒstəmi/ noun an operation to remake an opening between the uterine tube and the uterus, to help with infertility problems hysteroscope / histərəskəυp/ noun a tube for inspecting the inside of the uterus hysteroscopy / histə rɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the uterine cavity using a hysteroscope or fibrescope hysterotomy / histə rɒtəmi/ noun a surgical incision into the uterus, as in caesarean section or for some types of abortion hysterotrachelorrhaphy / histərəυ tr kiə lɒrəfi/ noun an operation to repair a tear in the cervix | | hysterosalpingostomy | | hysteroscope hysteroscopy | hysterotomy | hysterotrachelorrhaphy | | Nursing.fm Page 142 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM I -iasis -iasis /aiəsis/ suffix disease caused by something amoebiasis iatro- /ai trəυ/ prefix relating to medicine or doctors iatrogenesis /ai trəυ d enəsis/ noun any condition caused by the actions of doctors or other healthcare professionals iatrogenic /ai trə d enik/ adjective referring to a condition which is caused by a doctors treatment for another disease or condition an iatrogenic infection IBS abbreviation irritable bowel syndrome ibuprofen / aibju prəυfən/ noun a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that relieves pain and swelling, especially in arthritis and rheumatism. It is also widely used as a household painkiller. ice pack / ais p k/ noun a cold compress made of lumps of ice wrapped in a cloth, and pressed on a swelling or bruise to reduce the pain ichthamol /ik θ mɒl/ noun a thick dark red liquid which is a mild antiseptic and analgesic, used in the treatment of skin diseases ichthyosis / ikθi əυsis/ noun a hereditary condition in which the skin does not form properly, resulting in a dry, non-inflammatory and scaly appearance ICM abbreviation International Confederation of Midwives ICN abbreviation 1. International Council of Nurses 2. infection control nurse ICP abbreviation intracranial pressure ICRC abbreviation International Committee of the Red Cross ICSH abbreviation interstitial cell stimulating hormone icteric /ik terik/ adjective referring to someone with jaundice icterus / iktərəs/ noun same as jaundice icterus gravis neonatorum / iktərəs r vis ni əυnə tɔ rəm/ noun jaundice associated with erythroblastosis fetalis ictus / iktəs/ noun a stroke or fit ICU abbreviation intensive care unit iatro- iatrogenesis | | iatrogenic | | IBS ibuprofen | ice pack ichthamol | ichthyosis | ICM ICN ICP ICRC ICSH icteric | icterus icterus gravis neonatorum | ictus ICU id id /id/ noun (in Freudian psychology) the basic unconscious drives which exist in hidden forms in a person ideation / aidi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act or process of imagining or forming thoughts and ideas identical twins /ai dentik(ə)l twinz/ plural noun twins who are exactly the same in appearance because they developed from the same ovum. Also called monozygotic twins, uniovuideation | identical twins | lar twins identification identification /ai dentifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of discovering or stating who someone is or what something is ideo- /aidiəυ/ prefix involving ideas idio- /idiəυ/ prefix referring to one particular person idiopathic / idiə p θik/ adjective referring to idiopathy idiopathic epilepsy / idiəp θik epi lepsi/ noun epilepsy not caused by a brain disorder, beginning during childhood or adolescence idiopathy / idi ɒpəθi/ noun a condition which develops without any known cause idiosyncrasy / idiəυ siŋkrəsi/ noun a way of behaving which is particular to one person idiot savant / idiəυ s vɒŋ/ noun a person with learning difficulties who also possesses a single particular mental ability, such as the ability to play music by ear, to draw remembered objects or to do mental calculations, which is very highly developed idioventricular / idiəυven trikjυlə/ adjective relating to the ventricles of the heart idioventricular rhythm / idiəυven trikjυlə rið(ə)m/ noun a slow natural rhythm in the ventricles of the heart, but not in the atria IDK abbreviation internal derangement of the knee Ig abbreviation immunoglobulin Ig A antiendomysial antibody / ai d i ei ntiendəυ maisiəl ntibɒdi/ noun a serological screening test for coeliac disease IHD abbreviation ischaemic heart disease IL-1 abbreviation interleukin-1 IL-2 abbreviation interleukin-2 | | ideo- idio- idiopathic | idiopathic epilepsy | idiopathy | idiosyncrasy | idiot savant idioventricular | idioventricular rhythm | IDK Ig Ig A antiendomysial antibody | IHD IL-1 IL-2 Nursing.fm Page 143 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 143 ile- ile- /ili/ prefix same as ileo- (used before vowels) ileal / iliəl/ adjective referring to the ileum ileal bladder / iliəl bl də/, ileal conduit / iliəl kɒndjuit/ noun an artificial tube formed when the ureters are linked to part of the ileum, and that part is linked to an opening in the abdominal wall ileal pouch / iliəl paυtʃ/ noun a part of the small intestine which is made into a new rectum in a surgical operation, freeing someone from the need for an ileostomy after their colon is removed ileectomy / ili ektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of all or part of the ileum ileitis / ili aitis/ noun inflammation of the ileum ileo- /iliəυ/ prefix relating to the ileum ileocaecal / iliəυ si k(ə)l/ adjective referring to the ileum and the caecum ileocaecal orifice / iliəυsi k(ə)l ɒrifis/ noun an opening where the small intestine joins the large intestine ileocaecal valve / ili əυsi k(ə)l v lv/ noun a valve at the end of the ileum, which allows food to pass from the ileum into the caecum ileocaecocystoplasty / iliəυ si kəυ saitəυpl sti/ noun an operation to reconstruct the bladder using a piece of the combined ileum and caecum ileocolic / iliəυ kɒlik/ adjective referring to both the ileum and the colon ileocolic artery / ili əυkɒlik ɑ təri/ noun a branch of the superior mesenteric artery ileocolitis / iliəυkə laitis/ noun inflammation of both the ileum and the colon ileocolostomy / iliəυkə lɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a link directly between the ileum and the colon ileoproctostomy / iliəυprɒk tɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to create a link between the ileum and the rectum ileorectal / iliəυ rekt(ə)l/ adjective referring to both the ileum and the rectum ileosigmoidostomy / iliəυsi mɔi dɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to create a link between the ileum and the sigmoid colon ileostomy / ili ɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall to act as an artificial opening for excretion of faeces ileostomy bag / ili ɒstəmi b / noun a bag attached to the opening made by an ileostomy, to collect faeces as they are passed out of the body ileum / iliəm/ noun the lower part of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the caecum. Compare ilium. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ilea.) ileus / iliəs/ noun obstruction of the intestine, usually distension caused by loss of muscular action in the bowel. paralytic ileus ileal ileal bladder ileal pouch ileectomy | ileitis | ileo- ileocaecal | ileocaecal orifice ileocaecal valve ileocaecocystoplasty | ileocolic | ileocolic artery ileocolitis | ileocolostomy | ileoproctostomy | ileorectal | ileosigmoidostomy | ileostomy | ileostomy bag | ileum ileus | imagine ili- ili- /ili/ prefix same as ilio- (used before vowels) iliac / ili k/ adjective referring to the ilium iliac crest / ili k krest/ noun a curved top edge of the ilium. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement iliac fossa / ili k fɒsə/ noun a depression on the inner side of the hip bone iliac region / ili k ri d ən/ noun one of two regions of the lower abdomen, on either side of the hypogastrium iliac spine / ili k spain/ noun a projection at the posterior end of the iliac crest ilio- /iliəυ/ prefix relating to the ilium iliococcygeal / iliəυkɒk sid iəl/ adjective referring to both the ilium and the coccyx iliolumbar / iliəυ l mbə/ adjective referring to the iliac and lumbar regions iliopectineal / iliəυpek tiniəl/ adjective referring to both the ilium and the pubis iliopectineal eminence / iliəυpektiniəl eminəns/ noun a raised area on the inner surface of the innominate bone iliopubic / iliəυ pju bik/ adjective same as iliiliac iliac crest iliac fossa iliac region iliac spine ilio- iliococcygeal | iliolumbar | iliopectineal | iliopectineal eminence | iliopubic | opectineal iliopubic eminence iliopubic eminence / iliəυ pju bik eminəns/ noun same as iliopectineal emi| nence ilium / iliəm/ noun the top part of each of the hip bones, which form the pelvis. Compare ileum. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ilia.) ill /il/ adjective not well If you feel very ill you ilium ill ought to see a doctor. illness / ilnəs/ noun 1. a state of not being well Most of the children stayed away from school because of illness. 2. a type of disease Scarlet fever is no longer considered to be a very serious illness. He is in hospital with an infectious tropical illness. illusion /i lu (ə)n/ noun a condition in which a person has a wrong perception of external objects i.m., IM abbreviation intramuscular image / imid / noun a sensation, e.g. a smell, sight or taste, which is remembered clearly imagery / imid əri/ noun visual sensations clearly produced in the mind imaginary /i m d in(ə)ri/ adjective referring to something which does not exist but is imagined imagination /i m d i neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the ability to see or invent things in your mind In her imagination she saw herself sitting on a beach in the sun. imagine /i m d in/ verb to see, hear or feel something in your mind Imagine yourself sitting on the beach in the sun. I thought I heard someone shout, but I must have imagined it because there is no one there. illness illusion | i.m. image imagery imaginary | imagination | imagine | | Nursing.fm Page 144 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM imaging 144 imaging imaging / imid iŋ/ noun a technique for creating pictures of sections of the body, using scanners attached to computers imbalance /im b ləns/ noun a situation in which things are unequal or in the wrong proportions to one another, e.g. in the diet imipramine /i miprəmi n/ noun a drug that is used as a treatment for depression immature / imə tʃυə/ adjective not mature, lacking insight and emotional stability immature cell / imətʃυə sel/ noun a cell which is still developing immaturity / imə tʃυəriti/ noun behaviour which is lacking in maturity immobilisation /i məυbilai zeiʃ(ə)n/, immobilization noun the act of preventing somebody or something from being able to move immobilise /i məυbilaiz/, immobilize verb 1. to keep someone from moving 2. to attach a splint to a joint or fractured limb to prevent the bones from moving immune /i mju n/ adjective protected against an infection or allergic disease She seems to be The injection should make immune to colds. you immune to yellow fever. immune deficiency /i mju n di fiʃ(ə)nsi/ noun a lack of immunity to a disease. AIDS immune reaction /i mju n ri kʃən/, immune response /i mju n ri spɒns/ noun a reaction of a body to an antigen immune system /i mju n sistəm/ noun a complex network of cells and cell products, which protects the body from disease. It includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, white blood cells and antibodies. immunisation / imjυnai zeiʃ(ə)n/, immunization noun the process of making a person immune to an infection, either by injecting an antiserum, passive immunisation or by inoculation immunise / imjυnaiz/, immunize verb to give someone immunity from an infection. vacciimbalance | imipramine | immature | immature cell immaturity | immobilisation | | immobilise | immune | immune deficiency | | immune reaction | | | | immune system | immunisation | immunise nate (NOTE: You immunise someone against a disease.) immunity immunity /i mju niti/ noun the ability to resist attacks of a disease because antibodies are produced The vaccine gives immunity to tuberculosis. immuno- /imjυnəυ, imju nəυ/ prefix immune, immunity immunoassay / imjυnəυ sei/ noun a test for the presence and strength of antibodies immunocompetence / imjυnəυ kɒmpitəns/ noun the ability to develop an immune response following exposure to an antigen | immuno- immunoassay | immunocompetence | immunocompromised immunocompromised / imjυnəυ kɒmprəmaizd/ adjective not able to offer resistance to infection immunodeficiency / imjυnəυdi fiʃ(ə)nsi/ noun a lack of immunity to a disease immunodeficiency virus / imjυnəυdi fiʃ(ə)nsi vairəs/ noun a retrovirus which attacks the immune system immunodeficient / imjυnəυdi fiʃ(ə)nt/ This adjective lacking immunity to a disease form of meningitis occurs in persons who are immunodeficient. immunogenic / imjυnəυ d enik/ adjective producing an immune response immunogenicity / imjυnəυd ə nisiti/ noun the property which makes a substance able to produce an immune response in an organism immunoglobulin / imjυnəυ lɒbjυlin/ noun an antibody, a protein produced in blood plasma as protection against infection, the commonest being gamma globulin. Abbreviation Ig (NOTE: | immunodeficiency | immunodeficiency virus | immunodeficient | immunogenic | immunogenicity | immunoglobulin | The five main classes are called: immunoglobulin G, A, D, E and M or IgG, IgA, IgD, IgE and IgM.) immunological / imjυnə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to immunology immunologist / imjυ nɒləd ist/ noun a speimmunological | immunologist | t in immunology immunology / imjυ nɒləd i/ noun the study of immunity and immunisation immunosuppressant / imjυnəυsə pres(ə)nt/ noun a drug used to act against the response of the immune system to reject a transplanted organ immunosuppression / imjυnəυsə preʃ(ə)n/ noun the suppression of the bodys natural immune system so that it will not reject a transplanted organ immunosuppressive / imjυnəυsə presiv/ noun a drug used to counteract the response of the immune system to reject a transplanted organ í adjective counteracting the immune system immunotherapy / imjυnəυ θerəpi/ noun ‘ immunology | immunosuppressant | | | | immunosuppression immunosuppressive | | immunotherapy | adoptive immunotherapy immunotransfusion immunotransfusion / imjυnəυtr ns fju (ə)n/ noun a transfusion of blood, serum or plasma containing immune bodies Imodium /i məυdiəm/ a trade name for Ioperamide hydrochloride impacted /im p ktid/ adjective tightly pressed or firmly lodged against something impacted faeces /im p ktid fi si z/ plural noun extremely hard dry faeces which cannot pass through the anus and have to be surgically removed impacted fracture /im p ktid fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture where the broken parts of the bones are pushed into each other | Imodium | impacted | impacted faeces | impacted fracture | | Nursing.fm Page 145 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 145 impacted tooth impacted tooth /im p ktid tu θ/ noun a tooth which is held against another tooth and so cannot grow normally impacted ureteric calculus /im p ktid jυəriterik k lkjυləs/ noun a small hard mass of mineral salts which is lodged in a ureter impaction /im p kʃən/ noun a condition in which things are closely pressed together and cannot develop or move normally impair /im peə/ verb to harm a sense or function so that it does not work properly impaired hearing /im peəd hiəriŋ/ noun hearing which is not clear and sharp impaired vision /im peəd vi (ə)n/ noun eyesight which is not fully clear impairment /im peəmənt/ noun a condition in which a sense or function is harmed so that it does not work properly His hearing impairment does not affect his work. The impairment was progressive, but she did not notice that her eyesight was getting worse. impalpable /im p lpəb(ə)l/ adjective not able to be felt when touched impediment /im pedimənt/ noun an obstruction imperforate /im p f(ə)rət/ adjective without an opening imperforate anus /im p f(ə)rət einəs/ noun same as proctatresia imperforate hymen /im p f(ə)rət haimen/ noun a membrane in the vagina which is missing the opening for the menstrual flow impermeable /im p miəb(ə)l/ adjective not allowing liquids or gases to pass through impetigo / impi tai əυ/ noun an irritating and very contagious skin disease caused by staphylococci, which spreads rapidly and is easily passed from one child to another, but can be treated with antibiotics implant noun / implɑ nt/ something grafted or inserted into a person, e.g. tissue, a drug, inert material or a device such as a pacemaker í verb /im plɑ nt/ 1. to fix into something The ovum implants in the wall of the uterus. 2. to graft or insert tissue, a drug, inert material or a device The site was implanted with the biomaterial. implantation / implɑ n teiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of grafting or inserting tissue, a drug, inert material or a device into a person, or the introduction of one tissue into another surgically 2. a place in or on the body where an implant is positioned 3. same as nidation implant site / implɑ nt sait/ noun a place in or on the body where the implant is positioned implosion /im pləυ (ə)n/ noun the violent inward collapse of a hollow structure. It happens when the pressure outside the structure is greater than the pressure inside it. | impacted ureteric calculus | impaction | impair | impaired hearing | impaired vision | impairment | impalpable | impediment | imperforate | imperforate anus | imperforate hymen | impermeable | impetigo | implant | implantation | implant site implosion | incidence rate impotence impotence / impət(ə)ns/ noun the inability in a male to have an erection or to ejaculate, and so have sexual intercourse impotent / impət(ə)nt/ adjective (of a man) unable to have sexual intercourse impregnate / impre neit/ verb 1. to make a female pregnant 2. to soak a cloth with a liquid a cloth impregnated with antiseptic impregnation / impre neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the action of impregnating impression /im preʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a mould of a persons jaw made by a dentist before making a denture 2. a depression on an organ or structure into which another organ or structure fits impulse / imp ls/ noun 1. a message transmitted by a nerve 2. a sudden feeling of wanting to act in a specific way in- /in/ prefix 1. in, into, towards 2. not inaccessible / inək sesib(ə)l/ adjective 1. physically difficult or impossible to reach 2. very technical and difficult to understand inanition / inə niʃ(ə)n/ noun a state of exhaustion caused by starvation inarticulate / inɑ tikjυlət/ adjective 1. without joints or segments, as in the bones of the skull 2. unable to speak fluently or intelligibly 3. not understandable as speech or language in articulo mortis /in ɑ tikjυləυ mɔ tis/ adverb a Latin phrase meaning at the onset of death inborn /in bɔ n/ adjective congenital, which is in the body from birth A body has an inborn tendency to reject transplanted organs. inbreeding / inbri diŋ/ noun a situation where closely related males and females, or those with very similar genetic make-up, have children together, so allowing congenital conditions to be passed on incapacitated / inkə p siteitid/ adjective not able to act or work He was incapacitated for three weeks by his accident. incarcerated /in kɑ səreitid/ adjective referring to a hernia which cannot be corrected by physical manipulation inception rate /in sepʃən reit/ noun the number of new cases of a disease during a period of time, per thousand of population incest / insest/ noun an act of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity with so close a relative, that it is illegal or culturally not allowed incidence / insid(ə)ns/ noun the number of times something happens in a specific population the incidence of drugover a period of time related deaths Men have a higher incidence of strokes than women. incidence rate / insid(ə)ns reit/ noun the number of new cases of a disease during a given period, per thousand of population impotent impregnate impregnation | impression | impulse in- inaccessible | inanition | inarticulate | in articulo mortis | inborn | inbreeding incapacitated | incarcerated | inception rate | incest incidence incidence rate Nursing.fm Page 146 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM incipient 146 incipient incipient /in sipiənt/ adjective just beginning or in its early stages He has an incipient appendicitis. The tests detected incipient diabetes mellitus. incision /in si (ə)n/ noun a cut in a persons body made by a surgeon using a scalpel, or any cut made with a sharp knife or razor The first incision is made two millimetres below the second rib. Compare excision incisional /in si (ə)n(ə)l/ adjective referring to an incision incisional hernia /in si (ə)n(ə)l h niə/ noun a hernia which breaks through the abdominal wall at a place where a surgical incision was made during an operation incisor /in saizə/, incisor tooth /in saizə tu θ/ noun one of the front teeth, of which there are four each in the upper and lower jaws, which are used to cut off pieces of food. See illustration at TEETH in Supplement inclusion /in klu (ə)n/ noun something enclosed inside something else inclusion bodies /in klu (ə)n bɒdiz/ plural noun very small particles found in cells infected by a virus inclusive /in klu siv/ adjective (of health services) provided whether or not someone has a disability or special needs incompatibility / inkəmp ti biliti/ noun the fact of being incompatible the incompatibility of the donors blood with that of the patient incompatible / inkəm p tib(ə)l/ adjective 1. referring to something which does not go together with something else 2. referring to drugs which must not be used together because they undergo chemical change and the therapeutic effect is lost or changed to something undesirable 3. referring to tissue which is genetically different from other tissue, making it impossible to transplant into that tissue incompatible blood / inkəmp təb(ə)l bl d/ noun blood from a donor that does not match the blood of the person receiving the transfusion incompetence / inkɒmpit(ə)ns/ noun the inability to do a particular act, especially a lack of knowledge or skill which makes a person unable to do particular job incompetent cervix /in kɒmpit(ə)nt s viks/ noun a dysfunctional cervix of the uterus which is often the cause of spontaneous abortions and premature births and can be remedied by purse-string stitching incomplete abortion / inkəmpli t ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun an abortion where part of the contents of the uterus is not expelled incontinence /in kɒntinəns/ noun the inability to control the discharge of urine or faeces | incision | incisional | incisional hernia | incisor | | inclusion | inclusion bodies | inclusive | incompatibility | incompatible | incompatible blood incompetence incompetent cervix | incomplete abortion | incontinence | (NOTE: Single incontinence is the inability to con- trol the bladder. Double incontinence is the inability to control both the bladder and the bowels.) incontinence pad /in kɒntinəns p d/ noun a incontinence pad | pad of material to absorb urine incontinent /in kɒntinənt/ adjective unable to control the discharge of urine or faeces incoordination / inkəυɔ di neiʃ(ə)n/ noun a situation in which the muscles in various parts of the body do not act together, making it impossible to carry out some actions incubation / iŋkjυ beiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the development of an infection inside the body before the symptoms of the disease appear 2. the keeping of an ill or premature baby in a controlled environment in an incubator 3. the process of culturing cells or microorganisms under controlled conditions incubation period / iŋkjυ beiʃ(ə)n piəriəd/ noun the time during which a virus or bacterium develops in the body after contamination or infection, before the appearance of the symptoms of the disease. Also called stadium invasioni incubator / iŋkjυbeitə/ noun 1. an apparatus for growing bacterial cultures 2. an enclosed container in which a premature baby can be kept, within which conditions such as temperature and oxygen levels can be controlled incurable /in kjυərəb(ə)l/ adjective who or which cannot be cured He is suffering from an incurable disease of the blood. í noun a patient who will never be cured She has been admitted to a hospital for incurables. incus / iŋkəs/ noun one of the three ossicles in the middle ear, shaped like an anvil. See illustration at EAR in Supplement independent / indi pendənt/ adjective not controlled by someone or something else independent nursing function / indipendənt n siŋ f ŋkʃən/ noun any part of the nurses job for which the nurse takes full responsibility Inderal / indər l/ a trade name for propranolol index finger / indeks fiŋ ə/ noun the first finger next to the thumb indication / indi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a situation or sign which suggests that a specific treatment should be given or that a condition has a particular cause Sulpha drugs have been replaced by antibiotics in many indications. contraindication indicator / indikeitə/ noun 1. a substance which shows something, e.g. a substance secreted in body fluids which shows which blood group a person belongs to 2. something that serves as a warning or guide indigenous /in did inəs/ adjective 1. natural or inborn 2. native to or representative of a country or region indigestion / indi d estʃən/ noun a disturbance of the normal process of digestion, where incontinent | incoordination | incubation | incubation period | incubator incurable | incus independent | independent nursing function Inderal index finger indication | indicator indigenous | indigestion | Nursing.fm Page 147 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 147 the person experiences pain or discomfort in the stomach He is taking tablets to relieve his indigestion or He is taking indigestion tablets. dyspepsia indigo carmine indigo carmine / indi əυ kɑ main/ noun a blue dye which is injected into a person to test how well their kidneys are working indirect contact / indairekt kɒnt kt/ noun the fact of catching a disease by inhaling germs or by being in contact with a vector individualise / indi vid uə laiz/, individualize verb to provide something that matches the needs of a specific person or situation individualised care individualised nursing care / individjuəlaizd n siŋ keə/ noun care which is designed to provide exactly what one particular patient needs The homes staff are specially trained to provide individualised nursing care. Indocid / indəsid/ a trade name for indomethacin indolent / indələnt/ adjective 1. causing little pain 2. referring to an ulcer which develops slowly and does not heal indomethacin / indəυ meθəsin/ noun a drug that reduces pain, fever and inflammation, especially that caused by arthritis indrawn /in drɔ n/ adjective pulled inside induce /in dju s/ verb to make something happen induced abortion /in dju st ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun an abortion which is deliberately caused by drugs or by surgery induction /in d kʃən/ noun 1. the process of starting or speeding up the birth of a baby 2. the stimulation of an enzymes production when the substance on which it acts increases in concentration 3. a process by which one part of an embryo influences another parts development 4. information and support given to new employees in an organisation induction of labour /in d kʃən əv leibə/ noun the action of starting childbirth artificially induration / indjυə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the hardening of tissue or of an artery because of pathological change industrial disease /in d striəl di zi z/ noun a disease which is caused by the type of work done by a worker or by the conditions in which he or she works, e.g. by dust produced or chemicals used in the factory inebriation /i ni bri eiʃ(ə)n/ noun a state where a person is drunk, especially habitually drunk inertia /i n ʃə/ noun a lack of activity in the body or mind in extremis /in iks tri mis/ adverb at the moment of death indirect contact individualise | | individualised nursing care Indocid indolent indomethacin | indrawn | induce | induced abortion | | induction | induction of labour | induration | industrial disease | inebriation | | inertia | in extremis | | inferior aspect infant infant / infənt/ noun a child under two years of age infanticide /in f ntisaid/ noun 1. the act of killing an infant 2. a person who kills an infant infantile / infəntail/ adjective referring to small children infantile convulsions / infəntail kən v lʃənz/, infantile spasms plural noun convulsions or minor epileptic fits in small children infantile paralysis / infəntail pə r ləsis/ noun a former name for poliomyelitis infantilism /in f ntiliz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which a person keeps some characteristics of an infant when he or she becomes an adult infant mortality rate / infənt mɔ t liti reit/ noun the number of infants who die per thousand births infarct / infɑ kt/ noun an area of tissue which is killed when the blood supply is cut off by the blockage of an artery infarction /in fɑ kʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which tissue is killed by the cutting off of the blood supply infect /in fekt/ verb to contaminate someone or something with microorganisms that cause disease or toxins The disease infected her liver. The whole arm soon became infected. infected wound /in fektid wu nd/ noun a wound into which bacteria have entered infection /in fekʃən/ noun 1. the entry or introduction into the body of microorganisms, which then multiply As a carrier he was spreading infection to other people in the office. 2. an illness which is caused by the entry of microbes into the body She is susceptible to minor infections. infectious /in fekʃəs/ adjective referring to a disease which is caused by microorganisms and can be transmitted to other persons by direct means This strain of flu is highly infectious. Her measles is at the infectious stage. infectious disease /in fekʃəs di zi z/ noun a disease caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses or fungi. communicable disease, infanticide | infantile infantile convulsions | infantile paralysis | infantilism | infant mortality rate | infarct infarction | infect | infected wound | infection | infectious | infectious disease | | contagious disease infectious mononucleosis infectious mononucleosis /in fekʃəs mɒnəυ nju kli əυsis/ noun an infectious disease where the body has an excessive number of white blood cells. Also called glandular fever infectious parotitis /in fekʃəs p rə taitis/ noun same as mumps infective /in fektiv/ adjective referring to a disease caused by a microorganism, which can be caught from another person but which may not always be directly transmitted inferior /in fiəriə/ adjective referring to a lower part of the body. Opposite superior inferior aspect /in fiəriər spekt/ noun a view of the body from below | | | infectious parotitis | infective | inferior | inferior aspect | | Nursing.fm Page 148 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM inferiority 148 inferiority inferiority /in fiəri ɒriti/ noun the fact of being lower in value or quality, substandard inferiority complex /in fiəri ɒriti kɒmpleks/ noun a mental disorder arising from a combination of wanting to be noticed and fear of humiliation. The resulting behaviour may either be aggression or withdrawal from the external world. inferior mesenteric artery /in fiəriə mesen terik ɑ təri/ noun one of the arteries which supply the transverse colon and rectum inferior vena cava /in fiəriə vi nə kɑ və/ noun the main vein carrying blood from the lower part of the body to the heart. See illustration at | | inferiority complex | | inferior mesenteric artery | | inferior vena cava | in Supplement, KIDNEY in Supplement infertility / infə tiliti/ noun the fact of not being HEART infertility | fertile, not able to reproduce infestation / infe steiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of having large numbers of parasites, or an invasion of the body by parasites The condition is caused by infestation of the hair with lice. infiltrate / infiltreit/ verb (of liquid or waste) to pass from one part of the body to another through a wall or membrane and be deposited in the other part í noun a substance which has infiltrated a part of the body infiltration / infil treiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the process where a liquid passes through the walls of one part of the body into another part 2. a condition in which waste is brought to and deposited around cells infirm /in f m/ adjective old and weak infirmary /in f məri/ noun 1. a room in a school or workplace where people can go if they are ill 2. a former name for a hospital (NOTE: infestation | infiltrate infiltration | infirm | infirmary | Infirmary is still used in the names of some hospitals: the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.) infirmity /in f miti/ noun a lack of strength and energy because of illness or age (formal ) inflamed /in fleimd/ adjective sore, red and infirmity | inflamed | swollen The skin has become inflamed around the sore. inflammation / inflə meiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of having become sore, red and swollen as a reaction to an infection, an irritation or a blow She has an inflammation of the bladder or a bladder inflammation. The bodys reaction to infection took the form of an inflammation of the eyelid. inflammatory /in fl mət(ə)ri/ adjective causing an organ or a tissue to become sore, red and swollen inflammatory bowel disease /in fl mət(ə)ri baυəl di zi z/ noun any condition, e.g. Crohns disease, colitis or ileitis, in which the bowel becomes inflamed inflammatory response /in fl mət(ə)ri ri spɒns/, inflammatory reaction /in fl mət(ə)ri ri kʃən/ noun any condition where an organ or a tissue reacts to an external inflammation | inflammatory | inflammatory bowel disease | | inflammatory response | | | | stimulus by becoming inflamed She showed an inflammatory response to the ointment. influenza / influ enzə/ noun an infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract with fever and muscular aches, which is transmitted by a virus and can occur in epidemics. Also called flu informed /in fɔ md/ adjective having the latest information informed consent /in fɔ md kən sent/ noun an agreement to allow a procedure to be carried out, given by a patient, or the guardian of a patient, who has been provided with all the necessary information infra- / infrə/ prefix below infrared / infrə red/ adjective relating to infrared radiation í noun invisible electromagnetic radiation between light and radio waves infrared rays / infrəred reiz/ plural noun long invisible rays, below the visible red end of the colour spectrum, used to produce heat in body tissues in the treatment of traumatic and inflammatory conditions. light therapy infundibulum / inf n dibjυləm/ noun any part of the body shaped like a funnel, especially the stem which attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus infusion /in fju (ə)n/ noun 1. a drink made by pouring boiling water on a dry substance such as herb tea or a powdered drug 2. the process of putting of liquid into someones body, using a drip ingesta /in d estə/ plural noun food or liquid that enters the body via the mouth ingestion /in d estʃən/ noun the act of taking in food, drink or medicine by the mouth ingrowing toenail / in rəυiŋ təυneil/, ingrowing nail / in rəυiŋ neil/, ingrown toenail / in rəυn təυneil/ noun a toenail which is growing into the skin at the side of the nail, causing pain and swelling. The toenail cuts into the tissue on either side of it, creating inflammation and sometimes sepsis and ulceration. inguinal / iŋ win(ə)l/ adjective referring to the groin inguinal canal / iŋ win(ə)l kə n l/ noun a passage in the lower abdominal wall, carrying the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament of the uterus in the female inguinal hernia / iŋ win(ə)l h niə/ noun a hernia where the intestine bulges through the muscles in the groin inguinal ligament / iŋ win(ə)l li əmənt/ noun a ligament in the groin, running from the spine to the pubis. Also called Pouparts ligainfluenza | informed | informed consent | | infra- infrared | infrared rays infundibulum | infusion | ingesta | ingestion | ingrowing toenail inguinal inguinal canal | inguinal hernia inguinal ligament ment inguinal region inguinal region / iŋ win(ə)l ri d ən/ noun the part of the body where the lower abdomen joins the top of the thigh. groin Nursing.fm Page 149 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 149 inhalation inhalation / inhə leiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of breathing in. Opposite exhalation 2. the action of breathing in a medicinal substance as part of a treatment 3. a medicinal substance which is breathed in inhale /in heil/ verb 1. to breathe in, or breathe something in She inhaled some toxic gas fumes and was rushed to hospital. 2. to breathe in a medicinal substance as part of a treatment. Opposite exhale inhaler /in heilə/ noun a small device for administering medicinal substances into the mouth or nose so that they can be breathed in inherent /in hiərənt/ adjective referring to a thing which is part of the essential character of a person or a permanent characteristic of an organism inherit /in herit/ verb to receive genetically controlled characteristics from a parent She inherited her fathers red hair. Haemophilia is a condition which is inherited through the mothers genes. inheritance /in herit(ə)ns/ noun 1. the process by which genetically controlled characteristics pass from parents to offspring the inheritance of chronic inflammatory bowel disease 2. all of the qualities and characteristics which are passed down from parents an unfortunate part of our genetic inheritance inherited /in heritid/ adjective passed on from a parent through the genes an inherited disorder of the lungs inhibit /in hibit/ verb to prevent an action hapAspirin pening, or stop a functional process inhibits the clotting of blood. inhibition / inhi biʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the action of blocking or preventing something happening, especially of preventing a muscle or organ from functioning properly 2. (in psychology) the suppression of a thought which is associated with a sense of guilt 3. (in psychology) the blocking of a spontaneous action by some mental influence inhibitor /in hibitə/ noun a substance which inhibits inject /in d ekt/ verb to put a liquid into someones body under pressure, by using a hollow needle inserted into the tissues He was injected with morphine. She injected herself with a drug. injected /in d ektid/ adjective 1. referring to a liquid or substance introduced into the body 2. referring to surface blood vessels which are swollen injection /in d ekʃən/ noun 1. the act of injecting a liquid into the body He had a penicillin injection. 2. a liquid introduced into the body injury / ind əri/ noun damage or a wound caused to a persons body His injuries required | inhale | inhaler | inherent | inherit | inheritance | inherited | inhibit | inhibition inpatient hospital treatment. He received severe facial injuries in the accident. injury scoring system / ind əri skɔ riŋ sistəm/ noun any system used for deciding how severe an injury is a standard lung injury scoring system Abbreviation ISS inlay / inlei/ noun (in dentistry) a type of filling for teeth inlet / inlet/ noun a passage or opening through which a cavity can be entered innate /i neit/ adjective inherited, which is present in a body from birth inner pleura / inə plυərə/ noun same as visinjury scoring system inlay inlet innate | inner pleura ceral pleura innervation innervation / in veiʃ(ə)n/ noun the nerve supply to an organ, including both motor nerves and sensory nerves innocent / inəs(ə)nt/ adjective referring to a growth which is benign, not malignant innominate /i nɒminət/ adjective with no name innominate artery /i nɒminət ɑ təri/ noun the largest branch of the arch of the aorta, which continues as the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries innominate bone /i nɒminət bəυn/ noun same as hip bone innominate vein /i nɒminət vein/ noun same as brachiocephalic vein inoculate /i nɒkjυleit/ verb to introduce vaccine into a persons body in order to make the body create its own antibodies, so making the person immune to the disease The baby was inoculated against diphtheria. (NOTE: You inoculate | innocent innominate | innominate artery | innominate bone | innominate vein | inoculate | someone with or against a disease.) | inhibitor | inject | injected | injection | injury inoculation inoculation /i nɒkjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the action of inoculating someone Has the baby had a diphtheria inoculation? inoculum /i nɒkjυləm/ noun a substance used for inoculation, e.g. a vaccine (NOTE: The plural | | inoculum | is inocula.) inoperable inoperable /in ɒpər(ə)b(ə)l/ adjective referring to a condition which cannot be operated on The surgeon decided that the cancer was inoperable. inorganic / inɔ nik/ adjective referring to a substance which is not made from animal or vegetable sources inorganic acid / inɔ nik sid/ noun an acid which comes from minerals, used in dilute form to help indigestion inotropic / inəυ trɒpik/ adjective affecting the way muscles contract, especially those of the heart inpatient / in peiʃ(ə)nt/ noun someone who stays overnight or for some time in a hospital for treatment or observation. Compare outpatient | inorganic | inorganic acid inotropic | inpatient | Nursing.fm Page 150 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM inquest 150 inquest inquest / iŋkwest/ noun an inquiry by a coroner into the cause of a death insanitary /in s nit(ə)ri/ adjective not hygienic Cholera spread rapidly because of the insanitary conditions in the town. insanity /in s niti/ noun a psychotic mental disorder or illness insect / insekt/ noun a small animal with six legs and a body in three parts insect bite / insekt bait/ noun a sting caused by an insect which punctures the skin to suck blood, and in so doing introduces irritants insanitary | insanity | insect insect bite COMMENT: Most insect bites are simply irritating. Others can be more serious, as insects can carry the organisms which produce typhus, sleeping sickness, malaria, filariasis and many other diseases. insecticide /in sektisaid/ noun a substance insecticide | which kills insects insemination /in semi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm insensible /in sensib(ə)l/ adjective 1. lacking feeling or consciousness 2. not aware of or responding to a stimulus 3. too slight to be perceived by the senses insertion /in s ʃ(ə)n/ noun the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone insidious /in sidiəs/ adjective causing harm without showing any obvious signs insidious disease /in sidiəs di zi z/ noun a disease which causes damage before being detected insight / insait/ noun the ability of a person to realise that he or she is ill or has particular problems or characteristics in situ / in sitju / adverb in place insoluble /in sɒljυb(ə)l/ adjective not able to be dissolved in liquid insoluble fibre /in sɒljυb(ə)l faibə/ noun the fibre in bread and cereals, which is not digested but which swells inside the intestine insomnia /in sɒmniə/ noun the inability to sleep She experiences insomnia. What does the doctor give you for your insomnia? Also called sleeplessness insomniac /in sɒmni k/ noun a person who has insomnia inspiration / inspi reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of taking air into the lungs. Opposite expiration instep / instep/ noun an arched top part of the foot instillation / insti leiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the process of putting a liquid in drop by drop 2. a liquid put in drop by drop instinct / instiŋkt/ noun a tendency or ability which the body has from birth and does not need to learn The body has a natural instinct to protect itself from danger. insemination | | insensible | insertion | insidious | insidious disease | insight in situ insoluble | insoluble fibre | insomnia | insomniac | inspiration | instep instillation | instinct | institution institution / insti tju ʃ(ə)n/ noun a place where people are cared for, e.g. a hospital or clinic, especially a psychiatric hospital or childrens home institutionalisation / insti tju ʃ(ə)nəlai zeiʃ(ə)n/, institutionalization, institutional neurosis / institju ʃən(ə)l njυ rəυsis/ noun a condition in which someone has become so adapted to life in an institution that it is impossible for him or her to live outside it instrument / instrυmənt/ noun a piece of equipment or a tool The doctor had a box of surgical instruments. instrumental delivery / instrυment(ə)l di liv(ə)ri/ noun childbirth where the doctor uses forceps to help the baby out of the mothers uterus insufficiency / insə fiʃ(ə)nsi/ noun the fact of not being strong or large enough to perform usual functions The patient is suffering from a renal insufficiency. insufflation / insə fleiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of blowing gas, vapour or powder into the lungs or another body cavity as a treatment insulin / insjυlin/ noun a hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas insulinase / insjυlineiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down insulin insulin dependence / insjυlin di pendəns/ noun the fact of being dependent on insulin injections insulin-dependent diabetes / insjυlin di pendənt daiə bi tiz/ noun same as Type I dia| institutionalisation | | | instrument instrumental delivery | insufficiency | insufflation | insulin insulinase insulin dependence | insulin-dependent diabetes | | betes mellitus insulinoma insulinoma / insjυli nəυmə/ noun a tumour in the islets of Langerhans insulin-resistant / insjυlin ri zist(ə)nt/ adjective referring to a condition in which the muscle and other tissue cells respond inadequately to insulin, as in Type II diabetes insuloma / insjυ ləυmə/ noun same as insuli| insulin-resistant | insuloma | noma insult insult / ins lt/ noun 1. a physical injury or trauma 2. something that causes a physical injury or trauma Intal / int l/ a trade name for a preparation of cromolyn sodium integrated service / inti reitid s vis/ noun a broad care service provided by health and social agencies acting together integrative medicine / inti reitiv med(ə)s(ə)n/ noun the combination of mainstream therapies and those complementary or alternative therapies for which there is scientific evidence of efficacy and safety integument /in te jυmənt/ noun a covering layer, e.g. the skin intellect / intilekt/ noun a persons ability to think, reason and understand Intal integrated service integrative medicine integument | intellect Nursing.fm Page 151 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 151 intelligence intelligence /in telid əns/ noun the ability to learn and understand quickly intelligence quotient /in telid əns kwəυʃ(ə)nt/ noun the ratio of the mental age, as given by an intelligence test, to the chronological age of the person. Abbreviation IQ intensity /in tensiti/ noun the strength of e.g. pain intensive care /in tensiv keə/ noun 1. the continual supervision and treatment of an extremely ill person in a special section of a hospital The patient was put in intensive care. residential care 2. same as intensive care unit intensive care unit /in tensiv keə ju nit/ noun a section of a hospital equipped with lifesaving and life-support equipment in which seriously ill people who need constant medical attention are cared for. Abbreviation ICU intention /in tenʃən/ noun 1. the healing process 2. a plan to do something intention tremor /in tenʃən tremə/ noun a trembling of the hands seen when people suffering from particular brain diseases make voluntary movements to try to touch something inter- /intə/ prefix between interaction / intər kʃən/ noun an effect which two or more substances such as drugs have on each other interatrial septum / intər eitriəl septəm/ noun a membrane between the right and left atria in the heart intercalated /in t kəleitid/ adjective inserted between other tissues intercalated disc /in t kəleitid disk/ noun closely applied cell membranes at the end of adjacent cells in cardiac muscle, seen as transverse lines intercellular / intə seljυlə/ adjective between the cells in tissue intercostal / intə kɒst(ə)l/ adjective between the ribs í noun same as intercostal muscle intercostal muscle /intə kɒst(ə)l m s(ə)l/ noun one of the muscles between the ribs | intelligence quotient | intensity | intensive care | intensive care unit | intention | intention tremor | inter- interaction | interatrial septum | intercalated | intercalated disc | intercellular | intercostal | intercostal muscle | COMMENT: The intercostal muscles expand and contract the thorax, so changing the pressure in the thorax and making the person breathe in or out. There are three layers of intercostal muscle: external, internal and innermost or intercostalis intimis. intercurrent disease / intək rənt di zi z/, intercurrent infection / intək rənt in fekʃən/ noun a disease or infection which affects someintercurrent disease | | one who has another disease interdigital / intə did it(ə)l/ adjective referring to the space between the fingers or toes interdisciplinary / intə disi plinəri/ adjective combining two or more different areas of medical or scientific study interdigital | interdisciplinary | | internal carotid interferon interferon / intə fiərɒn/ noun a protein produced by cells, usually in response to a virus, and which then reduces the spread of viruses interior /in tiəriə/ noun a part which is inside í adjective inside interleukin / intə lu kin/ noun a protein produced by the bodys immune system interleukin-1 / intəlu kin w n/ noun a protein which causes high temperature. Abbreviation | interior | interleukin | interleukin-1 IL-1 interleukin-2 interleukin-2 / intəlu kin tu / noun a protein which stimulates T-cell production, used in the treatment of cancer. Abbreviation IL-2 interlobar / intə ləυbə/ adjective between lobes interlobar artery / intələυbər ɑ təri/ noun an artery running towards the cortex on each side of a renal pyramid interlobular /intə lɒbjυlə/ adjective between lobules interlobular artery /intə lɒbjυlə ɑ təri/ noun one of the arteries running to the glomeruli of the kidneys intermediate care / intəmi diət keə/ noun care following surgery or illness that can be delivered in special units attached to a hospital or in the persons home by a special multidisciplinary team intermittent / intə mit(ə)nt/ adjective occurring at intervals intermittent claudication / intəmit(ə)nt klɔ di keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition of the arteries causing severe pain in the legs which makes the person limp after having walked a short distance interlobar | interlobar artery interlobular | interlobular artery | intermediate care intermittent | intermittent claudication | (NOTE: The symptoms increase with walking, stop after a short rest and recur when the person walks again.) intermittent fever / intəmit(ə)nt fi və/ noun intermittent fever fever which rises and falls regularly, as in malaria intermittent self-catheterisation / intəmit(ə)nt self k θitərai zeiʃ(ə)n/ noun a procedure in which someone puts a catheter through the urethra into their own bladder from time to time to empty out the urine. Abbreviation intermittent self-catheterisation | ISC internal internal /in t n(ə)l/ adjective inside the body or a body part internal auditory meatus /in t n(ə)l ɔ dit(ə)ri mi eitəs/ noun a channel which takes the auditory nerve through the temporal bone internal cardiac massage /in t n(ə)l kɑ di k m sɑ / noun a method of making the heart start beating again by pressing on the heart itself internal carotid /in t n(ə)l k rɒtid/ noun an artery in the neck, behind the external carotid, which gives off the ophthalmic artery and ends by dividing into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries | internal auditory meatus | | internal cardiac massage | internal carotid | | Nursing.fm Page 152 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM internal derangement of the knee 152 internal derangement of the knee internal derangement of the knee /in t n(ə)l di rein mənt əv ðə ni / noun a condition in which the knee cannot function properly because of a torn meniscus. Abbreviation IDK internal ear /in t n(ə)l iə/ noun the part of the ear inside the head, behind the eardrum, containing the semicircular canals, the vestibule and the cochlea internal haemorrhage /in t n(ə)l hem(ə)rid / noun a haemorrhage which takes place inside the body internal haemorrhoids /in t n(ə)l hemərɔidz/ plural noun swollen veins inside the anus internal iliac artery /in t n(ə)l ili k ɑ təri/ noun an artery which branches from the aorta in the abdomen and leads to the pelvis internal injury /in t n(ə)l ind əri/ noun damage to one of the internal organs internal jugular /in t n(ə)l d jυlə/ noun the largest jugular vein in the neck, leading to the brachiocephalic veins internal nares /in t n(ə)l neəri z/ plural noun the two openings shaped like funnels leading from the nasal cavity to the pharynx. Also called posterior nares internal oblique /in t n(ə)l ə bli k/ noun the middle layer of muscle covering the abdomen, beneath the external oblique internal respiration /in t n(ə)l respi reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the part of respiration concerned with the passage of oxygen from the blood to the tissues, and the passage of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the blood International Committee of the Red Cross /intə n ʃ(ə)n(ə)l kə miti əv ðə red krɒs/ noun an international organisation which provides mainly emergency medical help, but also relief to victims of earthquakes, floods and other disasters, or to prisoners of war. Abbreviation ICRC International Council of Nurses / intən ʃ(ə)n(ə)l kaυnsəl əv n siz/ noun an organisation founded in 1899 which now represents nurses in more than 120 countries. Its aims are to bring nurses together, to advance nursing worldwide and to influence health policies. Abbreviation ICN international unit / intən ʃ(ə)nəl ju nit/ noun an internationally agreed standard used in pharmacy as a measure of a substance such as a drug or hormone. Abbreviation IU internodal / intə nəυd(ə)l/ adjective between two nodes interosseous / intər ɒsiəs/ adjective between bones interparietal / intəpə raiət(ə)l/ adjective between parietal parts, especially between the | | internal ear | internal haemorrhage | internal haemorrhoids | internal iliac artery | internal injury | internal jugular | internal nares | internal oblique | | internal respiration | International Committee of the Red Cross | | International Council of Nurses international unit internodal | interosseous | interparietal | | parietal bones í noun same as interparietal bone interparietal bone interparietal bone / intəpə raiət(ə)l bəυn/ noun a triangular bone in the back of the skull, rarely present in humans interphalangeal joint / intəfə l nd iəl d ɔint/ noun a joint between the phalanges. Also called IP joint interphase / intəfeiz/ noun a stage of a cell between divisions interpubic joint / intəpju bik d ɔint/ noun a piece of cartilage which joins the two sections of the pubic bone. Also called pubic symphysis intersex / intəseks/ noun an organism that has both male and female characteristics intersexuality / intəsekʃu liti/ noun a condition in which a baby has both male and female characteristics, as in Klinefelters syndrome and Turners syndrome interstice /in t stis/ noun a small space between body parts or within a tissue interstitial / intə stiʃ(ə)l/ adjective referring to tissue located in the spaces between parts of something, especially between the active tissues in an organ interstitial cell / intə stiʃ(ə)l sel/ noun a testosterone-producing cell between the tubules in the testes. Also called Leydig cell interstitial cell stimulating hormone / intə stiʃ(ə)l sel stimjυleitiŋ hɔ məυn/ noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates the formation of corpus luteum in females and testosterone in males. Abbreviation ICSH. Also called luteinising hormone interstitial cystitis / intəstiʃ(ə)l si staitis/ noun a persistent nonbacterial condition in which someone has bladder pain and wants to pass urine frequently. It is often associated with Hunners ulcer. intertrigo / intə trai əυ/ noun an irritation which occurs when two skin surfaces rub against each other, as in the armpit or between the buttocks intertubercular plane / intətjυ b kjυlə plein/ noun same as transtubercular plane intervention / intə venʃən/ noun a treatment interventional radiology / intəvenʃən(ə)l reidi ɒləd i/ noun the area of medicine which uses X-rays, ultrasound and CAT to guide small instruments into the body for procedures such as biopsies, draining fluids or widening narrow vessels interventricular / intəven trikjυlə/ adjective between ventricles in the heart or brain interventricular foramen / intəven trikjυlə fə reimən/ noun an opening in the brain between the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle, through which the cerebrospinal fluid passes | interphalangeal joint | interphase interpubic joint intersex intersexuality | interstice | interstitial | interstitial cell | interstitial cell stimulating hormone | interstitial cystitis | intertrigo | intertubercular plane | intervention | interventional radiology | interventricular | interventricular foramen | | Nursing.fm Page 153 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 153 interventricular septum interventricular septum / intəven trikjυlə septəm/ noun a membrane between the right and left ventricles in the heart intervertebral / intə v tibr(ə)l/ adjective between vertebrae intervertebral disc / intə v tibrəl disk/ noun a round plate of cartilage which separates two vertebrae in the spinal column. See illustration at CARTILAGINOUS JOINT in Supplement. Also called vertebral disc intervertebral foramen / intə v tibrəl fə reimən/ noun a space between two vertebrae intestinal /in testin(ə)l/ adjective referring to the intestine intestinal anastomosis /in testin(ə)l ə n stə məυsis/ noun a surgical operation to join one part of the intestine to another, after a section has been removed intestinal flora /in testin(ə)l flɔ rə/ plural noun beneficial bacteria which are always present in the intestine intestinal glands /in testin(ə)l l ndz/ plural noun tubular glands found in the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine, especially those between the bases of the villi in the small intestine. Also called Lieberkühns | intervertebral | intervertebral disc | intervertebral foramen | | intestinal | intestinal anastomosis | | | intestinal flora | intestinal glands | glands, crypts of Lieberkühn intrauterine contraceptive device intracerebral haematoma intracerebral haematoma / intrə serəbrəl hi mə təυmə/ noun a blood clot inside a cerebral hemisphere intracranial / intrə kreiniəl/ adjective inside the skull intracranial pressure / intrəkreiniəl preʃə/ noun the pressure of the subarachnoidal fluid, which fills the space between the skull and the brain. Abbreviation ICP intractable /in tr ktəb(ə)l/ adjective not able to be controlled an operation to relieve intractable pain intracutaneous / intrəkju teiniəs/ adjective inside layers of skin tissue intracutaneous injection / intrəkju teiniəs in d ekʃən/ noun an injection of a liquid between the layers of skin, as for a test for an allergy intradermal test / intrə d m(ə)l test/ noun a test requiring an injection into the thickness of the skin, e.g. a Mantoux test or an allergy test intradural / intrə djυərəl/ adjective inside the dura mater intramedullary / intrəme d ləri/ adjective inside the bone marrow or spinal cord intramural / intrə mjυərəl/ adjective inside the wall of an organ intramuscular / intrə m skjυlə/ adjective inside a muscle intramuscular injection / intrə m skjυlə in d ekʃən/ noun an injection of liquid into a muscle, e.g. for a slow release of a drug intranasal / intrə neiz(ə)l/ adjective inside or into the nose intraocular / intrə ɒkjυlə/ adjective inside the eye intraocular lens / intrə ɒkjυlə lenz/ noun an artificial lens implanted inside the eye. Abbreviation IOL intraocular pressure / intrə ɒkjυlə preʃə/ noun the pressure inside the eyeball (NOTE: If the | | intracranial | intracranial pressure intractable | intracutaneous | intracutaneous injection | | intradermal test | intradural | intramedullary | intramural | intramuscular | intestinal obstruction intestinal obstruction /in testin(ə)l əb str kʃən/ noun a blocking of the intestine intestinal villi /in testin(ə)l vilai/ plural noun projections on the walls of the intestine which help in the digestion of food intestinal wall /in testin(ə)l wɔ l/ noun the layers of tissue which form the intestine intestine /in testin/ noun the part of the digestive system between the stomach and the anus that large intestine, digests and absorbs food. | | intestinal villi | intestinal wall | intestine | small intestine (NOTE: For other terms referring to the intestines, see words beginning with entero-.) intima / intimə/ ‘ tunica intima intolerance /in tɒlərəns/ noun the fact of being unable to endure something such as pain or to take a medicine without an adverse reaction He developed an intolerance to penicillin. intoxication /in tɒksi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition which results from the absorption and diffusion in the body of a substance such as alcohol She was driving in a state of intoxication. intra- /intrə/ prefix inside intra-abdominal / intrə b dɒmin(ə)l/ adjective inside the abdomen intra-articular / intrə ɑ tikjυlə/ adjective inside a joint intracellular / intrə seljυlə/ adjective inside a cell intima intolerance | intoxication | | intra- intra-abdominal | intra-articular | intracellular | intramuscular injection | | intranasal | intraocular | intraocular lens | intraocular pressure | pressure is too high, it causes glaucoma.) intraoperative ultrasound / intrəɒpərətiv ltrəsaυnd/ noun high-resolution imaging used in surgery. Abbreviation IOUS intraorbital / intrə ɔ bit(ə)l/ adjective within intraoperative ultrasound intraorbital | the orbit of the eye intraosseous / intrə ɒsiəs/ adjective within a bone intrathecal / intrə θi k(ə)l/ adjective inside a sheath, especially inside the intradural or subarachnoid space intratracheal / intrətrə kiəl/ adjective within the trachea. Also called endotracheal intrauterine / intrə ju tərain/ adjective inside the uterus intrauterine contraceptive device / intrə ju tərain kɒntrə septiv di vais/, intrauterine intraosseous | intrathecal | intratracheal | intrauterine | intrauterine contraceptive device | | | Nursing.fm Page 154 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM intravascular 154 device / intrəju tərain di vais/ noun a plastic | coil placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. Abbreviation IUCD, IUD intravascular / intrə v skjυlə/ adjective inside the blood vessels intravenous / intrə vi nəs/ adjective into a vein. Abbreviation IV intravenous drip / intrəvi nəs drip/ noun a thin tube that is inserted into a vein and is used to very gradually give a person fluids, either for rehydration, feeding or medication purposes intravenous feeding / intrəvi nəs fi diŋ/ noun the procedure of giving someone liquid food by means of a tube inserted into a vein intravenous injection / intrəvi nəs in d ekʃən/ noun an injection of liquid into a vein, e.g. for the fast release of a drug intravenously / intrə vi nəsli/ adverb into a vein a fluid given intravenously intravenous pyelogram / intrəvi nəs paiələ r m/, intravenous urogram / intrə vi nəs jυərə r m/ noun a series of X-ray photographs of the kidneys using pyelography. Abbreviation IVP intravenous pyelography / intrəvi nəs paiə lɒ rəfi/, intravenous urography / intrə vi nəs jυ rɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the urinary tract after opaque liquid has been injected intravenously into the body and taken by the blood into the kidneys intraventricular / intrəven trikjυlə/ adjective inside or placed into a ventricle in the heart or the brain intrinsic /in trinsik/ adjective belonging to the essential nature of an organism, or entirely within an organ or part intrinsic factor /in trinsik f ktə/ noun a protein produced in the gastric glands which reacts with the extrinsic factor, and which, if lacking, causes pernicious anaemia intrinsic ligament /in trinsik li əmənt/ noun a ligament which forms part of the capsule surrounding a joint intrinsic muscle /in trinsik m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle lying completely inside the part or segment, especially of a limb, which it moves intro- /intrəυ/ prefix inward introitus /in trəυitəs/ noun an opening into any hollow organ or canal introjection / intrəυ d ekʃən/ noun a persons unconscious adoption of the attitudes or values of another person whom he or she wants to impress introspection / intrə spekʃən/ noun a detailed and sometimes obsessive mental selfexamination of feelings, thoughts and motives introversion / intrə v ʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which a person is excessively interested in intravascular | intravenous | intravenous drip intravenous feeding intravenous injection | intravenously | intravenous pyelogram | intravenous pyelography | | | | intraventricular | intrinsic | intrinsic factor | intrinsic ligament | intrinsic muscle | intro- introitus | introjection | introspection | introversion | himself or herself and his or her own mental state. Compare extroversion introvert / intrəv t/ noun a person who thinks only about himself or herself and his or her own mental state. Compare extrovert intubate / intju beit/ verb to insert a tube into any organ or part of the body. Also called catheintrovert intubate terise intubation intubation / intju beiʃ(ə)n/ noun the therapeutic insertion of a tube into the larynx through the glottis to allow the passage of air. Also called | catheterisation intumescence intumescence / intju mes(ə)ns/ noun the swelling of an organ intussusception / intəsə sepʃən/ noun a condition in which part of the gastrointestinal tract becomes folded down inside the part beneath it, causing an obstruction and strangulation of the folded part inunction /in ŋkʃən/ noun 1. the act of rubbing an ointment into the skin so that the medicine in it is absorbed 2. an ointment which is rubbed into the skin invagination /in v d i neiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as intussusception invalid / invəlid/ (dated ) noun someone who has had an illness and has not fully recovered from it or who has been permanently disabled í adjective weak or disabled invasion /in vei (ə)n/ noun the entry of bacteria into a body, or the first attack of a disease invasive /in veisiv/ adjective 1. referring to cancer which tends to spread throughout the body 2. referring to an inspection or treatment which involves entering the body by making an incision. | intussusception | inunction | invagination | | invalid invasion | invasive | non-invasive inverse care law inverse care law / inv s keə lə / noun the idea that the people who most need care and services are least likely or able to access them inversion /in v ʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of being turned towards the inside inversion of the foot See illustration at ANATOMICAL TERMS in Supplement investigative surgery /in vesti ətiv s d əri/ noun surgery to investigate the cause of a condition in vitro / in vi trəυ/ adjective, adverb a Latin phrase meaning in a glass, i.e. in a test tube or similar container used in a laboratory in vitro fertilisation / in vi trəυ f təlai zeiʃ(ə)n/ noun the fertilisation of an ovum in the laboratory. test-tube baby. Abbreviation IVF in vivo adjective, adverb a Latin phrase meaning in living tissue, i.e. referring to an experiment which takes place on the living body in vivo experiment /in vi vəυ ik sperimənt/ noun an experiment on a living body, e.g. that of an animal inversion | investigative surgery | in vitro in vitro fertilisation | in vivo in vivo experiment | Nursing.fm Page 155 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 155 involucrum involucrum / invə lu krəm/ noun a covering of new bone which forms over diseased bone involuntary /in vɒlənt(ə)ri/ adjective done automatically, without any conscious thought or decision-making being involved Patients are advised not to eat or drink, to reduce the risk of involuntary vomiting while on the operating table. involuntary action /in vɒlənt(ə)ri kʃən/ noun an action which someone does without thinking or making a conscious decision involuntary muscle /in vɒlənt(ə)ri m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle supplied by the autonomic nervous system, and therefore not under voluntary control, e.g. the muscle which activates a vital organ such as the heart involution / invə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the return of an organ to its usual size, e.g. the shrinking of the uterus after childbirth 2. a period of decline of organs which sets in after middle age involutional / invə lu ʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ adjective referring to involution involutional melancholia /invə lu ʃ(ə)n(ə)l melən kəυliə/ noun a depression which occurs in people, mainly women, after middle age, probably caused by a change of endocrine secretions iodine / aiədi n/ noun a chemical element which is essential to the body, especially to the functioning of the thyroid gland (NOTE: Lack of | involuntary | involuntary action | involuntary muscle | involution | involutional | involutional melancholia | | iodine iodine in the diet can cause goitre. The chemical symbol is I.) IOL abbreviation intraocular lens ion / aiən/ noun an atom that has an electric charge (NOTE: Ions with a positive charge are called cations and those with a negative charge are called anions.) ionise / aiənaiz/, ionize verb to give an atom an IOL ion ionise electric charge ioniser / aiənaizə/, ionizer noun a machine that increases the amount of negative ions in the atmosphere of a room, so counteracting the effect of positive ions iontophoresis /ai ɒntəυfə ri sis/ noun the movement of ions through a biological material when an electric current passes through it IOUS abbreviation intraoperative ultrasound IPAV abbreviation intermittent positive airway ventilation. positive pressure ventilation ipecacuanha / ipik kjυ nə/ noun a drug made from the root of an American plant, used as a treatment for coughs, and also as an emetic IP joint / ai pi d ɔint/ noun same as interioniser iontophoresis | | IOUS IPAV ipecacuanha | IP joint phalangeal joint IPPV IPPV abbreviation intermittent positive pressure ventilation. positive pressure ventilation ipratropium / aiprə trəυpiəm/, ipratropium bromide / aiprə trəυpiəm brəυmaid/ noun a drug which helps to relax muscles in the airways, ipratropium | | irritable hip used in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema ipsilateral / ipsi l tərəl/ adjective located on or affecting the same side of the body. Also called homolateral. Opposite contralateral IQ abbreviation intelligence quotient IRDS abbreviation infant respiratory distress syndrome irid- /irid/ prefix referring to the iris iridectomy / iri dektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of part of the iris iridocyclitis / iridəυsi klaitis/ noun inflammation of the iris and the tissues which surround it iridodialysis / iridəυdai ləsis/ noun the separation of the iris from its insertion iridoplegia / iridəυ pli d ə/ noun paralysis of the iris iridoptosis / iridəυ təυsis/ noun the pushing forward of the iris through a wound in the cornea iridotomy / iri dɒtəmi/ noun a surgical incision into the iris iris / airis/ noun a coloured ring in the eye, with the pupil at its centre. See illustration at EYE in ipsilateral | IQ IRDS irid- iridectomy | iridocyclitis | iridodialysis | iridoplegia | iridoptosis | iridotomy | iris Supplement COMMENT: The iris acts like the aperture in a camera shutter, opening and closing to allow more or less light through the pupil into the eye. iritis /ai raitis/ noun inflammation of the iris iron / aiən/ noun 1. a chemical element essential iritis | iron to the body, present in foods such as liver and eggs 2. a common grey metal (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Fe.) iron-deficiency anaemia iron-deficiency anaemia / aiən di fiʃ(ə)nsi ə ni miə/ noun anaemia caused by a lack of iron in red blood cells iron lung / aiən l ŋ/ noun same as Drinker | | iron lung respirator irradiation irradiation /i reidi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the process of spreading from a centre, as e.g., nerve impulses do 2. the use of radiation to treat people or to kill bacteria in food irreducible hernia /iri dju səb(ə)l h niə/ noun a hernia where the organ cannot be returned to its usual position irrigation / iri eiʃ(ə)n/ noun the washing out of a cavity in the body irritability / iritə biliti/ noun the state of being irritable irritable / iritəb(ə)l/ adjective 1. easily able to become inflamed and painful 2. feeling annoyed and impatient irritable bowel syndrome / iritəb(ə)l baυəl sindrəυm/ noun ‘ mucous colitis. Abbreviation IBS irritable hip / iritəb(ə)l hip/ noun a condition of pain in the hip which is caused by swelling of | | irreducible hernia | irrigation | irritability | irritable irritable bowel syndrome irritable hip Nursing.fm Page 156 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM irritant 156 the synovium. Treatment involves bed rest, traction and anti-inflammatory drugs. irritant / irit(ə)nt/ noun a substance which can irritate irritant dermatitis / irit(ə)nt d mə taitis/ noun same as contact dermatitis irritate / iriteit/ verb to cause a painful reaction in part of the body, especially to make it inflamed Some types of wool can irritate the skin. irritation / iri teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a feeling of being irritated an irritation caused by the ointment ISC abbreviation intermittent self-catheterisation isch- /isk/ prefix too little ischaemia /i ski miə/ noun a deficient blood supply to a part of the body ischaemic /i ski mik/ adjective lacking in blood ischi- /iski/ prefix same as ischio- (used before irritant irritant dermatitis | irritate irritation | ISC isch- ischaemia | ischaemic | ischi- vowels) ischia ischia / iskiə/ plural of ischium ischial / iskiəl/ adjective referring to the ischium or hip joint ischial tuberosity / iskiəl tju bə rɒsiti/ noun a lump of bone forming the ring of the ischium ischio- /iskiəυ/ prefix referring to the ischium ischiorectal / iskiəυ rekt(ə)l/ adjective referring to both the ischium and the rectum ischiorectal abscess / iskiəυ rekt(ə)l bses/ noun an abscess which forms in fat cells between the anus and the ischium ischiorectal fossa / iskiəυ rekt(ə)l fɒsə/ noun a space on either side of the lower end of the rectum and anal canal ischium / iskiəm/ noun the lower part of the hip bone in the pelvis. See illustration at PELVIS in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is ischia.) Ishihara colour charts / iʃihɑ rə k lə tʃɑ ts/ plural noun charts used in a test for colour vision in which numbers or letters are shown in dots of primary colours with dots of other colours around them. People with normal colour vision can see them, but people who are colourblind cannot. islets of Langerhans / ailəts əv l ŋəh ns/, islands of Langerhans / ailəndz əv l ŋəh nz/, islet cells / ailət selz/ plural noun groups of cells in the pancreas which secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin and gastrin ischial ischial tuberosity | ischio- ischiorectal | ischiorectal abscess | ischiorectal fossa | ischium Ishihara colour charts islets of Langerhans [Described 1869. After Paul Langerhans (1847 88), Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Freiburg, Germany.] iso- /aisəυ/ prefix equal isograft / aisəυ rɑ ft/ noun a graft of tissue from an identical twin. Also called syngraft isoimmunisation / aisəυ imjunai zeiʃ(ə)n/, isoimmunization noun immunisation of a periso- isograft isoimmunisation | | son with antigens derived from another person isolation isolation / aisə leiʃ(ə)n/ noun the separation of a person, especially one with an infectious disease, from others isolation ward / aisə leiʃ(ə)n wɔ d/ noun a special ward where people who have dangerous infectious diseases can be kept isolated from others isolator / aisəleitə/ noun 1. a large clear plastic bag in which a person can be nursed, or operated on, in a sterile environment 2. a room or piece of equipment which keeps people or substances separated from others which may contaminate them an isolator stretcher an isolator cabinet isoleucine / aisəυ lu si n/ noun an essential amino acid isometric / aisəυ metrik/ adjective 1. involving equal measurement an isometric view of the system 2. referring to muscle contraction in which tension occurs with very little shortening of muscle fibres 3. referring to exercises in which the muscles are put under tension but not contracted isometrics / aisəυ metriks/ plural noun exercises to strengthen the muscles, in which the muscles contract but do not shorten isoprenaline / aisəυ prenəli n/, isoproterenol / aisəυprəυ terənɒl/ noun a drug that relieves asthma by widening the bronchial tubes in the lungs isosorbide dinitrate / aisəυ sɔ baid dai naitreit/ noun a compound which causes widening or relaxation of the blood vessels, used in the treatment of angina pectoris isotonic / aisəυ tɒnik/ adjective referring to a solution, e.g. a saline drip, which has the same osmotic pressure as blood serum and which can therefore be passed directly into the body. Compare hypertonic, hypotonic isotonic solution / aisəυtɒnik sə lu ʃ(ə)n/ noun a solution which has the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or as another liquid it is compared with isotope / aisətəυp/ noun a form of a chemical element which has the same chemical properties as other forms but a different atomic mass isotretinoin / aisəυtre tinɔin/ noun a drug used in the treatment of severe acne and several other skin diseases ispaghula / ispə u lə/, ispaghula husk / ispə u lə h sk/ noun a natural dietary fibre used to treat constipation, diverticulitis and irritable bowel syndrome ISS abbreviation injury scoring system isthmus / isməs/ noun a short narrow canal or cavity itch /itʃ/ noun an irritated place on the skin which makes a person want to scratch í verb to produce an irritating sensation, making someone want to scratch | isolation ward | isolator isoleucine | isometric | isometrics | isoprenaline | | isosorbide dinitrate | | isotonic | isotonic solution | isotope isotretinoin | ispaghula | | ISS isthmus itch Nursing.fm Page 157 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 157 itching itching / itʃiŋ/ noun same as pruritus itchy / itʃi/ adjective making a person want to scratch The main symptom of the disease is an itchy red rash. -itis /aitis/ suffix inflammation ITU abbreviation intensive therapy unit IU abbreviation international unit itchy -itis ITU IU IVU IUCD IUCD abbreviation intrauterine contraceptive device IUD abbreviation 1. intrauterine death 2. intrauterine device IV abbreviation intravenous IVF abbreviation in vitro fertilisation IVP abbreviation intravenous pyelogram IVU abbreviation intravenous urography IUD IV IVF IVP IVU Nursing.fm Page 158 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM J J J /d ei/ abbreviation joule jab /d b/ noun an injection or inoculation (informal ) a tetanus jab Jacksonian epilepsy /d k səυniən epilepsi/ noun a form of epilepsy in which the jerking movements start in one part of the body before spreading to others [Described 1863. After jab Jacksonian epilepsy | John Hughlings Jackson (18351911), British neurologist.] Jacquemiers sign / d kəmiəz sain/ noun Jacquemiers sign a sign of early pregnancy in which the vaginal mucosa becomes slightly blue due to an increased amount of blood in the arteries [After Jean Marie Jacquemier (180679), French obstetrician.] jactitation / d kti teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the action jactitation jejunal ulcer jejunal ulcer /d i d u n(ə)l lsə/ noun an ulcer in the jejunum jejunectomy / d id u nektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of the jejunum | jejunectomy | (NOTE: The plural is jejunectomies.) jejuno- /d i d u nəυ/ prefix referring to the jejuno- jejunum jejunoileostomy /d i d u nəυ ili ɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an artificial link between the jejunum and the ileum (NOTE: jejunoileostomy | | | The plural is jejunoileostomies.) jejunostomy jejunostomy / d id u nɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an artificial passage to the jejunum through the wall of the abdomen (NOTE: | The plural is jejunostomies.) | of constantly moving the body around in a restless way, especially because of mental illness jag /d / noun in Scotland, an injection or inoculation (informal ) jargon / d ɑ ən/ noun 1. the words used by people who have a particular area of knowledge, which are usually only understood by those people medical jargon 2. a stream of words that makes no sense, produced by someone with aphasia or a severe mental disorder jaundice / d ɔ ndis/ noun a condition in which there is an excess of bile pigment in the blood, and in which the pigment is deposited in the skin and the whites of the eyes, which have a yellow colour. Also called icterus jaw /d ɔ / noun the bones in the face which hold the teeth and form the mouth He fell down and broke his jaw. The punch on his mouth broke his jaw. jag jargon jaundice jaw COMMENT: The jaw has two parts, the upper (the maxillae) being fixed parts of the skull, and the lower (the mandible) being attached to the skull with a hinge so that it can move up and down. jawbone / d ɔ bəυn/ noun one of the bones jawbone which form the jaw, especially the lower jaw or mandible jejun- /d id u n/ prefix same as jejuno- (used jejun- before vowels) jejunal /d i d u n(ə)l/ adjective referring to the jejunal | jejunum jejunotomy jejunotomy / d id u nɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut into the jejunum (NOTE: The plu| ral is jejunotomies.) jejunum jejunum /d i d u nəm/ noun the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum, about 2 metres long. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement jerk /d k/ noun a sudden movement of part of the body which indicates that the local reflex arc is intact í verb to make sudden movements, or cause something to make sudden movements In some forms of epilepsy the limbs jerk. jet lag / d et l / noun a condition suffered by people who travel long distances in planes, caused by rapid changes in time zones which affect sleep patterns and meal times and thus interfere with the bodys metabolism We had jet lag when we flew from Australia. jet-lagged / d et l d/ adjective experiencing jet lag jet-lagged travellers We were jetlagged for a week. joint /d ɔint/ noun a structure at a point where two or more bones join, especially one which allows movement of the bones The elbow is a joint in the arm. Arthritis is accompanied by stiffness in the joints. Charcots joint (NOTE: | jerk jet lag jet-lagged joint For other terms referring to joints, see words beginning with arthr-, arthro-.) joint capsule / d ɔint k psju l/ noun white joint capsule fibrous tissue which surrounds and holds a joint together. See illustration at SYNOVIAL JOINT in Supplement Nursing.fm Page 159 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 159 joint investment plan joint investment plan / d ɔint in vestmənt pl n/ noun a plan that health and social services draw up together for specific areas of care joint mouse / d ɔint maυs/ plural noun a loose piece of bone or cartilage in the knee joint, making the joint lock joule /d u l/ noun the SI unit of measurement of work or energy. 4.184 joules equals one calorie. Symbol J jugular / d jυlə/ adjective referring to the throat or neck í noun same as jugular vein jugular nerve / d jυlə n v/ noun one of the nerves in the neck jugular trunk / d jυlə tr ŋk/ noun a terminal lymph vessel in the neck, draining into the subclavian vein jugular vein / d jυlə vein/ noun one of the veins which pass down either side of the neck. Also called jugular | joint mouse joule jugular jugular nerve jugular trunk jugular vein juxtaposition jumpers knee jumpers knee / d mpəz ni / noun a painful condition suffered by athletes and dancers in which inflammation develops in the knee joint junction / d ŋkʃən/ noun a joining point junior doctor / d u niə dɒktə/ noun a doctor who is completing his or her training in hospital junk food / d ŋk fu d/ noun food of little nutritional value, e.g. high-fat processed snacks, eaten between or instead of meals juvenile / d u vənail/ adjective relating to or affecting children or adolescents juxta- /d kstə/ prefix beside or near juxta-articular / d kstə ɑ tikjυlə/ adjective occurring near a joint juxtaposition / d kstəpə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun the placing of two or more things side by side so as to make their similarities or differences more obvious junction junior doctor junk food juvenile juxta- juxta-articular | juxtaposition | Nursing.fm Page 160 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM K k k symbol kilokala-azar / kɑ lə ə zɑ / noun an often fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the infection of the intestines and internal organs by a parasite, Leishmania, spread by flies. Symptoms are fever, anaemia, general wasting of the body and swelling of the spleen and liver. kaolin / keiəlin/ noun a fine soft clay used in the making of medical preparations, especially for the treatment of diarrhoea Kaposis sarcoma /kə pəυziz sɑ kəυmə/ noun a cancer which takes the form of many haemorrhagic nodes affecting the skin, especially on the extremities [Described 1872. After Moritz kala-azar | kaolin Kaposis sarcoma | | Kohn Karposi (18371902), Professor of Dermatology at Vienna, Austria.] Kartageners syndrome / kɑ tə d i nəz sindrəυm/ noun a hereditary condition in which Kartageners syndrome | all the organs in the chest and abdomen are positioned on the opposite side from the usual one, i.e. the heart and stomach are on the right karyo- /k riəυ/ prefix relating to a cell nucleus karyotype / k riəυtaip/ noun the chromosome complement of a cell, shown as a diagram or as a set of letters and numbers Kawasaki disease / kɑ wə sɑ kiz di zi z/ noun a retrovirus infection that often occurs in small children and causes a high temperature, rash, reddened eyes, peeling skin and swollen lymph nodes Kayser-Fleischer ring / kaizə flaiʃə riŋ/ noun a brown ring on the outer edge of the cornea, which is a diagnostic sign of hepatolenticular degeneration [Described 1902 by Kayser, 1903 karyo- karyotype Kawasaki disease | | Kayser-Fleischer ring by Fleischer. Bernard Kayser (18691954), German ophthalmologist; Bruno Richard Fleischer (18481904), German physician.] kcal abbreviation kilocalorie Kegel exercises / kei (ə)l eksəsaiziz/ plural noun exercises which strengthen the muscles of kcal Kegel exercises the pelvic floor in women and help to prevent any accidental leakage of urine when they cough, sneeze or lift things Kellers operation / keləz ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation on the big toe to remove a bunion or to correct an ankylosed joint Kellers operation | [Described 1904. After William Lordan Keller (18741959), US surgeon.] keloid / ki lɔid/ noun an excessive amount of keloid scar tissue at the site of a skin injury kerat- /kerət/ prefix same as kerato- (used kerat- before vowels) keratectasia keratectasia / kerətek teiziə/ noun a condition in which the cornea bulges keratectomy / kerə tektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the whole or part of the cornea (NOTE: The plural is keratectomies.) keratic /kə r tik/ adjective 1. relating to horny tissue or to keratin 2. relating to the cornea keratin / kerətin/ noun a protein found in horny tissue such as fingernails, hair or the outer surface of the skin keratinisation / kerətinai zeiʃ(ə)n/, keratinization noun the appearance of horny characteristics in tissue. Also called cornification keratinise / kerətinaiz, kə r tinaiz/, keratinize verb to convert something into keratin or into horny tissue (NOTE: keratinising kerat| keratectomy | keratic | keratin keratinisation | keratinise | inised) keratinocyte keratinocyte / kerə tinəυsait/ noun a cell which produces keratin keratitis / kerə taitis/ noun inflammation of the cornea kerato- /kerətəυ/ prefix referring to horn, horny tissue or the cornea keratoconjunctivitis / kerətəυkən d ŋkti vaitis/ noun inflammation of the cornea with conjunctivitis keratoma / kerə təυmə/ noun a hard thickened growth due to hypertrophy of the horny zone of the skin (NOTE: The plural is keratomas or | keratitis | kerato- keratoconjunctivitis | | keratoma | keratomata.) keratomalacia keratomalacia / kerətəυmə leiʃə/ noun a softening of the cornea frequently caused by Vitamin A deficiency keratome / kerətəυm/ noun a surgical knife used for operations on the cornea keratometer / kerə tɒmitə/ noun an instrument for measuring the curvature of the cornea keratopathy / kerə tɒpəθi/ noun any noninflammatory disorder of the cornea (NOTE: The | keratome keratometer | keratopathy | plural is keratopathies.) Nursing.fm Page 161 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 161 keratoplasty keratoplasty / kerətəpl sti/ noun a surgical operation to graft corneal tissue from a donor in place of diseased tissue (NOTE: The plural is keratoplasties.) keratoprosthesis keratoprosthesis / kerətəυprɒs θi sis/ noun 1. a surgical operation to replace the central area | of a cornea with clear plastic, when it has become opaque 2. a piece of clear plastic put into the cornea (NOTE: The plural is keratoprostheses.) keratoscope / kerətəskəυp/ noun an instrument for examining the cornea to see if it has an unusual curvature. Also called Placidos disc keratosis / kerə təυsis/ noun a lesion of the skin (NOTE: The plural is keratoses.) keratotomy / kerə tɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a cut in the cornea, the first step in many intraocular operations (NOTE: The plural keratoscope keratosis | keratotomy | is keratotomies.) kerion kerion / kiəriɒn/ noun a painful soft mass, usually on the scalp, caused by ringworm kernicterus /kə niktərəs/ noun yellow pigmentation of the basal ganglia and other nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain, found in children with icterus Kernigs sign / k ni z sain/ noun a symptom of meningitis in which the knee cannot be straightened if the person is lying down with the thigh brought up against the abdomen [Described kernicterus | Kernigs sign 1882. After Vladimir Mikhailovich Kernig (1840 1917), Russian neurologist.] ketamine / ketəmi n/ noun a white crystalline ketamine powder that is a general anaesthetic, used in human and veterinary medicine ketoacidosis / ki təυ si dəυsis/ noun an accumulation of ketone bodies in tissue in diabetes, causing acidosis ketoconazole / ki təυ kɒnəzəυl/ noun a drug which is effective against a wide range of fungal infections such as cryptococcosis and thrush ketogenesis / ki təυ d enəsis/ noun the production of ketone bodies ketogenic / ki təυ d enik/ adjective forming ketone bodies ketogenic diet / ki təυd enik daiət/ noun a diet with a high fat content, producing ketosis ketonaemia / ki təυ ni miə/ noun a morbid state in which ketone bodies exist in the blood ketone / ki təυn/ noun a chemical compound produced when glucose is unavailable for use as energy, as in untreated diabetes, and fats are used instead, leading to ketosis ketone bodies / ki təυn bɒdiz/ plural noun ketone compounds formed from fatty acids ketone group / ki təυn ru p/ noun a chemical group characteristic of ketones, with carbon atoms doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and to the carbon atoms of two other organic groups ketoacidosis | ketoconazole | ketogenesis | ketogenic | ketogenic diet ketonaemia | ketone ketone bodies ketone group | Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ketonuria ketonuria / ki təυ njυəriə/ noun a state in which ketone bodies are excreted in the urine ketoprofen / ki təυ prəυfən/ noun an antiinflammatory drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis ketosis /ki təυsis/ noun a state in which ketone bodies such as acetone and acetic acid accumulate in the tissues, a late complication of Type I diabetes mellitus ketosteroid / ki təυ stiərɔid/ noun a steroid such as cortisone which contains a ketone group keyhole surgery / ki həυl s d əri/ noun surgery carried out by inserting tiny surgical instruments through an endoscope (informal ) Also called laparoscopic surgery kg abbreviation kilogram kidney / kidni/ noun either of two organs situated in the lower part of the back on either side of the spine behind the abdomen, whose function is to maintain the usual concentrations of the main constituents of blood, passing the waste matter into the urine. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplement kidney dialysis / kidni dai ləsis/ noun the process of removing waste matter from blood by passing it through a kidney machine. Also called | ketoprofen | ketosis | ketosteroid | keyhole surgery kg kidney kidney dialysis | haemodialysis kidney donor kidney donor / kidni dəυnə/ noun a person who gives one of his or her kidneys as a transplant kidney failure / kidni feiljə/ noun a situation in which the kidneys do not function properly kidney machine / kidni mə ʃi n/ noun an apparatus through which blood is passed to be cleaned by dialysis if the persons kidneys have failed kidney stone / kidni stəυn/ noun a hard mass of calcium like a little piece of stone which forms in the kidney kidney transplant / kidni tr nsplɑ nt/ noun a surgical operation to give someone with a diseased or damaged kidney a kidney from another person killer cell / kilə sel/, killer T cell / kilə ti sel/ noun a type of immune cell that recognises and destroys cells that have specific antigens on their surface, e.g. virus-infected or cancerous cells kilo- /kiləυ/ prefix one thousand (103). Symbol k kilogram / kilə r m/ noun an SI unit of measurement of weight equal to 1000 grams She weighs 62 kilos (62 kg). Symbol kg kilojoule / kiləυd u l/ noun an SI unit of measurement of energy or heat equal to 1000 joules. Symbol kJ kilopascal / kiləυp skəl/ noun an SI unit of measurement of pressure equal to 1000 pascals. Symbol kPa Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease / kiməlsti l wilsən di zi z/, Kimmelstiel-Wilson synkidney failure kidney machine | kidney stone kidney transplant killer cell kilo- kilogram kilojoule kilopascal Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease | Nursing.fm Page 162 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM kin 162 drome / kiməlsti l wilsən sindrəυm/ noun a form of nephrosclerosis found in people with diabetes [Described 1936. After Paul Kimmelstiel (190070), US pathologist; Clifford Wilson (190698), Professor of Medicine, London University, UK] kin /kin/ noun relatives or close members of the kin family kin- /kin/ prefix same as kine- (used before vowkin- els) kinaesthesia / kini s θi ziə/ noun the fact of being aware of the movement and position of parts of the body (NOTE: The US spelling is | kinesthesia.) kinanaesthesia / kin ni s θi ziə/ noun the fact of not being able to sense the movement and position of parts of the body (NOTE: The US | spelling is kinanesthesia.) kinase / kaineiz/ noun an enzyme belonging to kinase a large family of related substances that bind to the energy-providing molecule ATP and regulate functions such as cell division and signalling between cells kine- /kini/ prefix movement kinematics / kini m tiks/ noun the science of movement, especially of body movements (NOTE: kine- kinematics | Also spelled cinematics.) kineplasty / kinipl sti/ noun an amputation in kineplasty which the muscles of the stump of the amputated limb are used to operate an artificial limb (NOTE: Also spelled cineplasty.The plural is kineplasties.) kinesi- /kaini si/ prefix movement (NOTE: used before vowels) kinesiology / kaini si ɒləd i/ noun the study kinesi- kinesiology | of human movements, particularly with regard to their use in treatment kinesis /ki ni sis/ noun the movement of a cell in response to a stimulus. Compare taxis -kinesis /kini sis/ suffix 1. activity or motion 2. a change in the movement of a cell, though not in any particular direction. Examples are a change in its speed or in its turning behaviour. kinesitherapy / kaini si θerəpi/ noun therapy involving movement of parts of the body kinetic /ki netik, kai netik/ adjective relating to movement Kings Fund / kiŋz f nd/ noun a major independent health charity in London Kings model / kiŋz mɒd(ə)l/ noun a model of nursepatient relationships based on ten principles: interaction, perception, communication, transaction, role, stress, growth and development, time, self and space. Through an exchange of information nurses and patients work together to help individuals and groups attain, maintain and restore health. kinin / kainin/ noun a polypeptide that makes blood vessels widen and smooth muscles contract kinesis | -kinesis kinesitherapy | kinetic | kinin [Described 1909. After Martin Kirschner (1879 1942), Professor of Surgery at Heidelberg, Germany.] kiss of life / kis əv laif/ noun same as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (informal ) kJ abbreviation kilojoule Klebsiella / klebsi elə/ noun a Gram-negative kiss of life kJ | bacterium, one form of which, Klebsiella pneumoniae, can cause pneumonia Klebs-Loeffler bacillus / klebz leflə bə siləs/ noun the bacterium which causes diphtheria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae [After Theodor Klebs-Loeffler bacillus | kinanaesthesia Kings model tightened to provide traction to a fracture Klebsiella kinaesthesia Kings Fund Kirschner wire Kirschner wire / k ʃ(ə)nə waiə/, Kirschners wire noun a wire attached to a bone and | Albrecht Klebs (18341913), bacteriologist in Zürich, Switzerland, and Chicago, USA; Friedrich August Loeffler (18521915), bacteriologist in Berlin, Germany.] Kleihauer test / klaihaυə test/, KleihauerBetke test noun a test used to check whether Kleihauer test there has been any blood loss from a fetus to the mother across the placenta. It is usually done immediately after delivery. klepto- /kleptəυ/ prefix stealing or theft kleptomania / kleptəυ meiniə/ noun a form of mental disorder in which someone has a compulsive desire to steal things, even things of little value kleptomaniac / kleptəυ meini k/ noun a person who has a compulsive desire to steal Klinefelters syndrome / klainfeltəz sindrəυm/ noun a genetic disorder in which a male has an extra female chromosome, making an XXY set, giving sterility and partial female characteristics [Described 1942. After Harry Fitch klepto- kleptomania | kleptomaniac | Klinefelters syndrome Klinefelter Jr. (b. 1912), Associate Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, USA.] Klumpkes paralysis / klu mpkəz pə r ləsis/ noun a form of paralysis due to an Klumpkes paralysis | injury during birth, affecting the forearm and hand. Also called Déjerine-Klumpkes syndrome [Described 1885. After Augusta Klumpke (Madame Déjerine-Klumpke) (18591937), French neurologist, one of the first women to qualify in Paris in 1888.] knee /ni / noun a joint in the middle of the leg, joining the femur and the tibia (NOTE: For other terms referring to the knee, see genu.) kneecap / ni k p/ noun same as patella knee jerk / ni d k/ noun same as patellar reflex knee joint / ni d ɔint/ noun a joint where the knee kneecap knee jerk knee joint femur and the tibia are joined, covered by the kneecap knock-knee / nɒk ni / noun a state in which the knees touch and the ankles are apart when a knock-knee Nursing.fm Page 163 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 163 person is standing straight. Also called genu valgum knock-kneed knock-kneed / nɒk ni d/ adjective referring to a person whose knees touch when he or she stands straight with feet slightly apart knock out / nɒk aυt/ verb to hit someone so hard that he or she is no longer conscious He was knocked out by a blow on the head. knowledge and skills framework / nɒlid ən skilz freimw k/ noun full form of KSF knuckle / n k(ə)l/ noun the back of each joint on a persons hand Kocher manoeuvre / kɒkə mə nu və/ noun a method for realigning a dislocated shoulder in which the arm is raised and a sudden change is made between inward and outward rotation of the head of the joint Kochs bacillus / kəυks bə siləs/ noun the bacterium which causes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Described 1882. After Robert knock out knowledge and skills framework kyphotic kraurosis vulvae kraurosis vulvae /krə rəυsis v lvə/ noun a condition in which the vulva becomes thin and dry due to lack of oestrogen, found usually in elderly women Krause corpuscles / kraυzə kɔ p s(ə)lz/ plural noun encapsulated nerve endings in the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, eyes and genitals [Described 1860. After Wilhelm Johann | Krause corpuscles Friedrich Krause (18331910), German anatomist.] knuckle Kocher manoeuvre | Kochs bacillus | Koch (18431910), Professor of Hygiene in Berlin, Germany, later Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases. (Nobel Prize 1905).] Köhlers disease / k ləz di si z/ noun a Köhlers disease | degeneration of the navicular bone in children. Also called scaphoiditis [Described 1908 and 1926. After Alban Köhler (18741947), German radiologist.] koilonychia / kɔiləυ nikiə/ noun a condition koilonychia | in which the fingernails are brittle and concave, caused by iron-deficiency anaemia Kopliks spots / kɒpliks spɒts/ plural noun small white spots with a blue tinge surrounded by a red areola, found in the mouth in the early stages of measles [Described 1896. After Henry Koplik Kopliks spots (18581927), US paediatrician.] Korotkoffs method / kɒrətkɒfs meθəd/ noun a method of finding a persons blood presKorotkoffs method sure by inflating a cuff around his or her upper arm to a pressure well above the systolic blood pressure and then gradually decreasing it Korsakoffs syndrome / kɔ səkɒfs sindrəυm/ noun a condition, caused usually by chronic alcoholism or disorders in which there is a deficiency of vitamin B, in which a persons memory fails and he or she invents things which have not happened and is confused [Described Korsakoffs syndrome 1887. After Sergei Sergeyevich Korsakoff (18541900), Russian psychiatrist.] kraurosis penis /krɔ rəυsis pi nis/ noun a kraurosis penis Krebs cycle Krebs cycle / krebz saik(ə)l/ noun same as citric acid cycle [Described 1937. After Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (190081), German biochemist who emigrated to England in 1934. Shared the Nobel prize for Medicine 1953 with F.A. Lipmann.] KSF KSF / kei es ef/ noun a document setting out the knowledge and skills required in a particular healthcare post, giving guidance on professional development, and setting out the pay progression. Full form knowledge and skills framework Kuntscher nail / k ntʃə neil/, Küntscher nail noun a long steel nail used in operations to pin fractures of long bones, especially the femur, through the bone marrow [Described 1940. After Kuntscher nail Gerhard Küntscher (190072), German surgeon.] Kupffers cells Kupffers cells / kυpfəz selz/, Kupffer cells / kυpfə selz/ plural noun large speed liver cells which break down haemoglobin into bile [Described 1876. After Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer (18291902), German anatomist.] Kveim test Kveim test / kvaim test/ noun a skin test to confirm the presence of sarcoidosis [After Morten Ansgar Kveim (18921966), Swedish physician.] kwashiorkor kwashiorkor / kwɒʃi ɔ kɔ / noun malnutrition of small children, mostly in tropical countries, causing anaemia, wasting of the body and swollen liver kypho- /kaifəυ/ prefix a hump kyphoscoliosis / kaifəυ skɒli əυsis/ noun a condition in which someone has both backward and lateral curvature of the spine kyphosis /kai fəυsis/ noun an excessive backward curvature of the top part of the spine (NOTE: | kypho- kyphoscoliosis | | kyphosis | The plural is kyphoses.) | condition in which the foreskin becomes dry and shrivelled kyphotic kyphotic /kai fɒtik/ adjective referring to kyphosis | Nursing.fm Page 164 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM L l labrum l, L symbol litre lab- /leib/ prefix same as labio- (used before labrum / leibrəm/ noun a ring of cartilage around the rim of a joint (NOTE: The plural is lab- labra.) vowels) labia / leibiə/ plural of labium labyrinth labia labial labial / leibiəl/ adjective referring to the lips or to labia labia majora / leibiə mə d ɔ rə/ plural noun two large fleshy folds at the outside edge of the vulva. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement labia minora / leibiə mi nɔ rə/ plural noun two small fleshy folds on the inside edge of the vulva. See illustration at UROGENITAL SYSTEM (FEMALE) in Supplement. Also called nymphae labile / leibail/ adjective referring to a drug which is unstable and likely to change if heated or cooled lability of mood /lə biliti əv mu d/ noun a tendency for a persons mood to change suddenly labio- /leibiəυ/ prefix referring to the lips or to labia labioplasty / leibiəυ pl sti/ noun a surgical operation to repair damaged or deformed lips labia majora | labia minora | labile lability of mood | labio- labioplasty | (NOTE: The plural is labioplasties.) labium / leibiəm/ noun any of the four fleshy labium folds which surround the female genital organs laboratory technician /lə bɒrət(ə)ri tek niʃ(ə)n/ noun a person who does practical work in a laboratory and has particular care of equipment laboratory techniques /lə bɒrət(ə)ri tek ni kz/ plural noun the methods or skills needed to perform experiments in a laboratory laboratory test /lə bɒrət(ə)ri test/ noun a test carried out in a laboratory labour / leibə/ noun childbirth, especially the contractions in the uterus which take place during childbirth laboured breathing / leibəd bri ðiŋ/ noun difficult breathing, which can be due to various causes such as asthma labour pains / leibə peinz/ plural noun the pains felt at regular intervals by a woman as the muscles of the uterus contract during childbirth laboratory technician | | laboratory techniques | laboratory test | labour laboured breathing labour pains | labyrinth / l bərinθ/ noun a series of interconnecting tubes, especially those in the inside of the ear labyrinthectomy / l bərin θektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the labyrinth of the inner ear (NOTE: The plural is labyrinthectolabyrinthectomy | mies.) labyrinthitis labyrinthitis / l bərin θaitis/ noun same as | otitis interna laceration laceration / l sə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a wound which has been cut or torn with rough edges, and is not the result of stabbing or pricking 2. the act of tearing tissue lachrymal / l krim(ə)l/ adjective same as lac| lachrymal rimal lacrimal lacrimal / l krim(ə)l/ adjective referring to tears, the tear ducts or the tear glands. nasolacrimal lacrimal apparatus lacrimal apparatus / l krim(ə)l pə reitəs/ noun the arrangement of glands and ducts which produce and drain tears. Also called | lacrimal system lacrimal bone lacrimal bone / l krim(ə)l bəυn/ noun one of two little bones which join with others to form the orbits lacrimal canaliculus / l krim(ə)l k nə likjυləs/ noun a small canal draining tears into the lacrimal sac lacrimal caruncle / l krim(ə)l kə r ŋk(ə)l/ noun a small red point at the inner corner of each eye lacrimal duct / l krim(ə)l d kt/ noun a small duct leading from the lacrimal gland. Also called lacrimal canaliculus | lacrimal caruncle | lacrimal duct tear duct lacrimal gland lacrimal gland / l krim(ə)l l nd/ noun a gland beneath the upper eyelid which secretes tears. Also called tear gland lacrimal puncta / l krim(ə)l p ŋktə/ plural noun small openings of the lacrimal canaliculus at the corners of the eyes through which tears drain into the nose lacrimal puncta Nursing.fm Page 165 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 165 lacrimal sac lacrimal sac / l krim(ə)l s k/ noun a sac at the upper end of the nasolacrimal duct, linking it with the lacrimal canaliculus lacrimal system / l krim(ə)l sistəm/ noun same as lacrimal apparatus lacrimation / l kri meiʃ(ə)n/ noun the production of tears lacrimator / l krimeitə/ noun a substance which irritates the eyes and makes tears flow lacrymal / l krim(ə)l/, lachrymal / l krim(ə)l/ adjective same as lacrimal lact- /l kt/ prefix same as lacto- (used before lacrimal system lacrimation | lacrimator lacrymal lact- vowels) lactase lactase / l kteiz/ noun an enzyme, secreted in the small intestine, which converts milk sugar into glucose and galactose lactate /l k teit/ verb to produce milk in the body (NOTE: lactating lactated) lactation /l k teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the production of milk in the body lacteal / l ktiəl/ adjective referring to milk í noun a lymph vessel in a villus which helps the digestive process in the small intestine by absorbing fat lactic / l ktik/ adjective relating to milk lactic acid / l ktik sid/ noun a sugar which forms in cells and tissue, and also in sour milk, cheese and yoghurt lactiferous /l k tifərəs/ adjective producing, secreting or carrying milk lactiferous duct /l k tifərəs d kt/ noun a duct in the breast which carries milk lactiferous sinus /l k tifərəs sainəs/ noun a dilatation of the lactiferous duct at the base of the nipple lacto- /l ktəυ/ prefix referring to milk Lactobacillus / l ktəυbə siləs/ noun a genus of Gram-positive bacteria which produces lactic acid from glucose and may be found in the digestive tract and the vagina lactogenic hormone / l ktəυ d enik hɔ məυn/ noun same as prolactin lactose / l ktəυs/ noun a type of sugar found in milk lactose intolerance / l ktəυs in tɒlərəns/ noun a condition in which a person cannot digest lactose because lactase is absent in the intestine or because of an allergy to milk, causing diarrhoea lactosuria / l ktəυ sjυəriə/ noun the excretion of lactose in the urine lactulose / l ktjυləυs/ noun an artificially produced sugar used as a laxative lacuna /l kju nə/ noun a small hollow or cavity (NOTE: The plural is lacunae.) Laënnecs cirrhosis / leiəneks sə rəυsis/ noun the commonest form of alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver [Described 1819. After René lactate | lactation | lacteal lactic lactic acid lactiferous | lactiferous duct | lactiferous sinus | lacto- Lactobacillus | lactogenic hormone | lactose lactose intolerance | lactosuria | lactulose lacuna | Laënnecs cirrhosis | lanugo Théophile Hyacinthe Laennec (17811826), Professor of medicine at the Collège de France, and inventor of the stethoscope.] -lalia /leiliə/ suffix speech or a speech disorder lambda / l mdə/ noun 1. the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet 2. the point at the back of the skull -lalia lambda where the sagittal suture and lambdoidal suture meet lambdoid / l mdɔid/ adjective shaped like the capital Greek letter lambda, like an upside down V or y lambdoid suture / l mdɔid su tʃə/, lambdoidal suture / l mdɔid(ə)l su tʃə/ noun a horizontal joint across the back of the skull between the parietal and occipital bones lambliasis /l m blaiəsis/ noun same as giarlambdoid lambdoid suture lambliasis | diasis lame lame /leim/ adjective not able to walk easily because of pain, stiffness or damage in a leg or foot (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) lamella /lə melə/ noun a thin sheet of tissue lamella | (NOTE: The plural is lamellae.) lamina / l minə/ noun a thin membrane lamina propria / l minə prəυpriə/ noun the lamina lamina propria connective tissue of mucous membranes containing, e.g., blood vessels and lymphatic tissues laminectomy / l mi nektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut through the lamina of a vertebra in the spine to get to the spinal cord. Also called laminectomy | rachiotomy (NOTE: The plural is laminectomies.) lamotrigine /lə mɒtrid i n/ noun a drug that lamotrigine | helps to control petit mal epilepsy lance /lɑ ns/ verb to make a cut in a boil or abscess to remove the pus lancet / lɑ nsit/ noun 1. a sharp two-edged pointed knife formerly used in surgery 2. a small pointed implement used to take a small capillary blood sample, e.g. to measure blood glucose levels lancinate / lɑ nsineit/ verb to lacerate or cut something (NOTE: lancinating lancinated) lancinating / lɑ nsineitiŋ/ adjective referring to pain which is sharp and cutting Landsteiners classification / l ndstainəz kl sifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as ABO system Langerhans cells / l ŋəh ns selz/ plural noun cells on the outer layers of the skin Langers lines / l ŋəz lainz/ plural noun the arrangement of collagen protein fibres which causes the usual skin creases. Cuts made along these lines sever fewer fibres and heal better than other cuts. Also called cleavage lines lanolin / l nəlin/ noun grease from sheeps wool which absorbs water and is used to rub on dried skin, or in the preparation of cosmetics lanugo /lə nju əυ/ noun 1. soft hair on the body of a fetus or newborn baby 2. soft hair on the lance lancet lancinate lancinating Landsteiners classification | Langerhans cells Langers lines lanolin lanugo | Nursing.fm Page 166 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM laparo- 166 body of an adult, except on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet and the parts where long hair grows laparo- /l pərəυ/ prefix the lower abdomen laparoscope / l pərəskəυp/ noun a surgical instrument which is inserted through a hole in the abdominal wall to allow a surgeon to examine the inside of the abdominal cavity. Also called perilaparo- laparoscope toneoscope laryngoscope laryngoscope /lə riŋ əskəυp/ noun an instrument for examining the inside of the larynx using a light and mirrors laryngoscopy / l riŋ ɒskəpi/ noun an examination of the larynx with a laryngoscope | laryngoscopy | (NOTE: The plural is laryngoscopies.) laryngospasm /lə riŋ əsp zm/ noun a muslaryngospasm | cular spasm which suddenly closes the larynx laryngostenosis /lə riŋ əυstə nəυsis/ noun narrowing of the lumen of the larynx laryngostomy / l riŋ ɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a permanent opening from the neck into the larynx (NOTE: The plural is laryngostenosis | laparoscopic surgery laparoscopic surgery / l pərə skɒpik s d əri/ noun same as keyhole surgery laparoscopy / l pə rɒskəpi/ noun a procedure in which a laparoscope is used to examine the inside of the abdominal cavity. Also called | laparoscopy | peritoneoscopy (NOTE: The plural is laparoscopies.) laparotomy / l pə rɒtəmi/ noun a surgical laparotomy | operation to cut open the abdominal cavity (NOTE: The plural is laparotomies.) large intestine / lɑ d in testin/ noun the seclarge intestine | tion of the digestive system from the caecum to the rectum Lariam / l riəm/ a trade name for mefloquine hydrochloride laryng- /lərind / prefix same as laryngo- (used Lariam laryng- before vowels) laryngeal /lə rind iəl/ adjective referring to the laryngeal | larynx laryngeal inlet /lə rind iəl inlət/ noun the entrance from the laryngopharynx leading through the vocal cords to the trachea laryngeal prominence /lə rind iəl prɒminəns/ noun same as Adams apple laryngeal reflex /lə rind iəl ri fleks/ noun the reflex that makes a person cough laryngectomy / l rin d ektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the larynx, usually as treatment for throat cancer (NOTE: The plural is laryngeal inlet | laryngeal prominence | laryngeal reflex | laryngectomy | laryngectomies.) laryngismus laryngismus / l rin d izməs/, laryngismus stridulus /l rin d izməs stridjυləs/ noun a spasm of the throat muscles with a sharp intake of breath which occurs when the larynx is irritated, as in children who have croup laryngitis / l rin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the larynx laryngo- /ləriŋ əυ/ prefix larynx laryngology / l rin ɒləd i/ noun the study of diseases of the larynx, throat and vocal cords laryngomalacia /lə riŋ əυmə leiʃə/ noun a condition in which breathing is made difficult by softness of the larynx, occurring mainly in children under the age of two laryngopharyngeal /lə riŋn əυfə rind i l/ adjective referring to both the larynx and the pharynx laryngopharynx /ləriŋ əυ f riŋks/ noun the part of the pharynx below the hyoid bone | | laryngitis | laryngo- laryngology | laryngomalacia | | laryngopharyngeal | | laryngopharynx | | laryngostomy | laryngostomies.) laryngotomy / l riŋ ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical laryngotomy | operation to make an opening in the larynx through the membrane, especially in an emergency, when the throat is blocked (NOTE: The plural is laryngotomies.) laryngotracheal laryngotracheal /lə riŋ əυ treikiəl/ adjective relating to both the larynx and the trachea laryngotracheal stenosis laryngotracheobronchitis /lə riŋ əυ treikiəυbrɒŋ kaitis/ noun inflammation of the larynx, trachea and bronchi, as in croup larynx / l riŋks/ noun the organ in the throat which produces sounds. Also called voice box | | laryngotracheobronchitis | | | larynx (NOTE: The plural is larynges or larynxes.) laser / leizə/ noun an instrument which prolaser duces a highly concentrated beam of light which can be used to cut or attach tissue, as in operations for a detached retina laser laparoscopy / leizə l pə rɒskəpi/ noun surgery performed through a laparoscope using a laser laser probe / leizə prəυb/ noun a metal probe which is inserted into the body and through which a laser beam can be passed to remove a blockage in an artery laser surgery / leizə s d əri/ noun surgery using lasers, e.g. for the removal of tumours, sealing blood vessels, or the correction of shortsightedness Lasix / leiziks/ a trade name for frusemide Lassa fever / l sə fi və/ noun a highly infectious and often fatal virus disease found in Central and West Africa, causing high fever, pains, and ulcers in the mouth [After a village in northern laser laparoscopy | laser probe laser surgery Lasix Lassa fever Nigeria where the fever was first reported.] lassitude / l sitju d/ noun a state where a perlassitude son does not want to do anything, sometimes because he or she is depressed latent / leit(ə)nt/ adjective referring to a disease which is present in the body but does not show any signs The children were tested for latent viral infection. lateral / l t(ə)rəl/ adjective further away from the midline of the body latent lateral Nursing.fm Page 167 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 167 lateral aspect lateral aspect / l t(ə)rəl spekt/ noun a view of the side of part of the body. Also called lateral view. See illustration at ANATOMICAL in Supplement lateral epicondyle / l t(ə)rəl epi kɒndail/, TERMS lateral epicondyle | lateral epicondyle of the humerus / l t(ə)rəl epi kɒndail əv ðə hju mərəs/ noun a lateral | projection on the rounded end of the humerus at the elbow jointc lateral epicondylitis / l t(ə)rəl epikɒndi laitis/ noun same as tennis elbow laterally / l trəli/ adverb towards or on the side of the body. See illustration at ANATOMICAL lateral epicondylitis | laterally in Supplement lateral malleolus / l t(ə)rəl mə li ələs/ noun the part of the end of the fibula which protrudes on the outside of the ankle lateral view / l t(ə)rəl vju / noun same as TERMS lateral malleolus | lateral view lateral aspect lateroversion lateroversion / l t(ə)rəυ v ʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which an organ is turned to one side latissimus dorsi /lə tisiməs dɔ si/ noun a large flat triangular muscle covering the lumbar region and the lower part of the chest laudanum / lɔ d(ə)nəm/ noun a solution of opium in alcohol that was formerly in widespread use for pain relief laughing gas / lɑ fiŋ s/ noun same as | latissimus dorsi | laudanum laughing gas nitrous oxide (informal ) lavage / l vid , l vɑ / noun the act of washlavage | ing out or irrigating an organ such as the stomach laxative / l ksətiv/ adjective causing a bowel movement í noun a medicine which causes a bowel movement, e.g. bisacodyl, which stimulates intestinal motility, or lactulose which alters fluid retention in the bowel also called (all senses) purgative lazy eye / leizi ai/ noun an eye which does not focus properly without an obvious cause laxative lazy eye (informal ) amblyopia LD abbreviation lethal dose LDL abbreviation low-density lipoprotein L-dopa / el dəυpə/ noun same as levodopa LE abbreviation lupus erythematosus lead /led/ noun a very heavy soft metallic element, which is poisonous in compounds (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Pb.) lead poisoning / led pɔiz(ə)niŋ/ noun poiLD LDL L-dopa LE lead lead poisoning soning caused by taking in lead salts. Also called plumbism, saturnism learning / l niŋ/ noun the act of gaining learning knowledge of something or of how to do something learning disability / l niŋ disə biliti/, learning difficulty / l niŋ difik(ə)lti/ noun a condition that results in someone finding it difficult to learn skills or information at the same rate learning disability | lentigo as others of similar age children with learning disabilities LE cells / el i selz/ plural noun white blood cells which show that someone has lupus erythematosus lecithin / lesiθin/ noun a chemical which is a constituent of all animal and plant cells and is involved in the transport and absorption of fats leech /li tʃ/ noun a blood-sucking parasitic worm which lives in water, occasionally used in spet procedures leg /le / noun a part of the body with which a person or animal walks and stands Legg-Calvé disease / le k lvei di zi z/, k lvei Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease / le p tiz di zi z/ noun degeneration of the upper end of the thighbone in young boys, which prevents the bone growing properly and can result in a permanent limp [Described 1910 separately by LE cells lecithin leech leg Legg-Calvé disease | | all three workers. Arthur Thornton Legg (1874 1939), American orthopaedic surgeon; Jacques Calvé (18751954), French orthopaedic surgeon; Georg Clemens Perthes (18691927), German surgeon.] Legionnaires disease / li d ə neəz di zi z/ noun a bacterial disease similar to pneumonia leio- /leiəυ/ prefix smooth or smoothness leiomyoma / laiəυmai əυmə/ noun a tumour Legionnaires disease | | leio- leiomyoma | of smooth muscle, especially the smooth muscle coating the uterus (NOTE: The plural is leiomyomas or leiomyomata.) leiomyosarcoma / laiəυ maiəυsɑ kəυmə/ noun a sarcoma in which large bundles of smooth muscle are found (NOTE: The plural is leiomyosarcomas or leiomyosarcomata.) leishmaniasis / li ʃmə naiəsis/ noun a disleiomyosarcoma | | leishmaniasis | ease caused by the parasite Leishmania, one form of which causes disfiguring ulcers, while another attacks the liver and bone marrow Lemberts suture / lɑ mbeəz su tʃə/ noun a suture used to close a wound in the intestine which includes all the coats of the intestine Lemberts suture [Described 1826. After Antoine Lembert (1802 51), French surgeon.] lens /lenz/ noun 1. the part of the eye behind the lens iris and pupil, which focuses light coming from the cornea onto the retina. See illustration at EYE in Supplement 2. a piece of shaped glass or plastic which forms part of a pair of spectacles or microscope 3. same as contact lens lens implant / lenz implɑ nt/ noun an artificial lens implanted in the eye when the natural lens is removed, as in the case of cataract lenticular /len tikjυlə/ adjective referring to or like a lens lentigo /len tai əυ/ noun a small brown spot on the skin often caused by exposure to sunlight. Also called freckle (NOTE: The plural is lentigilens implant lenticular | lentigo | nes.) Nursing.fm Page 168 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM leontiasis 168 leontiasis leontiasis / li ɒn taiəsis/ noun a rare disorder in which the skull bones become enlarged and may give the appearance of a lions head. It occurs if Pagets disease is not treated. leprosy / leprəsi/ noun an infectious bacterial disease of skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which destroys the tissues and causes severe disfigurement if left untreated. Also called Hansens disease leptin / leptin/ noun a hormone produced by fat cells that signals the bodys level of hunger to the hypothalamus of the brain lepto- /leptəυ/ prefix thin leptocyte / leptəsait/ noun a thin red blood cell found in anaemia leptomeninges / leptəυme nind i z/ plural noun the two inner meninges, the pia mater and arachnoid leptomeningitis / leptəυmenin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the leptomeninges Leptospira / leptəυ spairə/ noun a genus of bacteria excreted continuously in the urine of rats and many domestic animals. It can infect humans, causing leptospirosis or Weils disease. leptospirosis / leptəυspai rəυsis/ noun an infectious disease caused by the spirochaete Leptospira, transmitted to humans from rat urine, causing jaundice and kidney damage. Also called | leprosy leptin lepto- leptocyte leptomeninges | leptomeningitis | Leptospira | leptospirosis | Weils disease lesbianism / lezbiəniz(ə)m/ noun sexual attraction in one woman for another. Compare homosexuality | lethargic | lethargy Letterer-Siwe disease | leucine leuco- leucocyte leucocytolysis | | leucocytosis | | leucoderma | | leuconychia | Lesch-Nyhan disease Lesch-Nyhan disease / leʃ naihən di zi z/, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome / leʃ naihən sindrəυm/ noun a rare genetic disorder in boys caused by a lack of the enzyme HPRT. Symptoms include uncontrolled muscle movements and learning disabilities, and life expectancy is 20 25. lesion / li (ə)n/ noun a wound, sore or damage to the body (NOTE: Lesion is used to refer to any | lesion damage to the body, from the fracture of a bone to a cut on the skin.) lesser / lesə/ adjective smaller lesser circulation / lesə s kjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as pulmonary circulation lesser trochanter / lesə trə k ntə/ noun a lesser lesser circulation | lesser trochanter | projection on the femur which is the insertion of the psoas major muscle lesser vestibular gland / lesə ve stibjυlə l nd/ noun the more anterior of the vestibular glands lethal / li θ(ə)l/ adjective killing or able to kill These fumes are lethal if inhaled. lethal dose / li θ(ə)l dəυs/ noun the amount of a drug or other substance which will kill the person who takes it She took a lethal dose of aspirin. Abbreviation LD lesser vestibular gland | lethal dose lethal gene / li θ(ə)l d i n/, lethal mutation / li θ(ə)l mju teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a gene, usually recessive, that results in the premature death of an individual who inherits it, e.g. the gene controlling sickle-cell anaemia lethargic /li θɑ d ik/ adjective showing lethargy lethargy / leθəd i/ noun a state in which someone is not mentally alert, has slow movements and is almost inactive Letterer-Siwe disease / letərə si wei di zi z/ noun a usually fatal disease, most common in infants, caused by the overproduction of a speed type of immune cell leucine / lu si n/ noun an essential amino acid leuco- /lu kəυ/, leuko- prefix white leucocyte / lu kəsait/, leukocyte noun a white blood cell which contains a nucleus but has no haemoglobin leucocytolysis / lu kəυsai tɒləsis/, leukocytolysis / lu kəsai tɒləsis/ noun destruction of leucocytes leucocytosis / lu kəυsai təυsis/, leukocytosis / lu kəsai təυsis/ noun an increase in the numbers of leucocytes in the blood above the usual upper limit, in order to fight an infection leucoderma / lu kəυ d mə/, leukoderma noun same as vitiligo leucolysin / lu kəυ laisin/, leukolysin noun a protein which destroys white blood cells leuconychia / lu kəυ nikiə/, leukonychia noun a condition in which white marks appear on the fingernails leucopenia / lu kə pi niə/, leukopenia noun a reduction in the number of leucocytes in the blood, usually as the result of a disease leucoplakia / lu kəυ pl kiə/, leukoplakia noun a condition in which white patches form on mucous membranes, e.g. on the tongue or inside of the mouth leucopoiesis / lu kəυpɔi i sis/, leukopoiesis noun the production of leucocytes leucorrhoea / lu kə ri ə/, leukorrhoea noun an excessive discharge of white mucus from the vagina. Also called whites (NOTE: The US spellleucolysin lesbianism lethal lethal gene leucopenia | leucoplakia | leucopoiesis | leucorrhoea | ing is leukorrhea.) leukaemia leukaemia /lu ki miə/ noun any of several malignant diseases where an unusual number of leucocytes form in the blood (NOTE: The US | spelling is leukemia.) leuko- /lu kəυ/ prefix same as leucolevator /lə veitə/ noun 1. a surgical instrument for lifting pieces of fractured bone 2. a muscle leuko- levator | which lifts a limb or a part of the body level of care / lev(ə)l əv keə/ noun any of the planned divisions within the system of health care which is offered by a particular organisation level of care Nursing.fm Page 169 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 169 Our care homes offer six different levels of care to allow the greatest independence possible. level one bed / lev(ə)l w n bed/ noun a bed occupied by a patient whose needs can be managed in a ward but who has an increased requirement for nursing support, e.g. a post-operative patient with fluctuating vital signs level three bed / lev(ə)l θri bed/ noun a bed occupied by a patient whose needs should not be managed in a ward, e.g. a patient intubated following a cardiac arrest level two bed / lev(ə)l tu bed/ noun a bed occupied by a patient whose needs would not normally be managed in a ward, e.g. a patient with a deteriorating condition awaiting transfer to a high-dependency unit levodopa / li və dəυpə/ noun a natural chemical that stimulates the production of dopamine in the brain and is used to treat Parkinsons disease levonorgestrel / li vəυnɔ d estrəl/ noun an artificially produced female sex hormone, used mostly in birth control pills or capsules Leydig cells / laidi selz/ plural noun testosterone-producing cells between the tubules in the testes. Also called interstitial cells [Described level one bed level three bed level two bed levodopa | levonorgestrel | Leydig cells 1850. After Franz von Leydig (18211908), Professor of Histology at Würzburg, Tübingen and then Bonn, Germany.] Leydig tumour / laidi tju mə/ noun a Leydig tumour tumour of the Leydig cells of the testis. It often releases testosterone, which makes young boys show early signs of maturing. l.g.v. abbreviation lymphogranuloma venereum LH abbreviation luteinising hormone libido /li bi dəυ/ noun 1. the sexual urge 2. (in psychology) a force which drives the unconscious mind Librium / libriəm/ a trade name for chlordiazepoxide lice /lais/ plural of louse lichen / laiken/ noun a type of skin disease with thick skin and small lesions lichenification /lai kenifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun a thickening of the skin at the site of a lesion lichen planus / laiken pleinəs/ noun a skin disease where itchy purple spots appear on the arms and thighs lid /lid/ noun the top which covers a container a medicine bottle with a child-proof lid lidocaine / laidəkein/ noun US a drug used as a local anaesthetic. Also called lignocaine lie /lai/ noun same as lie of fetus í verb to be in a flat position The accident victim was lying on the pavement. Make sure the patient lies still and does not move. (NOTE: lying lay lain) Lieberkühns glands / li bəku nz l ndz/ plural noun same as crypts of Lieberkühn l.g.v. LH libido | Librium lice lichen lichenification | lichen planus lid lidocaine lie Lieberkühns glands | light adaptation lien- lien- /laiən/ prefix spleen lienal / laiən(ə)l/ adjective relating to or affecting the spleen the lienal artery lienculus /lə eŋkjυləs/ noun a small secondary spleen sometimes found in the body (NOTE: The lienal lienculus | plural is lienculi.) lienorenal lienorenal / laiənəυ ri n(ə)l/ adjective relating to or affecting both the spleen and the kidneys lie of fetus / lai əv fi təs/ noun the position of the fetus in the uterus Cause of rupture: abnormal lie of fetus. life /laif/ noun the quality that makes a person or thing alive and not dead or inorganic The surgeons saved the patients life. Her life is in danger because the drugs are not available. The victim showed no sign of life. life event / laif i vent/ noun a significant event which alters a persons status as regards taxation, insurance or employment benefits, e.g. the birth of a child or the onset of a disability life expectancy / laif ik spektənsi/ noun the number of years a person of a particular age is likely to live life-support system / laif sə pɔ t sistəm/ noun a machine that takes over one or more vital functions such as breathing when someone is unable to survive unaided because of a disease or injury lift /lift/ noun 1. a particular way of carrying an a four-handed injured or unconscious person lift a shoulder lift 2. a cosmetic operation to remove signs of age or to change a body feature a face lift ligament / li əmənt/ noun a thick band of fibrous tissue which connects the bones at a joint and forms the joint capsule ligate / lai eit/ verb to tie something with a ligature, e.g. to tie a blood vessel to stop bleeding or to tie the Fallopian tubes as a sterilisation procedure (NOTE: ligating ligated) ligation /lai eiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to tie up a blood vessel ligature / li ətʃə/ noun a thread used to tie vessels or a lumen, e.g. to tie a blood vessel to stop bleeding í verb same as ligate (NOTE: ligatur| lie of fetus life life event | life expectancy | life-support system | lift ligament ligate ligation | ligature ing ligatured) light light /lait/ adjective 1. bright so that a person can see At six oclock in the morning it was just getting light. 2. referring to hair or skin which is very pale She has a very light complexion. He has light-coloured hair. 3. weighing a comparatively small amount í noun the energy that makes things bright and helps a person to see Theres not enough light in here to take a photo. light adaptation / lait d p teiʃ(ə)n/ noun changes in the eye to adapt to an unusually bright or dim light or to adapt to light after being in darkness light adaptation | Nursing.fm Page 170 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM lightening lightening lightening / laitəniŋ/ noun a late stage in pregnancy where the fetus goes down into the pelvic cavity lightning pains / laitniŋ peinz/ plural noun sharp pains in the legs in someone who has tabes dorsalis light reflex / lait ri fleks/ noun same as pupillightning pains light reflex lary reaction light therapy light therapy / lait θerəpi/, light treatment / lait tri tmənt/ noun the treatment of a disorder by exposing the person to light such as sunlight or infrared light lignocaine / li nəkein/ noun same as lidolignocaine caine limb /lim/ noun one of the legs or arms limbic system / limbik sistəm/ noun a syslimb limbic system tem of nerves in the brain, including the hippocampus, the amygdala and the hypothalamus, which are associated with emotions such as fear and anger limb lead / lim li d/ noun an electrode attached to an arm or leg when taking an electrocardiogram limb lengthening / lim leŋθəniŋ/ noun a procedure in which an arm or a leg is made longer. Its bone is divided in two and new bone forms in the gap between the ends. limbus / limbəs/ noun an edge, especially the edge of the cornea where it joins the sclera (NOTE: limb lead limb lengthening limbus The plural is limbi.) liminal / limin(ə)l/ adjective referring to a stimliminal ulus at the lowest level which can be sensed limp /limp/ noun a way of walking awkwardly because of pain, stiffness or malformation of a leg or foot She walks with a limp. í verb to walk awkwardly because of pain, stiffness or malformation of a leg or foot He was still limping three weeks after the accident. linctus / liŋktəs/ noun a sweet cough medicine linea nigra / liniə nai rə/ noun a dark line on the skin from the navel to the pubis which appears during the later months of pregnancy (NOTE: The limp linctus linea nigra plural is lineae nigrae.) linear linear / liniə/ adjective 1. long and narrow in shape 2. able to be represented by a straight line lingual / liŋ wəl/ adjective referring to the tongue lingual tonsil / liŋ wəl tɒns(ə)l/ noun a mass of lymphoid tissue on the top surface of the back of the tongue lingula / liŋ jυlə/ noun a long thin piece of bone or other tissue the lingula of the left lung lingual lingual tonsil lingula (NOTE: The plural is lingulae.) lingular / liŋ jυlə/ adjective relating to a linlingular gula liniment / linimənt/ noun an oily liquid rubbed on the skin to ease the pain or stiffness of a sprain liniment 170 or bruise by acting as a vasodilator or counterirritant. Also called embrocation lining / lainiŋ/ noun a substance or tissue on the inside of an organ the thick lining of the aorta link /liŋk/ verb 1. to join things together The ankle bone links the bones of the lower leg to the calcaneus. 2. to be related to or associated with something Health is linked to diet. linkage / liŋkid / noun (of genes) the fact of being close together on a chromosome, and therefore likely to be inherited together linoleic acid / linəυli ik sid/ noun one of the essential fatty acids, found in grains and seeds linolenic acid /linəυ lenik sid/ noun one of the essential fatty acids, found in linseed and other natural oils lint /lint/ noun thick flat cotton wadding, used as part of a surgical dressing lip /lip/ noun 1. each of two fleshy muscular parts round the edge of the mouth Her lips were dry and cracked. 2. same as labium lipaemia /li pi miə/ noun an excessive amount of fat in the blood (NOTE: The US spelling is lining link linkage linoleic acid linolenic acid | lint lip lipaemia | lipemia.) lipase / lipeiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down fats in the intestine. Also called lipolytic enzyme lipid / lipid/ noun an organic compound which is lipase lipid insoluble in water, e.g. a fat, oil or wax lipid metabolism / lipid mə t bəliz(ə)m/ noun the series of chemical changes by which lipids are broken down into fatty acids lipidosis / lipi dəυsis/ noun a disorder of lipid metabolism in which subcutaneous fat is not present in some parts of the body lipochondrodystrophy / lipəυ kɒndrəυ distrəfi/ noun a congenital disorder affecting lipid metabolism, the bones and the main organs, causing learning difficulties and physical deformity lipodystrophy / lipəυ distrəfi/ noun a disorder of lipid metabolism lipogenesis / lipəυ d enəsis/ noun the production or making of deposits of fat lipoid / lipɔid/ noun a compound lipid, or a fatty substance such as cholesterol which is like a lipid í adjective like a lipid lipoidosis / lipɔi dəυsis/ noun a group of diseases with reticuloendothelial hyperplasia and unusual deposits of lipoids in the cells lipolysis /li pɒlisis/ noun the process of breaking down fat by lipase lipolytic enzyme / lipəlitik enzaim/ noun same as lipase lipoma /li pəυmə/ noun a benign tumour formed of fatty tissue (NOTE: The plural is lipolipid metabolism | lipidosis | lipochondrodystrophy | lipodystrophy | lipogenesis | lipoid lipoidosis | lipolysis | lipolytic enzyme lipoma | mas or lipomata.) | Nursing.fm Page 171 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 171 lipoprotein lipoprotein / lipəυ prəυti n/ noun a protein which combines with lipids and carries them in the bloodstream and lymph system (NOTE: Lipo| proteins are classified according to the percentage of protein which they carry.) liposuction / lipəυ s kʃ(ə)n/ noun the surgiliposuction | cal removal of fatty tissue for cosmetic reasons lipping / lipiŋ/ noun a condition in which bone tissue grows over other bones lip salve / lip s lv/ noun an ointment, usually sold as a soft stick, used to rub on lips to prevent them cracking liquid diet / likwid daiət/ noun a diet consisting only of liquids The clear liquid diet is a temporary diet used in preparation for surgery. liquid paraffin / likwid p rəfin/ noun an oil used as a laxative liquor / likə/ noun (in pharmacy) a solution, usually aqueous, of a pure substance lisp /lisp/ noun a speech condition in which someone replaces s sounds with th í verb to talk with a lisp Listeria /li stiəriə/ noun a genus of bacteria found in domestic animals and in unpasteurised milk products which can cause uterine infection or meningitis listeriosis /li stiəri əυsis/ noun an infectious disease transmitted from animals to humans by the bacterium Listeria listlessness / listləsnəs/ noun the fact of being generally weak and tired liter / li tə/ noun US spelling of litre lith- /liθ/ prefix same as litho- (used before vowlipping lip salve liquid diet liquid paraffin liquor lisp Listeria | listeriosis | | listlessness liter lith- els) lithagogue lithagogue / liθə ɒ / noun a drug which helps to remove stones from the urine lithiasis /li θaiəsis/ noun the formation of stones in an organ lithium / liθiəm/ noun a soft silver-white metallic element that forms compounds, used as a medical treatment for bipolar disorder litho- /liθəυ/ prefix referring to a calculus litholapaxy /li θɒləp ksi/ noun the evacuation of pieces of a stone in the bladder after crushing it with a lithotrite. Also called lithotrity lithonephrotomy / liθəυnə frɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a stone in the kidney lithiasis | lithium litho- litholapaxy | lithonephrotomy | (NOTE: The plural is lithonephrotomies.) lithotomy /li θɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a stone from the bladder (NOTE: The plural is lithotomies.) lithotomy position /li θɒtəmi pə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun a position for some medical examinations in lithotomy | lithotomy position | | which the person lies on his or her back with the legs flexed and the thighs against the abdomen lithotripsy / liθətripsi/ noun the process of breaking up kidney or gall bladder stones into lithotripsy lobe small fragments that the body can eliminate them unaided lithotrite / liθətrait/ noun a surgical instrument which crushes a stone in the bladder lithotrity /li θɒtriti/ noun same as litholapaxy lithuresis / liθjυ ri sis/ noun the passage of small stones from the bladder during urination litmus / litməs/ noun a substance which turns red in acid and blue in alkali litmus paper / litməs peipə/ noun a small piece of paper impregnated with litmus, used to test for acidity or alkalinity litre / li tə/ noun a unit of measurement of liquids equal to 1.76 pints. Abbreviation l, L (NOTE: lithotrite lithotrity | lithuresis | litmus litmus paper litre With figures, usually written l or L: 2.5l, but it can be written in full to avoid confusion with the numeral 1. The US spelling is liter.) Littles area Littles area / lit(ə)lz eəriə/ noun an area of blood vessels in the nasal septum Littles disease / lit(ə)lz di zi z/ noun same as spastic diplegia [Described 1843. After WilLittles disease | liam John Little (181094), physician at the London Hospital, UK] liver liver / livə/ noun a large gland in the upper part of the abdomen. See illustration at DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in Supplement (NOTE: For other terms referring to the liver, see words beginning with hepat-, hepato-.) liver fluke liver fluke / livə flu k/ noun a parasitic flatworm which can infest the liver liver spot / livə spɒt/ noun a little brown patch on the skin of the backs of the hands, attributed to sun damage (NOTE: Liver spots are unconnected liver spot with any liver disorder.) liver transplant liver transplant / livə tr nsplɑ nt/ noun a surgical operation to give a person the liver of another person who has died livid / livid/ adjective referring to skin with a blue colour because of being bruised or because of asphyxiation living will / liviŋ wil/ noun a document signed by a person while in good health to specify the decisions he or she wishes to be taken about medical treatment if he or she becomes incapable of making or communicating them LMC abbreviation local medical committee lobar / ləυbə/ adjective referring to a lobe lobar bronchi / ləυbə brɒŋki / plural noun air passages supplying a lobe of a lung. Also called livid living will LMC lobar lobar bronchi secondary bronchi lobar pneumonia lobar pneumonia / ləυbə nju məυniə/ noun pneumonia which affects one or more lobes of the lung lobe /ləυb/ noun a rounded section of an organ such as the brain, lung or liver. See illustration at LUNGS in Supplement | lobe Nursing.fm Page 172 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM lobectomy 172 lobectomy lobectomy /ləυ bektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove one of the lobes of an organ such as the lung The plural is lobectomies. lobotomy /ləυ bɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation formerly used to treat mental illness by cutting into a lobe of the brain to cut the nerve fibres | lobotomy | (NOTE: The plural is lobotomies.) lobular / lɒbjυlə/ adjective relating to a lobule lobular lobular carcinoma lobule / lɒbju l/ noun a small section of a lobe in the lung, formed of acini local / ləυk(ə)l/ adjective 1. referring to a separate place 2. confined to one part í noun same as lobule local local anaesthetic local anaesthesia local anaesthesia / ləυk(ə)l nəs θi ziə/ noun loss of feeling in a single part of the body local anaesthetic / ləυk(ə)l nəs θetik/ noun an anaesthetic such as lignocaine which | loculated loculated / lɒkjυleitid/ adjective referring to an organ or a growth which is divided into many compartments a loculated renal abscess locule / lɒkju l/ noun same as loculus loculus / lɒkjυləs/ noun a small space in an organ (NOTE: The plural is loculi.) locum / ləυkəm/ noun a healthcare professional such as a doctor or pharmacist who takes the place of another for a time. Also called locum tenens locum tenens / ləυkəm tenənz/ noun same as locum (NOTE: The plural is locum tenentes.) locus / ləυkəs/ noun 1. an area or point where an infection or disease is to be found 2. a position on a chromosome occupied by a gene (NOTE: The locule loculus locum locum tenens locus plural is loci.) lofepramine locking joint lofepramine /lɒ feprəmi n/ noun an antidepressant drug log roll / lɒ rəυl/ noun a method of turning people in bed onto their side by putting them into a straight position and pulling on the sheet under them logrolling / lɒ rəυliŋ/ noun the process of moving a person who is lying down into another position using the log roll method -logy /ləd i/ suffix 1. science or study psychology embryology 2. speech or expression loin /lɔin/ noun the lower back part of the body above the buttocks Lomotil /ləυ məυtil/ a trade name for a preparation containing diphenoxalate longitudinal / lɒŋ i tju din(ə)l/ adjective 1. positioned lengthwise 2. in the direction of the long axis of the body longitudinal arch / lɒŋ itju din(ə)l ɑ tʃ/ noun same as plantar arch longitudinal lie / lɒŋ itju din(ə)l lai/ noun the usual position of a fetus, lying along the axis of the mothers body longitudinal study / lɒŋ itju din(ə)l st di/ noun a study of individuals or groups of people and of how some aspect such as their health or education changes over a long time longsighted / lɒŋ saitid/ adjective able to see clearly things which are far away but not things which are close longsightedness / lɒŋ saitidnəs/ noun the condition of being longsighted. Also called lockjaw hypermetropia loo /lu / noun a toilet, or a room containing a toilet (informal ) to go to the loo to urinate or def- local anaesthetic | removes the feeling in a single part of the body only The surgeon removed the growth under local anaesthetic. localise / ləυkəlaiz/, localize verb 1. to restrict the spread of something to a specific area 2. to find where something is 3. to transfer power from a central authority to local organisations (NOTE: localise localising localised) localised / ləυkəlaizd/, localized adjective localised referring to an infection which occurs in one part of the body only. Opposite generalised local supervising authority / ləυk(ə)l su pəvaiziŋ ɔ θɒriti/ noun an organisation which controls midwife services within its area lochia / lɒki/ noun a discharge from the vagina after childbirth or abortion lochiometra / lɒkiəmi trə/ noun a condition in which lochia remains in the uterus after a baby is born, making it swollen lock /lɒk/ verb to fix something in a position locked-in syndrome / lɒkt in sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which only the eyes and eyelids can move although the person is fully alert and conscious. It results from severe damage to the brain stem. locked knee / lɒkt ni / noun a condition in which a piece of the cartilage in the knee slips out of position. The symptom is a sharp pain, and the knee remains permanently bent. locking joint / lɒkiŋ d ɔint/ noun a joint which can be locked in an extended position, e.g. the knee or elbow lockjaw / lɒkjɔ / noun same as tetanus (dated local supervising authority | lochia lochiometra lock locked-in syndrome locked knee informal ) | log roll logrolling -logy loin Lomotil | longitudinal | longitudinal arch longitudinal lie longitudinal study longsighted | longsightedness | loo ecate loop /lu p/ noun 1. a curve or bend in a line, especially one of the particular curves in a fingerprint 2. a curved piece of wire placed in the uterus to prevent contraception loop of Henle / lu p əv henli/ noun a curved tube which forms the main part of a nephron in the kidney loop locomotion locomotion / ləυkə məυʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact of being able to move locomotor / ləυkə məυtə/ adjective relating to locomotion locomotor ataxia / ləυkə məυtər ə t ksiə/ noun same as tabes dorsalis | locomotor | locomotor ataxia | | loop of Henle Nursing.fm Page 173 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 173 loperamide loperamide /ləυ perəmaid/, loperamide haidrəυ hydrochloride /ləυ perəmaid klɔ raid/ noun a drug that relieves severe diar| | | rhoea by slowing down the movements of the intestine loratidine /lɒr tidi n/ noun an antihistamine drug lorazepam /lɔ r zip m/ noun a mild tranquilliser that people often receive before surgery to lessen anxiety lordosis /lɔ dəυsis/ noun excessive forward curvature of the lower part of the spine. kypholoratidine | lorazepam | lordosis | lumbar region lumbar region / l mbə ri d ən/ noun the two parts of the abdomen on each side of the umbilical region lumbar vertebra / l mbə v tibrə/ plural noun each of the five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum lumbo- /l mbəυ/ prefix the lumbar region lumbosacral / l mbəυ seikrəl/ adjective referring to both the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum lumbosacral joint / l mbəυ seikrəl d ɔint/ noun a joint at the bottom of the back between the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum lumen / lu min/ noun 1. an SI unit of light emitted per second 2. the inside width of a passage in the body or of an instrument such as an endoscope lump /l mp/ noun a mass of hard tissue which rises on the surface or under the surface of the skin He has a lump where he hit his head on the low door. She noticed a lump in her right breast and went to see the doctor. lumpectomy /l m pektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a hard mass of tissue such as a breast tumour, leaving the surrounding tissue intact (NOTE: The plural is lumpectomies.) lunate / lu neit bəυn/, lunate bone noun one of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement Lund and Browder chart / l nd ən braυdə tʃɑ t/ noun a chart for calculating the surface area of a burn lung /l ŋ/ noun one of two organs of respiration in the body into which air is sucked when a person breathes (NOTE: For other terms referring to the lumbar vertebra lumbo- lumbosacral | | lordotic /lɔ dɒtik/ adjective referring to lordosis lotion / ləυʃ(ə)n/ noun a medicinal liquid used to rub on the skin a mild antiseptic lotion louse /laυs/ noun a small insect of the Pediculus genus, which sucks blood and lives on the skin as a parasite on animals and humans (NOTE: The | lotion louse plural is lice.) low-density lipoprotein low-density lipoprotein / ləυ densiti lipəυprəυti n/ noun a lipoprotein with a large percentage of cholesterol which deposits fats in muscles and arteries. Abbreviation LDL lower motor neurones / ləυə məυtə njυərəυnz/ plural noun linked neurones which carry motor impulses from the spinal cord to the muscles lozenge / lɒzind / noun a sweet medicinal tablet She was sucking a cough lozenge. LRCP abbreviation licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians LSA abbreviation local supervising authority LSD abbreviation lysergic acid diethylamide lubb-dupp / l b d b/ noun two sounds made by the heart, which represent each cardiac cycle when heard through a stethoscope lubricant / lu brikənt/ noun a fluid which lubricates lubricate / lu brikeit/ verb to cover something with a fluid to reduce friction (NOTE: lubricating lower motor neurones lozenge LRCP LSA LSD lubb-dupp lubricant lubricate lubricated) lumen lump lumpectomy | lunate Lund and Browder chart lung lungs, see words beginning with bronch-, broncho-, pneum-, pneumo-, pneumon-, pneumono-, pulmo-.) lunula / lu njυlə/ noun a curved white mark at the base of a fingernail (NOTE: The plural is lunulae.) lupus / lu pəs/ noun a persistent skin disease, of lunula lupus which there are several unrelated types lupus erythematosus / lu pəs eriθi mə təυsəs/ noun an inflammatory disease of connective tissue of which the more serious, systemic, form affects the heart, joints and blood vessels. Abbreviation LE lupus vulgaris / lu pəs v l eəris/ noun a form of tuberculosis of the skin in which red spots appear on the face and become infected lutein / lu tiin/ noun a yellow pigment in the corpus luteum luteinising hormone / lu tiinaiziŋ hɔ məυn/, luteinizing hormone noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum in females and of testosterone in males. Abbrevialupus erythematosus lucid lucid / lu sid/ adjective with a clearly working mind In spite of the pain, he was still lucid. lucid interval / lu sid intəv(ə)l/ noun a period of clear thinking which occurs between two periods of unconsciousness or of mental illness lumbago /l m bei əυ/ noun pain in the lower back (informal ) She has been suffering from lumbago for years. He has had an attack of lumbago. lumbar / l mbə/ adjective referring to the lower part of the back lumbar puncture / l mbə p ŋktʃə/ noun a surgical operation to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a hollow needle into the lucid interval lumbago | lumbar puncture lower part of the spinal canal. Also called spinal puncture lumbosacral joint sis lordotic lumbar luteinising hormone | lupus vulgaris | lutein luteinising hormone Nursing.fm Page 174 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM luteo- 174 tion LH. Also called interstitial cell stimulating hormone luteo- luteo- /lu tiəυ/ prefix 1. yellow 2. corpus luteum luxation /l k seiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as dislocaluxation | tion lymphangioplasty lymphangioplasty /limf nd iəpl sti/ noun a surgical operation to make artificial lymph channels (NOTE: The plural is lymphangioplast| ies.) lymphangitis lymphangitis / limf n d aitis/ noun inflammation of the lymph vessels lymphatic /lim f tik/ adjective referring to lymph lymphatic capillary /lim f tik kə piləri/ plural noun any of the capillaries which lead from tissue and join lymphatic vessels lymphatic duct /lim f tik d kt/ noun the main channel for carrying lymph lymphatic node /lim f tik nəυd/ noun same as lymph gland lymphatic nodule /lim f tik nɒdju l/ noun a small lymph node found in clusters in tissues lymphatics /lim f tiks/ plural noun lymph vessels lymphatic system /lim f tik sistəm/ noun a series of vessels which transport lymph from the tissues through the lymph nodes and into the bloodstream lymphatic vessel /lim f tik ves(ə)l/ noun a tube which carries lymph round the body from the tissues to the veins lymph duct / limf d kt/ noun any channel carrying lymph lymph gland / limf l nd/, lymph node / limf nəυd/ noun a mass of lymphoid tissue situated in various points of the lymphatic system, especially under the armpits and in the groin, through which lymph passes and in which lymphocytes are produced. Also called lymphatic | Lyme disease Lyme disease / laim di zi z/ noun a viral disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by bites from deer ticks. It causes rashes, nervous pains, paralysis and, in extreme cases, death. lymph /limf/ noun a colourless liquid containing white blood cells which circulates in the lymph system from all body tissues, carrying waste matter away from tissues to the veins. Also called | lymph lymph fluid COMMENT: Lymph drains from the tissues through capillaries into lymph vessels. It is formed of water, protein and white blood cells (lymphocytes). Waste matter such as infection in the lymph is filtered out and destroyed as it passes through the lymph nodes, which then add further lymphocytes to the lymph before it continues in the system. It eventually drains into the brachiocephalic (innominate) veins, and joins the venous bloodstream. Lymph is not pumped round the body like blood but moves by muscle pressure on the lymph vessels and by the negative pressure of the large veins into which the vessels empty. Lymph is an essential part of the bodys defence against infection. lymph- lymph- /limf/ prefix meaning same as lympho(used before vowels) lymphaden- lymphaden- /limf dən/ prefix relating to the lymph nodes lymphadenectomy / limf də nektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a lymph node lymphadenectomy | (NOTE: The plural is lymphadenectomies.) lymphadenitis lymphadenitis / limf də naitis/ noun inflammation of the lymph nodes lymphadenoma / limf də nəυmə/ noun same as lymphoma lymphadenopathy / limf də nɒpəθi/ noun any unusual condition of the lymph nodes (NOTE: | lymphadenoma | lymphadenopathy | The plural is lymphadenopathies.) lymphangi- lymphangi- /limf nd i/ prefix lymphatic vessel lymphangiectasis / limf nd i ektəsis/ noun swelling of the smaller lymph vessels as a result of obstructions in larger vessels lymphangiography / limf nd i ɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the lymph vessels following introduction of radio-opaque material lymphangiectasis | lymphangiography | (NOTE: The plural is lymphangiographies.) lymphangioma lymphangioma / limf nd i əυmə/ noun a benign tumour formed of lymph tissues (NOTE: | The plural is lymphangiomas or lymphangiomata.) lymphatic | lymphatic capillary | | lymphatic duct | lymphatic node | lymphatic nodule | lymphatics | lymphatic system | lymphatic vessel | lymph duct lymph gland node lympho- lympho- /limfəυ/ prefix meaning lymph lymphoblast / limfəυbl st/ noun an unusual cell which forms in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia as a result of the change which takes place in a lymphocyte on contact with an antigen lymphoblastic / limfəυ bl stik/ adjective referring to lymphoblasts, or forming lymphocytes lymphocele / limfəsi l/ noun a cyst containing lymph from injured or diseased lymph nodes or ducts lymphocyte / limfəsait/ noun a type of mature leucocyte or white blood cell formed by the lymph nodes and concerned with the production of antibodies lymphocytopenia / limfəυ saitəυ pi niə/ noun same as lymphopenia lymphocytosis / limfəυsai təυsis/ noun an increased number of lymphocytes in the blood lymphoedema / limfəυi di mə/ noun a swelling caused by obstruction of the lymph vessels or unusual development of lymph vessels (NOTE: lymphoblast lymphoblastic | lymphocele lymphocyte lymphocytopenia | lymphocytosis | lymphoedema | The US spelling is lymphedema.) | Nursing.fm Page 175 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 175 lymphogranuloma venereum lymphogranuloma venereum / limfəυ r njυ ləυmə və niərəm/ noun a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that causes swelling of the genital lymph nodes and, especially in men, a genital ulcer. Abbreviation l.g.v. lymphoid tissue / limfɔid tiʃu / noun tissue in the lymph nodes, the tonsils and the spleen where masses of lymphocytes are supported by a network of reticular fibres and cells lymphokine / limfəυkain/ noun a protein produced by lymphocytes that has an effect on other cells in the immune system. cytokine lymphoma /lim fəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour arising from lymphoid tissue. Also called | | | lymphoid tissue lymphokine lymphoma | lymphadenoma (NOTE: The plural is lymphomas or lymphomata.) lymphopenia lymphopenia / limfəυ pi niə/ noun a reduction in the number of lymphocytes in the blood. Also called lymphocytopenia lymphopoiesis / limfəυpɔi i sis/ noun the production of lymphocytes or lymphoid tissue lymph vessel / limf ves(ə)l/ noun one of the tubes which carry lymph round the body from the tissues to the veins | lymphopoiesis | lymph vessel lysozyme lyophilisation lyophilisation /lai ɒfilai zeiʃ(ə)n/, lyophilization noun the act of preserving tissue, plasma or serum by freeze-drying it in a vacuum lysergic acid diethylamide /lai s d ik sid dai eθiləmaid/ noun a powerful hallucinogenic drug which can cause psychosis. Abbreviation LSD lysin / laisin/ noun 1. a protein in the blood which destroys the cell against which it is directed 2. a toxin which causes the lysis of cells lysine / laisi n/ noun an essential amino acid lysis / laisis/ noun 1. the destruction of a cell by a lysin, in which the membrane of the cell is destroyed 2. a reduction in a fever or disease slowly over a period of time -lysis /lisis/ suffix referring to processes which involve breaking up or decaying, or to objects which are doing this haemolysis lysosome / laisəsəυm/ noun a particle in a cell which contains enzymes which break down substances such as bacteria which enter the cell lysozyme / laisəzaim/ noun an enzyme found in the whites of eggs and in tears, which destroys specific bacteria | | lysergic acid diethylamide | | lysin lysine lysis -lysis lysosome lysozyme Nursing.fm Page 176 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM M m m symbol 1. metre 2. milliM symbol megaMAAG abbreviation medical audit advisory group maceration / m sə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of softening a solid by letting it lie in a liquid so that the soluble matter dissolves Mackenrodts ligaments / m kənrəυdz li əmənts/ plural noun same as cardinal ligaM MAAG maceration | Mackenrodts ligaments ments Macmillan nurse Macmillan nurse /mək milən n s/ noun a nurse who spees in cancer care and is employed by the organisation Macmillan Cancer Relief macro- /m krəυ/ prefix large. Opposite micromacrobiotic / m krəυbai ɒtik/ adjective referring to food which has been produced naturally without artificial additives or preservatives macrocephaly / m krəυ kefəli/ noun the condition of having an unusually large head macrocheilia / m krəυ kailiə/ noun the condition of having large lips macrocyte / m krəυsait/ noun an unusually large red blood cell found in people who have pernicious anaemia macrocythaemia /m krəυsai θi miə/ noun same as macrocytosis macrocytic / m krəυ sitik/ adjective referring to macrocytes macrocytic anaemia / m krəυsitik ə ni miə/ noun anaemia in which someone has unusually large red blood cells macrocytosis / m krəυsai təυsis/ noun the condition of having macrocytes in the blood. Also called macrocythaemia macrodactyly / m krəυ d ktili/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually large or long fingers or toes macroglobulin / m krəυ lɒbjυlin/ noun a class of immunoglobulin, a globulin protein of high molecular weight, which serves as an antibody macroglossia / m krəυ lɒsiə/ noun the condition of having an unusually large tongue | macro- macrobiotic | macrocephaly | macrocheilia | macrocyte macrocythaemia | macrocytic | macrocytic anaemia | macrocytosis | macrodactyly | macroglobulin | macroglossia | macrognathia macrognathia / m krəυ neiθiə/ noun a condition in which the jaw is larger than usual macromastia / m krəυ m stiə/ noun overdevelopment of the breasts macronutrient / m krəυ nju triənt/ noun a substance which an organism needs in large amounts for normal growth and development, e.g. nitrogen, carbon or potassium. Compare micro| macromastia | macronutrient | nutrient macrophage macrophage / m krəυfeid / noun any of several large cells which destroy inflammatory tissue, found in connective tissue, wounds, lymph nodes and other parts macroscopic / m krəυ skɒpik/ adjective able to be seen with the naked eye macrosomia / m krəυ səυmiə/ noun a condition in which the body grows too much macrostomia / m krəυ stəυmiə/ noun a condition in which the mouth is too wide because the bones of the upper and lower jaw have not fused, either on one or on both sides macula / m kjυlə/ noun 1. same as macule 2. a small coloured area, e.g. a macula lutea macula lutea / m kjυlə lu tiə/ noun a yellow spot on the retina, surrounding the fovea, the part of the eye which sees most clearly. Also called macroscopic | macrosomia | macrostomia | macula macula lutea yellow spot macular / m kjυlə/ adjective referring to a macular macula macular degeneration / m kjυlə di d enə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun an eye disorder in elderly people in which fluid leaks into the retina and destroys cones and rods, reducing central vision macule / m kju l/ noun a small flat coloured spot on the skin. Compare papule maculopapular / m kjυləυ p pjυlə/ adjective made up of both macules and papules maculopapular rash mad cow disease / m d kaυ di zi z/ noun same as bovine spongiform encephalopathy macular degeneration | | macule maculopapular | mad cow disease | (informal ) Magendies foramen Magendies foramen /mə d endiz fə reimen/ noun an opening in the fourth ventricle of the brain which allows cerebrospinal fluid to flow [Described 1828. After François Magendie | | Nursing.fm Page 177 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 177 (17831855), French physician and physiologist.] magnesium /m ni ziəm/ noun a chemical magnesium | element found in green vegetables, which is essential especially for the correct functioning of muscles (NOTE: The chemical symbol is Mg.) magnesium sulphate /m ni ziəm s lfeit/ noun a magnesium salt used as a laxative. Also called Epsom salts magnesium trisilicate /m ni ziəm trai silikət/ noun a magnesium compound used to treat peptic ulcers magnetic /m netik/ adjective able to attract objects, like a magnet magnetic field /m netik fi ld/ noun an area round an object which is under the influence of the magnetic force exerted by the object magnetic resonance imaging /m netik rezənəns imid iŋ/ noun a scanning technique which exposes the body to a strong magnetic field and uses the electromagnetic signals emitted by the body to form an image of soft tissue and cells. Abbreviation MRI magnum / m nəm/ ‘ foramen magnum main bronchi / mein brɒŋki / plural noun the two main air passages which branch from the trachea outside the lung. Also called primary bronmagnesium sulphate | magnesium trisilicate | | magnetic | magnetic field | magnetic resonance imaging | magnum main bronchi chi malleus malarial malarial /mə leəriəl/ adjective referring to malaria malarial parasite /mə leəriəl p rəsait/ noun a parasite transmitted into the human bloodstream by the bite of the female anopheles mosquito malarial therapy /mə leəriə θerəpi/ noun a treatment in which a person is given a form of malaria in the belief that the high fevers they experience can stimulate the immune system to fight off serious diseases such as syphilis and HIV male menopause / meil menəpɔ z/ noun a period in middle age when a man may feel insecure and anxious about the fact that his physical powers are declining (informal ) malformation / m lfɔ meiʃ(ə)n/ noun an unusual variation in the shape, structure or development of something malfunction /m l f ŋkʃən/ noun a situation in which a particular organ does not work in the usual way Her loss of consciousness was due to a malfunction of the kidneys or to a kidney malfunction. malignancy /mə li nənsi/ noun 1. the state of being malignant The tests confirmed the malignancy of the growth. 2. a cancerous growth | malarial parasite | malarial therapy | male menopause malformation | malfunction | malignancy | (NOTE: The plural is malignancies.) malignant /mə li nənt/ adjective likely to malignant | major surgery major surgery / meid ə s d əri/ noun surgical operations involving important organs in the body mal /m l/ noun an illness or disease mal- /m l/ prefix bad or unusual malabsorption / m ləb sɔ pʃən/ noun a situation where the intestines are unable to absorb the fluids and nutrients in food properly malabsorption syndrome / m ləb sɔ pʃən sindrəυm/ noun a group of symptoms and signs, including malnutrition, anaemia, oedema and dermatitis, which results from steatorrhoea and malabsorption of vitamins, protein, carbohydrates and water malacia /mə leiʃə/ noun the pathological softening of an organ or tissue malaise /mə leiz/ noun a feeling of discomfort malaligned / m lə laind/ adjective not in the correct position relative to other parts of the body malalignment / m lə lainmənt/ noun a condition in which something is malaligned, especially in which a tooth is not in its correct position in the mouth malar / meilə/ adjective referring to the cheek malar bone / meilə bəυn/ noun same as mal mal- malabsorption | malabsorption syndrome | malacia | malaise | malaligned | malalignment | malar malar bone cheekbone malaria /mə leəriə/ noun a mainly tropical dismalaria | ease caused by a parasite Plasmodium, which enters the body after a bite from the female anopheles mosquito cause death or serious disablement if not properly treated malignant hypertension /mə li nənt haipə tenʃən/ noun dangerously high blood pressure malignant melanoma /mə li nənt melə nəυmə/ noun a dark tumour which develops on the skin from a mole, caused by exposure to strong sunlight malignant pustule /mə li nənt p stju l/ noun a pus-filled swelling that results from infection of the skin with anthrax malignant tumour /mə li nənt tju mə/ noun a tumour which is cancerous and can grow again or spread into other parts of the body, even if removed surgically. Opposite benign tumour malingerer /mə liŋ ərə/ noun a person who pretends to be ill malingering /mə liŋ əriŋ/ adjective the act of pretending to be ill malleolar /mə li ələ/ adjective referring to a malleolus malleolus /mə li ələs/ noun one of two bony prominences at each side of the ankle (NOTE: The malignant hypertension | | malignant melanoma | | malignant pustule | malignant tumour | malingerer | malingering | malleolar | malleolus | plural is malleoli.) mallet finger mallet finger / m lit fiŋ ə/ noun a finger which cannot be straightened because the tendon attaching the top joint has been torn malleus / m liəs/ noun the largest of the three ossicles in the middle ear, shaped like a hammer. See illustration at EAR in Supplement malleus Nursing.fm Page 178 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM Mallory bodies 178 Mallory bodies Mallory bodies / m ləri bɒdiz/ plural noun large irregular masses which occur in the cytoplasm of damaged liver cells, often a sign of an alcohol-related disease Mallory-Weiss syndrome / m ləri vais sindrəυm/, Mallory-Weiss tear / m ləri vais teə/ noun a condition in which there is a tearing in the mucous membrane where the stomach and oesophagus join, e.g. because of strain on them due to vomiting [Described 1929. After G. KenMallory-Weiss syndrome neth Mallory (190086), Professor of Pathology, Boston University, USA; Konrad Weiss (1898 1942) US physician.] malnourished malnourished /m l n riʃt/ adjective not having enough to eat or having only poor-quality food, leading to ill-health malnutrition / m lnjυ triʃ(ə)n/ noun a lack of food or of good-quality food, leading to ill-health malocclusion / m lə klu (ə)n/ noun a condition in which the teeth in the upper and lower jaws do not meet properly when the persons mouth is closed malodorous /m l əυdərəs/ adjective with a strong unpleasant smell Malpighian body /m l pi iən bɒdi/, Malpighian corpuscle /m l pi iən kɔ p s(ə)l/ noun same as renal corpuscle [Described 1666. | malnutrition | malocclusion | malodorous | Malpighian body | | After Marcello Malpighi (162894), anatomist and physiologist in Rome and Bologna, Italy.] Malpighian glomerulus Malpighian glomerulus /m l pi iən lɒ merυləs/ noun same as Bowmans capsule Malpighian layer /m l pi iən leiə/ noun the deepest layer of the epidermis malposition / m lpə ziʃ(ə)n/ noun an unusual or unexpected position of something such as a fetus in the uterus or fractured bones malpractice /m l pr ktis/ noun illegal, unethical, negligent or immoral behaviour by a professional person, especially a healthcare professional The surgeon was found guilty of malpractice. malpresentation / m lprez(ə)n teiʃ(ə)n/ noun an unusual position of a fetus in the uterus just before it is ready to be born Malta fever / mɔ ltə fi və/ noun same as bru| | Malpighian layer | malposition | malpractice | malpresentation | Malta fever cellosis mamm- /m m/ prefix same as mammo- (used before vowels) mamma mamma / m mə/ noun same as breast (NOTE: The plural is mammae.) mammary mammary / m məri/ adjective referring to the breast mammary gland / m məri l nd/ noun a gland in female mammals which produces milk mammilla /mə milə/, mamilla noun the protruding part in the centre of the breast, containing the milk ducts through which the milk flows. Also called nipple mammillary / m mil(ə)ri/, mamillary adjective referring to the nipple mammo- /m məυ/ prefix referring to breasts mammogram / m mə r m/ noun a picture of a breast made using a special X-ray technique mammography /m mɒ rəfi/ noun examination of the breast using a special X-ray technique mammoplasty / m məpl sti/ noun plastic surgery to alter the shape or size of the breasts Manchester operation / m ntʃistər ɒpə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun a surgical operation to correct downward movement of the uterus, involving removal of the cervix mandible / m ndib(ə)l/ noun the lower bone in the jaw. Also called lower jaw mandibular /m n dibjυlə/ adjective referring to the lower jaw mane / meini/ adverb (used on prescriptions) during the daytime. Opposite nocte manganese / m ŋ əni z/ noun a metallic trace element (NOTE: The chemical symbol is mammary gland mammilla | mammillary mammo- mammogram mammography | mammoplasty Manchester operation | mandible mandibular | mane manganese Mn.) mania mania / meiniə/ noun a state of bipolar disorder in which the person is excited, very sure of his or her own abilities and has increased energy -mania /meiniə/ suffix obsession with something maniac / meini k/ noun a person who behaves in an uncontrolled way or is considered to have an obsession (NOTE: This term is regarded as offen-mania maniac sive.) manic manic / m nik/ adjective referring to mania manic depression / m nik di preʃ(ə)n/ noun same as bipolar disorder manic-depressive / m nik di presiv/ adjective relating to bipolar disorder í noun a person with bipolar disorder manic-depressive illness / m nik di presiv ilnəs/, manic-depressive psychosis / m nik di presiv sai kəυsis/ noun same as manic depression | maltase maltase / mɔ lteiz/ noun an enzyme in the small intestine which converts maltose into glucose maltose / mɔ ltəυs/ noun a sugar formed by digesting starch or glycogen malunion /m l ju njən/ noun a bad join of the pieces of a broken bone mamilla /mə milə/ noun another spelling of maltose malunion | mamilla | mammilla mamillary mamm- mamillary / m mil(ə)ri/ adjective another spelling of mammillary manic-depressive | manic-depressive illness | | | bipolar disorder manifestation manifestation / m nife steiʃ(ə)n/ noun a sign, indication or symptom of a disease manipulation /mə nipjυ leiʃ(ə)n/ noun a form of treatment that involves moving or rubbing | manipulation | | Nursing.fm Page 179 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 179 parts of the body with the hands, e.g. to treat a disorder of a joint manometer /mə nɒmitə/ noun an instrument for comparing pressures manometry /mə nɒmitri/ noun the measurement of pressures within organs of the body which contain gases or liquids, e.g. the oesophagus or parts of the brain Mantoux test / m ntu test/ noun a test for tuberculosis, in which a person is given an intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Heaf test manometer | manometry | Mantoux test [Described 1908. After Charles Mantoux (1877 1947), French physician.] manual / m njuəl/ adjective done by hand manubrium sterni /mə nu briəm st nai/ noun the upper part of the sternum MAO abbreviation monoamine oxidase MAOI abbreviation monoamine oxidase inhibimanual manubrium sterni | MAO MAOI tor MAO inhibitor / em ei əυ in hibitə/ noun same as monoamine oxidase inhibitor maple syrup urine disease / meip(ə)l sirəp jυərin di zi z/ noun an inherited condition caused by not having enough of a particular enzyme which helps the body to deal with amino acid. The urine smells like maple syrup. It can be fatal if not treated. marasmus /mə r zməs/ noun a wasting disease which affects small children who have difficulty in absorbing nutrients or who are malnourished. Also called failure to thrive marble bone disease / mɑ b(ə)l bəυn di zi z/ noun same as osteopetrosis march fracture / mɑ tʃ fr ktʃə/ noun a fracture of one of the metatarsal bones in the foot, caused by excessive exercise to which the body is not accustomed Marfans syndrome / mɑ fɑ nz sindrəυm/, Marfan syndrome / mɑ fɑ n sindrəυm/ noun a hereditary condition in which a person has extremely long fingers and toes, with disorders of the heart, aorta and eyes [Described 1896. After MAO inhibitor | maple syrup urine disease | marasmus | marble bone disease | march fracture Marfans syndrome Bernard Jean Antonin Marfan (18581942), French paediatrician.] marijuana / m ri wɑ nə/ noun same as cannabis marker / mɑ kə/ noun 1. something which acts an indicator of something else 2. a substance marijuana | marker introduced into the body to make internal structures clearer to X-rays marrow / m rəυ/ noun soft tissue in cancellous bone. In young animals red marrow is concerned with blood formation while in adults it becomes progressively replaced with fat and is known as yellow marrow. Also called bone marrow. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement marsupialisation /mɑ su piəlai zeiʃ(ə)n/, marsupialization noun a surgical procedure in which the inside of a cyst is opened up so that the marrow marsupialisation | | mastoiditis cyst can be allowed to shrink gradually, because it cannot be cut out masculinisation / m skjυlinai zeiʃ(ə)n/, masculinization noun the development of male characteristics such as body hair and a deep voice in a woman, caused by hormone deficiency or by treatment with male hormones Maslows hierarchy of human needs / m zləυz hairɑ ki əv hju mən ni dz/ noun a system which explains human behaviour by organising human needs in order of priority, from basic ones such as eating to complex ones such as finding self-fulfilment, a higher level of motivation not being activated until the lesser needs have been satisfied masochism / m səkiz(ə)m/ noun a sexual condition in which a person takes pleasure in being hurt or badly treated masochistic / m sə kistik/ adjective referring to masochism mass /m s/ noun 1. a large quantity, e.g. a large number of people The patients back was covered with a mass of red spots. 2. a body of matter with no clear shape massage / m sɑ / noun a treatment for muscular conditions which involves rubbing, stroking or pressing the body with the hands í verb to rub, stroke or press the body with the hands masseter /m si tə/, masseter muscle /m si tə m s(ə)l/ noun a muscle in the cheek which clenches the lower jaw making it move up, to allow chewing mast- /m st/ prefix same as masto- (used masculinisation | Maslows hierarchy of human needs masochism masochistic | mass massage masseter | | mast- before vowels) mast cell / m st sel/ noun a large cell in conmast cell nective tissue, which carries histamine and reacts to allergens mastectomy /m stektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a breast mastication / m sti keiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of chewing food mastitis /m staitis/ noun inflammation of the breast masto- /m stəυ/ prefix referring to a breast mastoid / m stɔid/ adjective shaped like a nipple í noun same as mastoid process mastoid air cell / m stɔid eə sel/, mastoid cell / m stɔid sel/ noun an air cell in the mastoid process mastoid antrum / m stɔid ntrəm/ noun a cavity linking the air cells of the mastoid process with the middle ear mastoidectomy / m stɔi dektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove part of the mastoid process, as a treatment for mastoiditis mastoiditis / m stɔi daitis/ noun inflammation of the mastoid process and air cells. The symptoms are fever and pain in the ears. mastectomy | mastication | mastitis | masto- mastoid mastoid air cell mastoid antrum mastoidectomy | mastoiditis | Nursing.fm Page 180 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM mastoid process 180 mastoid process mastoid process / m stɔid prəυses/ noun part of the temporal bone which protrudes at the side of the head behind the ear masturbation / m stə beiʃ(ə)n/ noun stimulation of ones own genitals to produce an orgasm. Also called onanism mater / meitə/ ‘ dura mater materia medica /mə tiəriə medikə/ noun the study of drugs or dosages as used in treatment masturbation | mater materia medica | (NOTE: It comes from a Latin term meaning medical substance.) maternal /mə t n(ə)l/ adjective referring to a maternal | mother maternal death /mə t n(ə)l deθ/ noun the death of a mother during pregnancy, childbirth or up to twelve months after childbirth maternal deprivation /mə t n(ə)l depri veiʃ(ə)n/ noun a psychological condition caused when a child does not have a proper relationship with a mother maternal dystocia /mə t n(ə)l dis təυsiə/ noun difficult childbirth caused by a physical problem in the mother maternal instincts /mə t n(ə)l instiŋkts/ plural noun instinctive feelings in a woman to look after and protect her child maternity /mə t niti/ noun childbirth, the fact of becoming a mother maternity clinic /mə t niti klinik/ noun same as antenatal clinic maternity hospital /mə t niti hɒspit(ə)l/, maternity ward /mə t niti wɔ d/, maternity unit /mə t niti ju nit/ noun a hospital, ward or unit which deals only with women giving birth matrix / meitriks/ noun an amorphous mass of cells forming the basis of connective tissue. Also called ground substance matron / meitrən/ noun a title formerly given to a woman in charge of the nurses in a hospital. maternal death | maternal deprivation | | maternal dystocia | | maternal instincts | maternity | maternity clinic | maternity hospital | | | matrix matron modern matron maxillary antrum /m k siləri ntrəm/, maxillary air sinus /m k siləri eə sainəs/ noun one of two sinuses behind the cheekbones in the upper jaw. Also called antrum of Highmore maxillo-facial /m k siləυ feiʃ(ə)l/ adjective referring to the maxillary bone and the face maxillo-facial surgery MB abbreviation bachelor of medicine McBurneys point /mək b niz pɔint/ noun a point which indicates the usual position of the appendix on the right side of the abdomen, between the hip bone and the navel, which is extremely painful if pressed when the person has appendicitis [Described 1899. After Charles | | maxillo-facial | | MB McBurneys point | McBurney (18451913), US surgeon.] McNaghtens Rules on Insanity at Law McNaghtens Rules on Insanity at Law /mək nɔ tənz ru lz ɒn in s niti ət lɔ /, McNaghtens Rules /mək nɔ tənz ru lz/ plural noun a set of principles which explain how people can defend themselves in law by claiming that they committed a murder because they were mentally ill, and therefore not responsible for any of their actions. In 1957 it was adapted to include the idea of knowing that an action is wrong but being unable to stop yourself from committing it because of your mental condition. MCP joint / em si pi d ɔint/ noun same as | | | MCP joint metacarpophalangeal joint MCU, MCUG abbreviation micturating cysto(MCU urethro)gram MD abbreviation doctor of medicine ME abbreviation myalgic encephalomyelitis measles / mi z(ə)lz/ noun an infectious disease of children, where the body is covered with a red rash Shes in bed with measles. Hes got measles. They caught measles from their friend at school. Have you had the measles? Also called morbilli, rubeola (NOTE: Takes a singular MD ME measles or plural verb.) meat- /mieit/ prefix relating to a meatus meatus /mi eitəs/ noun an opening leading to meat- meatus mattress suture mattress suture / m trəs su tʃə/ noun a suture made with a loop on each side of the incision maturation / m tʃυ reiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of becoming mature or fully developed mature /mə tʃυə/ adjective fully developed mature follicle /mə tʃυə fɒlik(ə)l/ noun a Graafian follicle just before ovulation maturing /mə tʃυəriŋ/ adjective becoming mature maxilla /m k silə/, maxilla bone /m k silə bəυn/ noun the upper jaw bone (NOTE: The plural maturation | mature | mature follicle | maturing | maxilla | | is maxillae. It is more correct to refer to the upper jaw as the maxillae, as it is in fact formed of two bones which are fused together.) maxillary /m k siləri/ adjective referring to maxillary | the maxilla maxillary antrum | an internal passage in the body, e.g. the urethra or the nasal cavity (NOTE: The plural is meatuses or meatus.) mechanism mechanism / mekəniz(ə)m/ noun 1. a physical or chemical change by which a function is carried out 2. a system in the body which carries out or controls a particular function The inner ear is the bodys mechanism for the sense of balance. mechanism of labour / mekəniz(ə)m əv leibə/ noun all the forces and processes which combine to push a foetus out of the uterus during its birth, together with the ones which oppose it mechanotherapy / mekənəυ θerəpi/ noun the treatment of injuries through mechanical means, such as massage and exercise machines meconism / mekəυniz(ə)m/ noun poisoning by opium or morphine mechanism of labour mechanotherapy | meconism Nursing.fm Page 181 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 181 meconium meconium /mi kəυniəm/ noun the first dark green faeces produced by a newborn baby media / mi diə/ noun same as tunica media medial / mi diəl/ adjective nearer to the central midline of the body or to the centre of an organ. Compare lateral medially / mi diəli/ adverb towards or on the sagittal plane of the body. See illustration at ANA| media medial medially in Supplement medial malleolus / mi diəl mə li ələs/ noun a TOMICAL TERMS medial malleolus | bone at the end of the tibia which protrudes at the inside of the ankle median / mi diən/ adjective towards the central midline of the body, or placed in the middle median nerve / mi diən n v/ noun one of the main nerves of the forearm and hand median plane / mi diən plein/ noun an imaginary flat surface on the midline and at right angles to the coronal plane, which divides the body into right and left halves. See illustration at median median nerve median plane in Supplement mediastinal /mi diə stain(ə)l/ adjective referring to the mediastinum the mediastinal surface of pleura or of the lungs mediastinitis / mi diəsti naitis/ noun inflammation of the mediastinum mediastinoscopy / mi diəsti nɒskəpi/ noun an operation in which a tube is put into the mediastinum so that its organs can be examined mediastinum /mi diə stainəm/ noun the section of the chest between the lungs, where the heart, oesophagus and phrenic and vagus nerves are situated medic / medik/ noun a doctor or medical student (informal ) medical / medik(ə)l/ adjective referring to the study of diseases a medical student í noun an official examination of a person by a doctor He wanted to join the army, but failed his medical. You will have to have a medical if you take out an insurance policy. medical alert bracelet / medik(ə)l ə l t breislət/ noun a band or chain worn around the wrist giving information about the wearers medical needs, allergies or condition medical assistant / medik(ə)l ə sist(ə)nt/ noun someone who performs routine administrative and clinical tasks to help in the offices and clinics of doctors and other medical practitioners medical audit / medik(ə)l ɔ dit/ noun a systematic critical analysis of the quality of medical care provided to a person, which examines the procedures used for diagnosis and treatment, the use of resources and the resulting outcome and quality of life for the person medical audit advisory group / medik(ə)l ɔ dit əd vaiz(ə)ri ru p/ noun a body with the responsibility of advising on medical audit in primary care. Abbreviation MAAG ANATOMICAL TERMS mediastinal | mediastinitis | mediastinoscopy | mediastinum | medic medical medical alert bracelet | medical assistant | medical audit medical audit advisory group | medical social worker medical certificate medical certificate / medik(ə)l sə tifikət/ noun an official document signed by a doctor, | giving someone permission to be away from work or not to do specific types of work medical committee / medik(ə)l kə miti/ noun a committee of doctors in a hospital who advise the management on medical matters medical doctor / medik(ə)l dɒktə/ noun a doctor who practises medicine, but is not usually a surgeon medical ethics / medik(ə)l eθiks/ plural noun the moral and professional principles which govern how doctors and nurses should work, and, in particular, what type of relationship they should have with their patients medical examination / medik(ə)l i z mi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun an examination of a person by a doctor medical history / medik(ə)l hist(ə)ri/ noun the details of a persons medical condition and treatment over a period of time medical intervention / medik(ə)l intə venʃən/ noun the treatment of illness by drugs medicalisation / medikəlai zeiʃ(ə)n/, medicalization noun the act of looking at something as a medical issue or problem medical jurisprudence / medik(ə)l d υəris pru d(ə)ns/ noun the use of the principles of law as they relate to the practice of medicine and the relationship of doctors with each other, their patients and society. forensic medicine Medical Officer of Health / medik(ə)l ɒfisər əv helθ/ noun formerly, a local government official in charge of the health services in an area. Abbreviation MOH medical practitioner / medik(ə)l pr k tiʃ(ə)nə/ noun a person qualified in medicine, i.e. a doctor or surgeon medical profession / medik(ə)l prə feʃ(ə)n/ noun all doctors Medical Register / medik(ə)l red istə/ noun a list of doctors approved by the General Medical Council The committee ordered his name to be struck off the Medical Register. Medical Research Council / medik(ə)l ri s tʃ kaυnsəl/ noun a government body which organises and pays for medical research. Abbreviation MRC medical school / medik(ə)l sku l/ noun a section of a university which teaches medicine He is at medical school. medical secretary / medik(ə)l sekrit(ə)ri/ noun a qualified secretary who spees in medical documentation, either in a hospital or in a doctors surgery medical social worker / medik(ə)l səυʃ(ə)l w kə/ noun someone who helps people with family problems or problems related to their work medical committee | medical doctor medical ethics medical examination | | medical history medical intervention | medicalisation | medical jurisprudence | Medical Officer of Health medical practitioner | medical profession | Medical Register Medical Research Council | medical school medical secretary medical social worker Nursing.fm Page 182 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM medical ward 182 which may have an effect on their response to treatment medical ward / medik(ə)l wɔ d/ noun a ward for people who do not have to undergo surgical operations Medicare / medikeə/ noun a system of public health insurance in the US medicated / medikeitid/ adjective containing a medicinal drug medicated cough sweet medicated shampoo / medikeitid ʃ m pu / noun a shampoo containing a chemical which is supposed to prevent dandruff medication / medi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the treatment of illnesses by giving people drugs. premedication 2. a drug used to treat a particular illness What sort of medication has she been taking? 80% of elderly patients admitted to geriatric units are on medication. medicinal /mə dis(ə)n(ə)l/ adjective which has healing properties or a beneficial effect on someones health He has a drink of whisky before he goes to bed for medicinal purposes. medicinal leech /mə dis(ə)n(ə)l li tʃ/ noun a leech which is raised specially for use in medicine medicine / med(ə)s(ə)n/ noun 1. a preparation taken to treat a disease or condition, especially one in liquid form Take some cough medicine if your cough is bad. You should take the medicine three times a day. 2. the study of diseases and She is studying how to cure or prevent them medicine because she wants to be a doctor. medicine cabinet / med(ə)s(ə)n k binət/, medicine chest / med(ə)s(ə)n tʃest/ noun a cupboard where medicines, bandages, thermometers and other pieces of medical equipment can be left locked up, but ready for use in an emergency medico /medikəυ/ noun a doctor (informal ) The medico said I was perfectly fit. medico- /medikəυ/ prefix referring to medicine or to doctors medicochirurgical / medikəυkai r d ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to both medicine and surgery medicolegal / medikəυ li (ə)l/ adjective referring to both medicine and the law medicosocial / medikəυ səυʃ(ə)l/ adjective involving both medical and social factors medium / mi diəm/ adjective average, in the middle or at the halfway point í noun a substance through which something acts medroxyprogesterone /mə drɒksiprəυ d estərəυn/ noun a synthetic hormone used to treat menstrual disorders, in oestrogen replacement therapy and as a contraceptive medulla /me d lə/ noun the soft inner part of an organ, as opposed to the outer cortex. See illustration at KIDNEY in Supplement medical ward Medicare medicated medicated shampoo | medication | medicinal | medicinal leech | medicine medicine cabinet medico medico- medicochirurgical | | medicolegal | medicosocial | medium medroxyprogesterone | medulla | | | medulla oblongata medulla oblongata /me d lə ɒblɒŋ eitə/ noun a continuation of the spinal cord going through the foramen magnum into the brain medullary /me d ləri/ adjective similar to marrow medullary cavity /me d ləri k viti/ noun a hollow centre of a long bone, containing bone marrow. See illustration at BONE STRUCTURE in Supplement medullated nerve / medəleitid n v/ noun a nerve surrounded by a myelin sheath mefenamic acid / mefən mik sid/ noun a drug which reduces inflammation and pain, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and menstrual problems mefloquine / mefləkwi n/, mefloquine haidrəυ hydrochloride / mefləkwi n klɔ raid/ noun a drug used in the prevention and treatment of malaria mega- /me ə/ prefix 1. large. Opposite micro2. one million, or 106 megacolon / me ə kəυlən/ noun a condition in which the lower colon is very much larger than normal, because part of the colon above is constricted, making bowel movements impossible megajoule / me əd u l/ noun a unit of measurement of energy equal to one million joules. Symbol Mj megakaryocyte / me ə k riəsait/ noun a bone marrow cell which produces blood platelets megalo- /me ələυ/ prefix large megaloblast / me ələυbl st/ noun an unusually large blood cell found in the bone marrow of people who have some types of anaemia caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency megaloblastic anaemia / me ələυ bl stik ə ni miə/ noun anaemia caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency megalocyte / me ələυsait/ noun an unusually large red blood cell, found in pernicious anaemia megalomania / me ələυ meiniə/ noun a psychiatric disorder in which a person believes they are very powerful and important megalomaniac / me ələυ meini k/ noun someone who has megalomania í adjective having megalomania -megaly /me əli/ suffix enlargement megaureter / me əjυ ri tə/ noun a condition in which a part of the ureter becomes very wide, above the site of a blockage meibomian cyst /mai bəυmiən sist/ noun the swelling of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid. Also called chalazion meibomian gland /mai bəυmiən l nd/ noun a sebaceous gland on the edge of the eyelid which secretes a liquid to lubricate the eyelid. Also called tarsal gland | | medullary | medullary cavity | medullated nerve mefenamic acid mefloquine | mega- megacolon | megajoule megakaryocyte | megalo- megaloblast megaloblastic anaemia | | megalocyte megalomania | megalomaniac | -megaly megaureter | meibomian cyst | meibomian gland | Nursing.fm Page 183 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 183 meibomianitis meibomianitis /mai bəυmiə naitis/ noun a condition in which the meibomian glands become swollen Meigs syndrome / me z sindrəυm/ noun a condition in which liquid collects in the chest and abdominal cavities. It is associated with pelvic tumours. meiosis /mai əυsis/ noun the process of cell division which results in two pairs of haploid cells, i.e. cells with only one set of chromosomes. Compare mitosis Meissners corpuscle / maisnəz kɔ p s(ə)l/ noun a receptor cell in the skin which is thought to be sensitive to touch Meissners plexus / maisnəz pleksəs/ noun a network of nerve fibres in the wall of the alimentary canal [Described 1853. After Georg | | Meigs syndrome meiosis | Meissners corpuscle Meissners plexus Meissner (18291905), German anatomist and physiologist.] melaena /mə li nə/ noun black faeces where melaena | the colour is caused by bleeding in the intestine melan- /melən/ prefix same as melano- (used melan- before vowels) Johann Mendel (182284), Austrian Augustinian monk and naturalist of Brno, whose work was rediscovered by de Vries in 1900.] Ménières disease /meni eəz di zi z/, Ménières syndrome / sindrəυm/ noun a disMénières disease | | ease of the middle ear, in which someone becomes dizzy, hears ringing in the ears and may vomit, and becomes progressively deaf. The causes may include infections or allergies, which increase the fluid contents of the labyrinth in the middle ear. [Described 1861. After Prosper Ménière (17991862) and his son, Emile Antoine Ménière (18391905), French physicians.] mening- /menind / prefix same as meningo(used before vowels) meningeal /me nind iəl/ adjective referring to mening- meningeal | the meninges meninges /me nind i z/ plural noun the membranes which surround the brain and spinal cord meninges | (NOTE: The singular is meninx.) meningioma / menind i əυmə/ noun a benign meningioma | tumour in the meninges meningism /me nind iz(ə)m/ noun a condition in which there are signs of meningeal irritation suggesting meningitis, but where there is no pathological change in the cerebrospinal fluid meningitis / menin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the meninges, causing someone to have violent headaches, fever, and stiff neck muscles, and sometimes to become delirious meningo- /məniŋ əυ/ prefix referring to the meninges meningocele /mə niŋ əυsi l/ noun a condition in which the meninges protrude through the vertebral column or skull meningococcal /mə niŋ əυ kɒk(ə)l/ adjective referring to meningococci meningococcal meningitis /mə niŋ əυ kɒk(ə)l menin d aitis/ noun the commonest epidemic form of meningitis, caused by a bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, where the meninges become inflamed causing headaches and fever meningococcus /mə niŋ əυ kɒkəs/ noun the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis which causes meningococcal meningitis (NOTE: The meningism | melancholia melancholia / melən kəυliə/ noun a severe depressive illness occurring usually between the ages of 45 and 65 melanin / melənin/ noun a dark pigment which gives colour to skin and hair, also found in the choroid of the eye and in some tumours melano- /melənəυ/ prefix black or dark melanocyte / melənəυsait/ noun any cell which carries pigment melanocyte-stimulating hormone / melənəυsait stimjυleitiŋ hɔ məυm/ noun a hormone produced by the pituitary gland which causes darkening in the colour of the skin. Abbreviation MSH melanoma / melə nəυmə/ noun a tumour formed of dark pigmented cells melatonin / melə təυnin/ noun a hormone produced by the pineal gland during the hours of darkness, which makes animals sleep during the winter months. It is thought to control the bodys rhythms. melena /mə li nə/ noun same as melaena mellitus / melitəs/ ‘ diabetes mellitus membrane / membrein/ noun a thin layer of tissue which lines or covers an organ membranous / membrənəs/ adjective referring to membranes, or like a membrane membranous labyrinth / membrənəs l bərinθ/ noun a series of ducts and canals formed of membrane inside the osseous labyrinth menarche /mə nɑ ki/ noun the start of menstrual periods Mendels laws / mendəlz lɔ z/ plural noun the laws of heredity, that are the basis of the science of genetics [Described 1865. After Gregor | melanin melano- melanocyte melanocyte-stimulating hormone melanoma | melatonin | melena | mellitus membrane membranous membranous labyrinth menarche | Mendels laws meninx meningitis | meningo- meningocele | meningococcal | | meningococcal meningitis | | | meningococcus | | plural is meningococci.) meningoencephalitis meningoencephalitis /mə niŋ əυen kefə laitis/ noun inflammation of the meninges and the brain meningoencephalocele /mə niŋ əυen kefələυsi l/ noun a condition in which part of the meninges and the brain push through a gap in the skull meningomyelocele /mə niŋ əυ maiələυsi l/ noun the pushing forward of part of the meninges and spinal cord through a gap in the spine. Also called myelomeningocele, mye| | | | meningoencephalocele | | | meningomyelocele | locele meninx / meniŋks/ noun ‘ meninges meninx | Nursing.fm Page 184 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM meniscectomy 184 meniscectomy meniscectomy / meni sektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a cartilage from the knee meniscus /mə niskəs/ noun one of two pads of cartilage, the lateral meniscus and medial meniscus, between the femur and tibia in a knee joint. Also called semilunar cartilage (NOTE: The plu| meniscus | ral is menisci.) meno- /menəυ/ prefix referring to menstruation menopause / menəpɔ z/ noun a period, usumeno- menopause ally between 45 and 55 years of age, when a woman stops menstruating and can no longer bear children. Also called climacteric, change of life menorrhagia / menə reid iə/ noun very heavy bleeding during menstruation. Also called menorrhagia | flooding making their own decisions, that they should be given support in decision-making, that it is patients capacity to make decisions that should be judged, not the decisions themselves, that treatment must be in patients best interests, and that treatment should restrict rights and freedoms as little as possible mental deficiency / ment(ə)l di fiʃ(ə)nsi/ noun a former term for learning disability (NOTE: mental deficiency | This term is regarded as offensive.) mental development mental development / ment(ə)l di veləpmənt/ noun the development of the mind Her mental development is higher than usual for her age. mental disorder / ment(ə)l dis ɔ də/ noun a temporary or permanent change in a persons mental state which makes them function less effectively than they would usually, or than the average person would be expected to function mental faculties / ment(ə)l f kəlti z/ plural noun abilities such as thinking and decision-making There has been no impairment of the mental faculties. mental handicap / ment(ə)l h ndik p/ noun a former term for learning disability (NOTE: | mental disorder | menses menses / mensi z/ plural noun same as menstruation menstrual menstrual / menstruəl/ adjective referring to menstruation menstrual cramp / menstruəl kr mp/ noun a cramp in the muscles round the uterus during menstruation menstrual cycle / menstruəl saik(ə)l/ noun a period, usually of 28 days, during which a woman ovulates, the walls of the uterus swell and bleeding takes place if the ovum has not been fertilised menstrual flow / menstruəl fləυ/ noun the discharge of blood from the uterus during menstruation menstruate / menstrueit/ verb to bleed from the uterus during menstruation menstruation / menstru eiʃ(ə)n/ noun bleeding from the uterus which occurs in a woman each month when the lining of the uterus is shed because no fertilised egg is present mental / ment(ə)l/ adjective 1. referring to the mind 2. referring to the chin mental aberration / ment(ə)l bə reiʃ(ə)n/ noun slight forgetfulness or confusion (often humorous) I thought the meeting was at 11 I must have had a mental aberration. mental age / ment(ə)l eid / noun a measurement based on intelligence tests that shows a persons intellectual development, usually compared to standardised data for a chronological age hes nine, but he has a mental age of five although he is nine years old, his level of intellectual development is the same as that of an average child of five mental block / ment(ə)l blɒk/ noun a temporary inability to remember something, caused by the effect of nervous stress on the mental processes Mental Capacity Act / ment(ə)l kə p siti kt/ noun a piece of UK legislation, introduced in 2007, that establishes five principles in relation to mental capacity and medical treatment, namely that patients should be assumed to be capable of menstrual cramp menstrual cycle menstrual flow menstruate menstruation | mental mental aberration | mental age mental block Mental Capacity Act | mental faculties mental handicap This term is regarded as offensive.) mental health mental health / ment(ə)l helθ/ noun the condition of someones mind Mental Health Acts / ment(ə)l helθ kts/ plural noun laws made by a parliament which lay down rules for the care of people with mental illness Mental Health Review Tribunal / ment(ə)l helθ ri vju trai bju n(ə)l/ noun a committee which makes decisions about whether people who have been detained under the Mental Health Acts should be released. It consists of medical members, legal experts and lay members, who include people with experience in social services. Abbreviation MHRT mental hospital / ment(ə)l hɒspit(ə)l/ noun a psychiatric hospital (NOTE: This term is Mental Health Acts Mental Health Review Tribunal | | mental hospital regarded as offensive.) mental illness mental illness / ment(ə)l ilnəs/ noun any disorder which affects the mind mental impairment / ment(ə)l im peəmənt/ noun a temporary or permanent condition which affects a persons mental state, making them function less effectively than they would usually, or than the average person would be expected to function mentally / ment(ə)li/ adverb in the mind Mentally, she is very advanced for her age. mentally handicapped / ment(ə)li h ndik pt/ adjective a former term for someone with learning disability (NOTE: This term is mental impairment | mentally mentally handicapped usually regarded as offensive.) mentally ill mentally ill / ment(ə)li il/ adjective experiencing mental illness Nursing.fm Page 185 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 185 mental nerve mental nerve / ment(ə)l n v/ noun a nerve which supplies the chin mental patient / ment(ə)l peiʃ(ə)nt/ noun a former term of a patient who has mental illness mental patient (NOTE: This term is regarded as offensive.) mental retardation mental retardation / ment(ə)l ri tɑ deiʃ(ə)n/ noun a former term for learning disability, a condition that results in someone finding it difficult to learn skills or information at the same rate as others of a similar age (NOTE: This | term is regarded as offensive.) mental subnormality / ment(ə)l s bnɔ m liti/ noun a former term for mental impairment (NOTE: This term is usually regarded as offensive.) mental subnormality | menthol menthol / menθɒl/ noun a strongly scented compound, produced from peppermint oil, used in cough medicines and in the treatment of neuralgia mentholated / menθəleitid/ adjective impregnated with menthol mento- /mentəυ/ prefix relating to the chin mentor / mentɔ / noun somebody who advises and guides a younger, less experienced person í verb to act as a mentor to somebody mentum / mentəm/ noun the chin mercury / m kjυri/ noun a poisonous liquid metal, used in thermometers (NOTE: The chemimentholated mento- mentor mentum mercury cal symbol is Hg.) mercury poisoning mercury poisoning / m kjυri pɔiz(ə)niŋ/ noun poisoning by drinking mercury or mercury compounds or by inhaling mercury vapour mercy killing / m si kiliŋ/ noun same as mercy killing metastasise mesothelium mesothelium / mesəυ θi liəm/ noun a layer of cells lining a serous membrane. Compare epithe| lium, endothelium messenger RNA messenger RNA / mes(ə)nd ə ɑ r en ei/ noun a type of ribonucleic acid which transmits the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes which form the proteins coded on the DNA. Abbreviation mRNA mestranol / mi strənɒl/ noun a synthetically produced oestrogen used in birth control pills meta- /metə/ prefix referring to change metabolic / metə bɒlik/ adjective referring to metabolism metabolic acidosis / metəbɒlik si dəυsis/ noun acidosis caused by a malfunction of the bodys metabolism metabolic alkalosis / metəbɒlik lkə ləυsis/ noun alkalosis caused by a malfunction of the bodys metabolism metabolise /mə t bəlaiz/, metabolize verb to change the nature of something by metabolism The liver metabolises proteins and carbohydrates. metabolism /mə t bəliz(ə)m/ noun the chemical processes which are continually taking place in the human body and which are essential to life, especially the processes that convert food into energy metabolite /mə t bəlait/ noun a substance produced by metabolism, or a substance taken into the body in food and then metabolised metacarpal bone / metə kɑ p(ə)l bəυn/, metacarpal / metə kɑ p(ə)l/ noun one of the five bones in the metacarpus metacarpophalangeal / metə kɑ pəυfə l nd iəl/ adjective relating to the part of the hand between the wrist and the fingers metacarpophalangeal joint / metə kɑ pəυ fə l nd iəl d ɔint/ noun a joint between a metacarpal bone and a finger. Also called MCP joint, mestranol meta- metabolic | metabolic acidosis | metabolic alkalosis | metabolise | metabolism | metabolite | metacarpal bone | | metacarpophalangeal euthanasia | meridian meridian /mə ridiən/ noun in acupuncture and Chinese medicine, one of the pathways in the body along which its energy is believed to flow mes- /mes/ prefix same as meso- (used before | mes- vowels) mesencephalon mesencephalon /mesen kefəlɒn/ noun same as midbrain mesenteric / mesen terik/ adjective referring to the mesentery mesentery / mesent(ə)ri/ noun a double-layer peritoneum which attaches the small intestine and other abdominal organs to the abdominal wall mesial / mi siəl/ adjective 1. in dentistry, relating to the middle of the front of the jaw, or occurring in a place near this 2. relating to or located in the middle part of something meso- /mesəυ/ prefix middle mesometrium / mesəυ mi triəm/ noun a muscle layer of the uterus mesothelioma / mesəυti li əυmə/ noun a tumour of the serous membrane, which can be benign or malignant | mesenteric | mesentery mesial meso- mesometrium | mesothelioma | | | metacarpophalangeal joint | | | MP joint metacarpus metacarpus / metə kɑ pəs/ noun the five bones in the hand between the fingers and the wrist. See illustration at HAND in Supplement metaphase / metəfeiz/ noun one of the stages in mitosis or meiosis metaphysis /me t fəsis/ noun the end of the central section of a long bone, where the bone grows and where it joins the epiphysis metaplasia /metə pleiziə/ noun a change of one tissue to another metastasis /me t stəsis/ noun the spreading of a malignant disease from one part of the body to another through the bloodstream or the lymph system. Also called secondary growth (NOTE: | metaphase metaphysis | metaplasia | metastasis | The plural is metastases.) metastasise /me t stəsaiz/, metastasize verb to spread by metastasis metastasise | Nursing.fm Page 186 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM metastatic 186 metastatic metastatic /metə st tik/ adjective relating to, or produced by, metastasis Metastatic growths developed in the liver. metatarsal / metə tɑ s(ə)l/ noun one of the five bones in the metatarsus í adjective relating to the metatarsus metatarsal arch / metə tɑ s(ə)l ɑ tʃ/ noun an arched part of the sole of the foot, running across the sole of the foot from side to side. Also called | metatarsal | metatarsal arch | transverse arch metatarsalgia metatarsalgia / metətɑ s ld ə/ noun pain in the heads of the metatarsal bones metatarsophalangeal joint /metə tɑ səυfə l nd iəl d ɔint/ noun a joint between a metatarsal bone and a toe metatarsus / metə tɑ səs/ noun the five long bones in the foot between the toes and the tarsus. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement (NOTE: | metatarsophalangeal joint | | | metatarsus | The plural is metatarsi.) meteorism / mi tiəriz(ə)m/ noun same as tympanites meter / mi tə/ noun US same as metre -meter /mi tə, mitə/ suffix measuring instrumeteorism meter methotrexate methotrexate / meθə trekseit/ noun a drug which helps to prevent cells reproducing, used in the treatment of cancer methyl alcohol / mi θail lkəhɒl/ noun same as methanol methylated spirits / meθəleitid spirits/ plural noun almost pure alcohol, with wood alcohol and colouring added methylphenidate / mi θail fenideit/ noun a drug which stimulates the central nervous system, used in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder methylprednisolone / mi θailpred nisələυn/ noun a corticosteroid drug which reduces inflammation, used in the treatment of arthritis, allergies and asthma metoclopramide / metəυ kləυprəmaid/ noun a drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and indigestion metoprolol /mi tɒprəlɒl/ noun a drug which controls the activity of the heart, used to treat angina and high blood pressure metr- /metr/ prefix same as metro- (used before | methyl alcohol methylated spirits methylphenidate | methylprednisolone | | metoclopramide | | metoprolol | metr- -meter vowels) ment metformin /met fɔ min/ noun a drug which reduces the level of the blood sugar levels, used to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes which does not respond to dietary measures methadone / meθədəυn/ noun a synthetically produced narcotic drug, used to reduce pain and as a substitute for heroin in the treatment of addiction methaemoglobin /met hi məυ ləυbin/ noun a dark brown substance formed from haemoglobin which develops during illness, following treatment with some drugs. Methaemoglobin cannot transport oxygen round the body, and so causes cyanosis. methaemoglobinaemia /met hi məυ ləυbi ni miə/ noun the presence of methaemoglobin in the blood methane / mi θein, meθein/ noun a colourless flammable gas with no smell methanol / meθənɒl/ noun a colourless poisonous liquid, used as a solvent and a fuel. It changes easily into a gas. Also called methyl alcohol methicillin / meθi silin/ noun a synthetically produced antibiotic, used in the treatment of infections which are resistant to penicillin methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus /meθi silin ri zistənt st filə kɒkəs ɔ riəs/ noun a bacterium resistant to almost all antibiotics and which can cause life-threatening infection in people recovering from surgery. Abbreviation MRSA methionine /me θaiəni n/ noun an essential amino acid metra metformin | methadone methaemoglobin | | methaemoglobinaemia | | | methane methanol methicillin | methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus | | methionine | | metra / metrə/ noun the uterus metralgia /me tr ld ə/ noun pain in the uterus metre / mi tə/ noun an SI unit of length The room is four metres by three. Symbol m metritis /me traitis/ noun same as myometrimetralgia | metre metritis | tis metro- metro- /metrəυ/ prefix referring to the uterus metrocolpocele / metrə kɒlpəυsi l/ noun a condition in which the uterus protrudes into the vagina metronidazole / metrə nidəzəυl/ noun a yellow antibiotic compound, used especially in the treatment of vaginal infections metroptosis / metrə təυsis/ noun a condition in which the uterus has moved downwards out of its usual position. Also called prolapse of the metrocolpocele | metronidazole | metroptosis | uterus metrorrhagia metrorrhagia / mi trəυ reid iə/ noun unusual bleeding from the vagina between the menstrual periods -metry /mətri/ suffix relating to the process of measuring, or to instruments which are used for measuring mg abbreviation milligram MI abbreviation 1. mitral incompetence 2. myocardial infarction Michels clips /mi ʃelz klips/ plural noun metal clips used to suture a wound [After Gaston | -metry mg MI Michels clips | Michel (18741937), Professor of Clinical Surgery at Nancy, France.] miconazole /mai kɒnəzəυl/ noun a drug used miconazole | to treat fungal infections of the skin and nails micro- /maikrəυ/ prefix 1. very small. Opposite macro-, mega-, megalo- 2. one millionth (10-6) micro- Nursing.fm Page 187 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 187 microangiopathy microangiopathy / maikrəυ nd i ɒpəθi/ noun any disease of the capillaries microbe / maikrəυb/ noun a microorganism | | microbe which may cause disease and which can only be seen with a microscope, e.g. a bacterium microbiologist / maikrəυbai ɒləd ist/ noun a scientist who spees in the study of microorganisms microbiology / maikrəυbai ɒləd i/ noun the scientific study of microorganisms microcephalic / maikrəυke f lik/ adjective having microcephaly microcephaly / maikrəυ kefəli/ noun a condition in which a person has an unusually small head, sometimes caused by the mother having had a rubella infection during pregnancy microcyte / maikrəυsait/ noun an unusually small red blood cell microcythaemia /maikrəυsai θi miə/ noun same as microcytosis microcytic / maikrə sitik/ adjective referring to microcytes microcytosis / maikrəυsai təυsis/ noun the presence of excess microcytes in the blood microdactylia / maikrəυd k tiliə/, microdactyly / maikrəυ d ktili/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually small or short fingers or toes microdiscectomy / maikrəυdisk ektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of a disc in the spine which is pressing on a nerve microglossia / maikrəυ lɒsiə/ noun a condition in which a person has an unusually small tongue micrognathia / maikrəυ neiθiə/ noun a condition in which one jaw is unusually smaller than the other microgram / maikrə r m/ noun a unit of measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram micromastia / maikrəυ m stiə/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually small breasts micromelia / maikrəυ mi liə/ noun a condition in which a person has unusually small arms or legs micromole / maikrəυ məυl/ noun a unit of measurement of the amount of substance equal to one millionth of a mole. Symbol µ micronutrient / maikrəυ nju triənt/ noun a substance which an organism needs for normal growth and development, but only in very small quantities, e.g. a vitamin or mineral. Compare microbiologist | microbiology | microcephalic | microcephaly | microcyte microcythaemia | microcytic | microcytosis | microdactylia | | microdiscectomy | | microglossia | micrognathia | microgram micromastia | micromelia | micromole | micronutrient | macronutrient microorganism microorganism / maikrəυ ɔ əniz(ə)m/ noun an organism which can only be seen under a | microscope and which may cause disease. mid-life crisis Viruses, bacteria and protozoa are microorganisms. microphthalmia / maikrɒf θ lmiə/ noun a condition in which the eyes are unusually small microscope / maikrəskəυp/ noun a scientific instrument with lenses, which makes very small objects appear larger The tissue was examined under the microscope. Under the microscope it was possible to see the cancer cells. microscopic / maikrə skɒpik/ adjective so small that it can only be seen through a microscope microscopy /mai krɒskəpi/ noun the science of the use of microscopes Microsporum / maikrəυspɔ rəm/ noun a type of fungus which causes ringworm of the hair, skin and sometimes nails microsurgery / maikrəυ s d əri/ noun surgery using tiny instruments and a microscope. Microsurgery is used in operations on eyes and ears, and also to connect severed nerves and blood vessels. microvillus / maikrəυ viləs/ noun a very small process found on the surface of many cells, especially the epithelial cells in the intestine (NOTE: microphthalmia | microscope microscopic | microscopy | Microsporum microsurgery | microvillus | The plural is microvilli.) microwave therapy / maikrəυweiv θerəpi/ noun treatment using high-frequency radiation micturate / miktjυreit/ verb same as urinate micturating cystogram / miktjυreitiŋ sistəυ r m/, micturating cysto-urethrogram / miktjυreitiŋ sistəυ jυ ri θrə r m/ noun an X-ray of the bladder and urethra taken microwave therapy micturate micturating cystogram | while the bladder is being filled and then emptied. Abbreviation MCU, MCUG micturition / miktjυ riʃ(ə)n/ noun same as micturition | urination mid- /mid/ prefix middle midazolam /mi d zəl m/ noun a drug used to mid- midazolam | produce sleepiness and to reduce anxiety before surgery or other procedures midbrain / midbrein/ noun the small middle section of the brain stem above the pons and between the cerebrum and the hindbrain. Also called mesencephalon midcarpal /mid kɑ p(ə)l/ adjective between the two rows of carpal bones middle colic / mid(ə)l kɒlik/ noun an artery which leads from the superior mesenteric artery middle ear / mid(ə)l iə/ noun a section of the ear between the eardrum and the inner ear middle ear infection / mid(ə)l iər in fekʃən/ noun same as otitis media midgut / mid t/ noun the middle part of the gut in an embryo, which develops into the small intestine mid-life crisis / mid laif kraisis/ noun a period in early middle age when some people midbrain midcarpal | middle colic middle ear middle ear infection | midgut mid-life crisis Nursing.fm Page 188 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM midline 188 experience feelings of anxiety, insecurity and self-doubt midline / midlain/ noun an imaginary line drawn down the middle of the body from the head through the navel to the point between the feet midstream specimen / midstri m spesimin/, midstream specimen of urine / midstri m spesimin əv jυərin/ noun a sample of urine collected in a sterile bottle in the middle of a flow of urine, because the first part of the flow may be contaminated with bacteria from the skin. Abbreviation MSU midtarsal /mid tɑ s(ə)l/ adjective between the tarsal bones midwife / midwaif/ noun a professional person who helps a woman give birth to a child, often at home midwifery /mid wifəri/ noun the profession of a midwife midwifery course /mid wifəri kɔ s/ noun a training course to teach nurses the techniques of being a midwife Midwives Rules / midwaivz ru lz/ plural noun laws relating to midwifery migraine / mi rein, mai rein/ noun a sharp severe recurrent headache, often associated with vomiting and visual disturbances He had an attack of migraine and could not come to work. Her migraine attacks seem to be worse in the summer. miliaria / mili eəriə/ noun itchy red spots which develop on the chest, under the armpits and between the thighs in hot countries, caused by blocked sweat glands. Also called prickly heat, midline midstream specimen midtarsal | midwife midwifery | midwifery course | Midwives Rules migraine miliaria | heat rash miliary / miliəri/ adjective small in size, like a miliary seed miliary tuberculosis / miliəri tju b kjυ ləυsis/ noun a form of tuberculosis which occurs as little nodes in many parts of the body, including the meninges of the brain and spinal cord milk /milk/ noun 1. a white liquid produced by female mammals to feed their young. Cows milk and other dairy products are important parts of most diets, especially childrens. The patient can only drink warm milk. (NOTE: No plural: miliary tuberculosis | | milk some milk, a bottle of milk or a glass of milk.) 2. the breast milk produced by a woman The milk will start to flow a few days after childbirth. (NOTE: For other terms referring to milk, see words beginning with galact-, galacto-, lact-, lacto-.) milk dentition / milk den tiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as deciduous dentition milk leg / milk le / noun acute oedema of the milk dentition | milk leg leg, a condition which affects women after childbirth, where a leg becomes pale and inflamed as a result of lymphatic obstruction. Also called white leg, phlegmasia alba dolens milk rash milk rash / milk r ʃ/ noun a temporary blotchiness of the skin seen in young babies milk sugar / milk ʃυ ə/ noun same as lactose milk tooth / milk tu θ/ noun same as primary milk sugar milk tooth tooth Miller-Abbott tube Miller-Abbott tube / milər bət tju b/ noun a tube with a balloon at the end, used to clear the small intestine. The balloon is inflated after the tip of the tube reaches an obstruction. milli- /mili/ prefix one thousandth (10-3). Symbol milli- m milligram milligram / mili r m/ noun a unit of measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Symbol mg millilitre / milili tə/ noun a unit of measurement of liquid equal to one thousandth of a litre. Abbreviation ml millimetre / milimi tə/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one thousandth of a metre. Abbreviation mm millimole / miliməυl/ noun a unit of measurement of the amount of a substance equal to one thousandth of a mole. Abbreviation mmol millisievert / milisi vət/ noun a unit of measurement of radiation Milwaukee brace /mil wɔ ki breis/ noun a support for people with unusually curved spines, consisting of a leather or metal pelvic girdle with two bars at the back and one at the front, which connect into a neck ring mind /maind/ noun the part of the brain which controls memory, consciousness or reasoning minimally invasive surgery / minim(ə)l in veisiv s d əri/ noun surgery which involves the least possible disturbance to the body. It often uses lasers and other high-tech devices. mini mental state examination / mini ment(ə)l steit i z mi neiʃ(ə)n/ noun a test performed mainly by psychiatrists to determine someones mental ability, used in the diagnosis of dementia minimum lethal dose / miniməm li θ(ə)l dəυs/ noun the smallest amount of a substance required to kill someone or something. Abbreviation MLD ministroke / ministrəυk/ noun same as tranmillilitre millimetre millimole millisievert Milwaukee brace | mind minimally invasive surgery | mini mental state examination | minimum lethal dose ministroke sient ischaemic attack minitracheostomy minitracheostomy / minitreiki ɒstəmi/ noun a temporary tracheostomy minor injuries unit / mainər ind əriz ju nit/ noun a hospital department which treats most accidents and emergencies. Abbreviation | | minor injuries unit MIU mio- mio- /maiəυ/ prefix less miosis /mai əυsis/ noun 1. the contraction of the pupil of the eye, as in bright light 2. US same as meiosis miosis | Nursing.fm Page 189 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 189 miotic miotic /mai ɒtik/ noun a drug which makes the pupil of the eye become smaller í adjective causing the pupil of the eye to become smaller mis- /mis/ prefix wrong miscarriage / misk rid / noun a situation in which an unborn baby leaves the uterus before the end of the pregnancy, especially during the first seven months of pregnancy She had two miscarriages before having her first child. Also called spontaneous abortion mismatch / mism tʃ/ verb to match tissues wrongly missed case / mist keis/ noun someone with an infection or disease which is not identified by a doctor mist. /mist/, mistura /mis tjυərə/ ‘ re. mist. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 /mis ju s əv dr z kt/ noun a law relating to all aspects of the supply and possession of dangerous drugs such as morphine, anabolic steroids, LSD and cannabis. In 2002 many new benzodiazepines were added. mite /mait/ noun a very small parasite, which causes dermatitis mitochondrial / maitə kɒndriəl/ adjective referring to mitochondria mitochondrion / maitə kɒndriən/ noun a tiny rod-shaped part of a cells cytoplasm responsible for cell respiration (NOTE: The plural is mito| mis- miscarriage mismatch missed case mist. | Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 | mite mitochondrial | mitochondrion | chondria.) molecule mittelschmerz mittelschmerz / mit(ə)l ʃmeəts/ noun a pain felt by women in the lower abdomen at ovulation MIU abbreviation minor injuries unit ml abbreviation millilitre MLD abbreviation minimum lethal dose MLSO abbreviation medical laboratory scientific officer mm abbreviation millimetre mmol abbreviation millimole MMR / em em ɑ /, MMR vaccine / em em ɑ v ksi n/ noun a single vaccine given to small children to protect them against measles, mumps and rubella MND abbreviation motor neurone disease MO abbreviation medical officer mobilisation / məυbilai zeiʃ(ə)n/, mobilization noun the act of making something mobile modality /məυ d liti/ noun a method used in the treatment of a disorder, e.g. surgery or chemotherapy modernisation agenda / mɒdənai zeiʃ(ə)n ə d endə/ noun same as Agenda for Change modern matron / mɒd(ə)n meitrən/ noun a nursing post which supports the ward sister in ensuring that basic care of patients, including cleanliness of the ward and infection control, is carried out to a high standard MODS abbreviation multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MOF abbreviation 1. male or female 2. multiorgan failure Mogadon / mɒ ədɒn/ a trade name for nitrazepam MOH abbreviation Medical Officer of Health mol symbol mole 2 molar / məυlə/ adjective 1. referring to the large back teeth 2. referring to the mole, the SI unit of amount of a substance í noun one of the large back teeth, used for grinding food. In milk teeth there are eight molars and in permanent teeth there are twelve. See illustration at TEETH in Supplement molarity /məυ l riti/ noun the strength of a solution shown as the number of moles of a substance per litre of solution mole /məυl/ noun 1. a dark raised spot on the skin She has a large mole on her chin. melanoma 2. an SI unit of measurement of the amount of a substance. Symbol mol molecular /mə lekjυlə/ adjective referring to a molecule molecular biology /mə lekjυlə bai ɒləd i/ noun the study of the molecules of living matter molecular weight /mə lekjυlə weit/ noun the weight of one molecule of a substance molecule / mɒlikju l/ noun the smallest independent mass of a substance | MIU ml MLD MLSO mm mmol MMR MND MO mobilisation | modality | modernisation agenda | | modern matron MODS MOF mitomycin C mitomycin C / maitəυmaisin si / noun an antibiotic which helps to prevent cancer cells from growing, used especially in the chemotherapy treatment of bladder and rectal cancers mitosis /mai təυsis/ noun the process of cell division, where the mother cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Compare meiosis mitral / maitrəl/ adjective referring to the mitral valve mitral incompetence / maitrəl in kɒmpit(ə)ns/ noun abbreviation MI. Now called mitosis | mitral mitral incompetence | mitral regurgitation mitral regurgitation mitral regurgitation / maitrəl ri di teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a situation in which the mitral valve does not close completely so that blood goes back into the atrium mitral stenosis / maitrəl ste nəυsis/ noun a condition in which the opening in the mitral valve becomes smaller because the cusps have fused | | mitral stenosis | (NOTE: This condition is almost always the result of rheumatic endocarditis.) mitral valve / maitrəl v lv/ noun a valve in mitral valve the heart which allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle but not in the opposite direction. Also called bicuspid valve mitral valvotomy / maitrəl v l vɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to separate the cusps of the mitral valve in mitral stenosis mitral valvotomy | Mogadon MOH mol molar molarity | mole molecular | molecular biology | molecular weight | molecule | Nursing.fm Page 190 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM molluscum contagiosum 190 molluscum contagiosum monoplegia molluscum contagiosum /mə l skəm kən teid i əυsəm/ noun a contagious viral skin infection which gives a small soft sore molluscum fibrosum /mə l skəm fai brəυsəm/ noun same as neurofibromatosis monaural /mɒn ɔ rəl/ adjective referring to the use of one ear only mongolism / mɒŋ əliz(ə)m/ noun a former name for Downs syndrome (NOTE: This term is monoplegia / mɒnəυ pli d ə/ noun the paralysis of one part of the body only, i.e. one muscle or one limb monosaccharide / mɒnəυ s kraid/ noun a simple sugar which cannot be broken down any further, such as glucose or fructose monosodium glutamate / mɒnəυsəυdiəm lu təmeit/ noun a sodium salt of glutamic acid, often used to make food taste better. Chinese regarded as offensive.) monitor restaurant syndrome monosomy / mɒnəυsəυmi/ noun a condition monitoring monoxide | | | molluscum fibrosum | | monaural | mongolism monitor / mɒnitə/ noun a screen on a computer í verb 1. to check something 2. to examine how someone is progressing monitoring / mɒnit(ə)riŋ/ noun the regular examination and recording of a persons temperature, weight, blood pressure and other essential indicators mono- /mɒnəυ/ prefix single or one monoamine oxidase / mɒnəυ mi n ɒksideiz/ noun an enzyme which breaks down the catecholamines to their inactive forms. Abbreviation MAO monoamine oxidase inhibitor / mɒnəυ mi n ɒksideiz in hibitə/ noun a drug which inhibits monoamine oxidase and is used to treat depression, e.g. phenelzine. Its use is limited, because of the potential for drug and dietary interactions and the necessity for slow withdrawal. It can also cause high blood pressure. Abbreviation MAOI. Also called MAO inhibitor monoblast / mɒnəυbl st/ noun a cell which produces a monocyte monochromatism / mɒnəυ krəυm ti (ə)m/ noun colour blindness in which all colours appear to be black, grey or white. Compare dichromatism, trichromatism monoclonal / mɒnəυ kləυn(ə)l/ adjective referring to cells or products of cells which are formed or derived from a single clone monoclonal antibody / mɒnəυkləυn(ə)l ntibɒdi/ noun an antibody which can be easily made in the laboratory by a single clone of cells. It may be useful in the treatment of cancer. monocular /mɒ nɒkjυlə/ adjective referring to one eye. Compare binocular monocular vision /mə nɒkjυlə vi (ə)n/ noun the ability to see with one eye only, so that the sense of distance is impaired monocyte / mɒnəυsait/ noun a white blood cell with a nucleus shaped like a kidney, which destroys bacterial cells monocytosis / mɒnəυsai təυsis/ noun a condition in which there is an unusually high number of monocytes in the blood. Symptoms include sore throat, swelling of the lymph nodes and fever. It is probably caused by the EpsteinBarr virus. Also called glandular fever mononucleosis / mɒnəυ nju kli əυsis/ noun same as monocytosis mono- monoamine oxidase | monoamine oxidase inhibitor | | monoblast monochromatism | monoclonal | monoclonal antibody monocular | monocular vision | monocyte monocytosis | mononucleosis | | | monosaccharide | monosodium glutamate monosomy in which a person has a chromosome missing from one or more pairs monoxide /mə nɒksaid/ ‘ carbon monozygotic twins / mɒnəυzai ɒtik twinz/ plural noun same as identical twins mons /mɒnz/ noun a fleshy body part which sticks out, especially the one formed by the pad of flesh where the pubic bones join (NOTE: The plu| monozygotic twins | mons ral is montes.) mons pubis mons pubis / mɒnz pju bis/ noun a cushion of fat covering the pubis mons veneris / mɒnz venəris/ noun same as mons veneris mons pubis Montgomerys glands Montgomerys glands /mənt məriz l ndz/ plural noun sebaceous glands around the nipple which become more marked in pregnancy | [After William Fetherstone Montgomery (1797 1859), Dublin gynaecologist.] mood /mu d/ noun a persons mental state at a mood particular time a mood of excitement in a bad mood feeling angry or irritable in a good mood feeling happy moon face / mu n feis/ noun a condition in which someone has a round red face, occurring in Cushings syndrome and when there are too many steroid hormones in the body Moorens ulcer / məυrənz lsə/ noun a persistent ulcer of the cornea, found in elderly people moon face Moorens ulcer [After Albert Mooren (182899), ophthalmologist in Düsseldorf, Germany.] morbid / mɔ bid/ adjective showing symptoms morbid of being diseased The X-ray showed a morbid condition of the kidneys. morbid anatomy / mɔ bid ə n təmi/ noun same as pathology morbidity /mɔ biditi/ noun the condition of being diseased or sick morbidity rate /mɔ biditi reit/ noun the number of cases of a disease per hundred thousand of population morbilli /mɔ bili/ noun same as measles morbilliform /mɔ bilifɔ m/ adjective referring to a rash which is similar to measles morbus / mɔ bəs/ noun disease moribund / mɒrib nd/ adjective dying í noun a dying person morbid anatomy | morbidity | morbidity rate | morbilli | morbilliform | morbus moribund Nursing.fm Page 191 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 191 morning-after pill morning-after pill / mɔ niŋ ɑ ftə pil/ noun a contraceptive pill taken after intercourse. Also called next-day pill morning sickness / mɔ niŋ siknəs/ noun nausea and vomiting experienced by women in the early stages of pregnancy when they get up in the morning Moro reflex / mɔ rəυ ri fleks/ noun a reflex of a newborn baby when it hears a loud noise (NOTE: morning sickness Moro reflex The baby is laid on a table and observed to see if it raises its arms when the table is struck.) [After Ernst Moro (18741951), paediatrician in Heidelberg, Germany.] morphea /mɔ fiə/ noun a form of scleroderma, morphea | a disease where the skin is replaced by thick connective tissue morpho- /mɔ fəυ/ prefix relating to form, shape or structure morphoea /mɔ fiə/ noun same as morphea morphology /mɔ fɒləd i/ noun the study of the structure and shape of living organisms -morphous /mɔ fəs/ suffix relating to form or structure of a particular type mortality rate /mɔ t ləti reit/ noun the number of deaths per year, shown per hundred thousand of population mortification / mɔ tifi keiʃ(ə)n/ noun ‘ morpho- morphoea | morphology | -morphous mortality rate | mortification | necrosis mortis / mɔ tis/ ‘ rigor mortuary / mɔ tjuəri/ noun a room in a hospimortis mortuary tal where dead bodies are kept until removed by an undertaker for burial mosquito /mɒ ski təυ/ noun an insect which sucks human blood, some species of which can pass viruses or parasites into the bloodstream mother / m ðə/ noun a biological or adoptive female parent mother-fixation / m ðə fik seiʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which a persons development has been stopped at a stage where he or she remains like a child, dependent on his or her mother motile / məυtail/ adjective referring to a cell or microorganism which can move spontaneously Sperm cells are extremely motile. motility /məυ tiliti/ noun 1. (of cells or microbes) the fact of being able to move about 2. (of the gut) the action of peristalsis motion / məυʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. movement 2. same as bowel movement motion sickness / məυʃ(ə)n siknəs/ noun illness and nausea felt when travelling. It is caused by the movement of liquid inside the labyrinth of the middle ear and is particularly noticeable in vehicles which are closed, such as planes, coaches or hovercraft. (informal ) mosquito | mother mother-fixation | motile motility | motion motion sickness COMMENT: The movement of liquid inside the labyrinth of the middle ear causes motion sickness, which is particularly noticeable in MRC vehicles which are closed, such as planes, coaches, hovercraft. motor / məυtə/ adjective referring to movemotor ment, which produces movement motor area / məυtər eəriə/, motor cortex / məυtə kɔ teks/ noun the part of the cortex in the brain which controls voluntary muscle movement by sending impulses to the motor nerves motor disorder / məυtə dis ɔ də/ noun impairment of the nerves or neurons that cause muscles to contract to produce movement motor end plate / məυtər end pleit/ noun the end of a motor nerve where it joins muscle fibre motor nerve / məυtə n v/ noun a nerve which carries impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and causes movements. Also called efferent nerve motor neurone / məυtə njυərəυn/ noun a neurone which is part of a nerve pathway transmitting impulses from the brain to a muscle or gland motor neurone disease / məυtə njυərəυn di zi z/ noun a disease of the nerve cells which control the movement of the muscles. Abbreviation MND motor area motor disorder | motor end plate motor nerve motor neurone motor neurone disease | COMMENT: Motor neurone disease has three forms: progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), which affects movements of the hands, lateral sclerosis, and bulbar palsy, which affects the mouth and throat. motor pathway / məυtə pɑ θwei/ noun a motor pathway series of motor neurones leading from the motor cortex to a muscle mottled / mɒt(ə)ld/ adjective with patches of different colours mountain fever / maυntin fi və/ noun same as brucellosis mountain sickness / maυntin siknəs/ noun same as altitude sickness mouth /maυθ/ noun an opening at the head of the alimentary canal, through which food and drink are taken in, and through which a person speaks and can breathe She was sleeping with her mouth open. (NOTE: For other terms referring mottled mountain fever mountain sickness mouth to the mouth, see oral and words beginning with stomat-, stomato-.) mouth-to-mouth / maυθ tə maυθ/, mouthto-mouth resuscitation / maυθ tə maυθ ri s si teiʃ(ə)n/, mouth-to-mouth ventilation / maυθ tə maυθ venti leiʃ(ə)n/ noun same as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (informal ) mouthwash / maυθwɒʃ/ noun an antiseptic mouth-to-mouth | | | mouthwash solution used to treat infection in the mouth movement / mu vmənt/ noun the act of changing position or the fact of not being still MP joint / em pi d ɔint/ noun same as metamovement MP joint carpophalangeal joint MRC MRC abbreviation Medical Research Council Nursing.fm Page 192 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM MRCGP 192 MRCGP MRCGP abbreviation Member of the Royal College of General Practitioners MRCP abbreviation Member of the Royal College of Physicians MRCS abbreviation Member of the Royal College of Surgeons MRI abbreviation magnetic resonance imaging mRNA abbreviation messenger RNA MRSA abbreviation methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MS abbreviation 1. mitral stenosis 2. multiple sclerosis MSH abbreviation melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSU abbreviation midstream specimen of urine mSv abbreviation millisievert mucin / mju sin/ noun a compound of sugars and protein which is the main substance in mucus muco- /mju kəυ/ prefix referring to mucus mucocele / mju kəυsi l/ noun a cavity containing an accumulation of mucus mucociliary transport / mju kəυ siliəri tr nspɔ t/ noun the process in which the cilia, the microscopic structures within the nose, move mucus towards the oesophagus, cleansing the nose of dust and bacteria mucocoele / mju kəυsi l/ noun 1. a condition in which a cavity or organ becomes swollen because there is too much mucus in it 2. the swelling produced by this condition mucocutaneous / mju kəυkju teiniəs/ adjective referring to both mucous membrane and the skin mucoid / mju kɔid/ adjective similar to mucus mucolytic / mju kəυ litik/ noun a substance which dissolves mucus mucopurulent / mju kəυ pjυərυlənt/ adjective consisting of a mixture of mucus and pus mucopus / mju kəυ p s/ noun a mixture of mucus and pus mucosa /mju kəυzə/ noun same as mucous MRCP MRCS MRI mRNA MRSA MS MSH MSU mSv mucin muco- mucocele mucociliary transport | mucocoele mucocutaneous | | mucoid mucolytic | mucopurulent | mucopus | mucosa | membrane (NOTE: The plural is mucosae.) mucosal /mju kəυz(ə)l/ adjective referring to mucosal | a mucous membrane mucous / mju kəs/ adjective referring to mucus, covered in mucus mucous colitis / mju kəs kə laitis/ noun an inflammation of the mucous membrane in the intestine, in which the person experiences pain caused by spasms in the muscles of the walls of the colon, accompanied by constipation or diarrhoea or alternating attacks of both. Also called mucous mucous colitis | irritable bowel syndrome mucous membrane / mju kəs membrein/ noun a wet membrane which lines internal pasmucous membrane sages in the body, e.g. the nose, mouth, stomach and throat, and secretes mucus. Also called mucosa mucous plug mucous plug / mju kəs pl / noun a plug of mucus which blocks the cervical canal during pregnancy mucoviscidosis /mju kəυvisi dəυsis/ noun same as cystic fibrosis mucus / mju kəs/ noun a slippery liquid secreted by mucous membranes inside the body, which protects those membranes (NOTE: For mucoviscidosis | mucus other terms referring to mucus, see words beginning with blenno-.) multi- /m lti/ prefix many multidisciplinary / m lti disiplinəri/ adjective using or involving several speed submulti- multidisciplinary | jects or skills a multidisciplinary team multifactorial / m ltif k tɔ riəl/ adjective 1. involving several different factors or elements 2. referring to inheritance which depends on more than one gene. Height and weight are examples of characteristics determined by multifactorial inheritance. multifocal lens / m lti fəυk(ə)l lenz/ noun a lens in spectacles whose focus changes from top to bottom so that the person wearing the spectacles can see objects clearly at different distances multiforme / m ltifɔ m/ ‘ erythema multimultifactorial | multifocal lens | multiforme forme multigravida multigravida / m lti r vidə/ noun a pregnant woman who has been pregnant two or more times before multi-infarct dementia / m lti infɑ kt di menʃə/ noun dementia caused by a number of small strokes, when the dementia is not progressive as in Alzheimers disease but increases in steps as new strokes occur multilocular / m lti lɒkjυlə/ adjective referring to a body part or growth which has a lot of separate compartments or locules multi-organ failure / m lti ɔ ən feiljə/ noun an extremely serious condition in which several of the bodys organs stop functioning at the same time. The person may survive, depending on how many organs fail and the length of time that the failure lasts. Abbreviation MOF multipara /m l tipərə/ noun a woman who has given birth to two or more live children multiple / m ltip(ə)l/ adjective occurring several times or in several places multiple birth / m ltip(ə)l b θ/ noun a birth where more than one child is born at the same time multiple fracture / m ltip(ə)l fr ktʃə/ noun a condition in which a bone is broken in several places multiple organ dysfunction syndrome / m ltip(ə)l ɔ ən dis f ŋkʃ(ə)n sindrəυm/ noun a state of continuous disturbances and abnormalities in organ systems, rather than true | multi-infarct dementia | multilocular | multi-organ failure multipara | multiple multiple birth multiple fracture multiple organ dysfunction syndrome | Nursing.fm Page 193 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 193 failure, e.g. following trauma and sepsis. It is often fatal. Abbreviation MODS multiple pregnancy / m ltip(ə)l pre nənsi/ noun a pregnancy where the mother is going to give birth to more than one child multiple sclerosis / m ltip(ə)l sklə rəυsis/ noun a nervous disease which gets progressively worse, where patches of the fibres of the central nervous system lose their myelin, causing numbness in the limbs and progressive weakness and paralysis. Abbreviation MS. Also called disseminated sclerosis. arteriosclerosis, atheromultiple pregnancy multiple sclerosis | sclerosis multipolar neurone multipolar neurone /m lti pəυlə njυərəυn/ noun a neurone with several processes. See illus| tration at NEURONE in Supplement. Compare bipolar neurone, unipolar neurone multiresistant / m ltiri zistənt/ adjective multiresistant | resistant to several types of antibiotic multivitamin / m lti vitəmin/ noun a preparation containing several vitamins and sometimes minerals, used as a dietary supplement í adjective referring to a preparation containing several vitamins, and sometimes minerals multivitamin pills multivitamin supplement mumps /m mps/ noun an infectious disease of children, with fever and swellings in the salivary glands, caused by a paramyxovirus He caught mumps from the children next door. Also called multivitamin | mumps infectious parotitis (NOTE: Takes a singular or a plural verb.) Münchausens syndrome / m ntʃaυz(ə)nz sindrəυm/ noun a mental disorder in which Münchausens syndrome someone tries to get hospital treatment by claiming symptoms of an illness which he or she does not have. Many people will undergo very painful procedures which they do not need. [Described by Richard Asher in 1951, and named after Baron von Münchhausen, a 16th century traveller and inveterate liar.] Münchausens syndrome by proxy Münchausens syndrome by proxy / m ntʃaυz(ə)nz sindrəυm bai prɒksi/ noun a mental disorder in which someone tries to get hospital treatment for someone else such as their child or an elderly relative. It is regarded as a form of child abuse, as the person may cause a child to be ill in order to receive attention. murmur / m mə/ noun a sound, usually the sound of the heart, heard through a stethoscope muscae volitantes / m skai vɒli t nteiz/ plural noun pieces of cellular or blood debris present in the vitreous of the eye, common in old age but, if a sudden event, can be a symptom of retinal haemorrhage. Also called floaters muscarine / m skəri n/ noun a poison found in fungi muscarinic / m skə rinik/ adjective referring to a neurone or receptor stimulated by acetylcholine and muscarine murmur muscae volitantes | muscarine muscarinic | mutism muscle muscle / m s(ə)l/ noun 1. an organ in the body, which contracts to make part of the body move If you do a lot of exercises you develop strong muscles. The muscles in his legs were still weak after he had spent two months in bed. She had muscle cramp after going into the cold water. See illustration at EYE in Supplement 2. same as muscle tissue muscle fatigue muscle fatigue / m s(ə)l fə ti /, muscular fatigue / m skjυlə fə ti / noun tiredness in the muscles after strenuous exercise muscle fibre / m s(ə)l faibə/ noun a component fibre of muscles (NOTE: There are two types | | muscle fibre of fibre which form striated and smooth muscles.) muscle relaxant / m s(ə)l ri l ksənt/ noun a muscle relaxant | drug which reduces contractions in the muscles, e.g. baclofen muscle spasm / m s(ə)l sp z(ə)m/ noun a sudden contraction of a muscle muscle tissue / m s(ə)l tiʃu /, muscular tissue / m skjυlə tiʃu / noun the speed type of tissue which forms the muscles and which can contract and expand muscle wasting / m s(ə)l weistiŋ/ noun a condition in which the muscles lose weight and become thin muscular / m skjυlə/ adjective referring to muscle muscular dystrophy / m skjυlə distrəfi/ noun a type of muscle disease where some muscles become weak and are replaced with fatty tissue. Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscular fatigue / m skjυlə fə ti / noun same as muscle fatigue muscular tissue / m skjυlə tiʃu / noun same as muscle tissue musculo- /m skjυləυ/ prefix relating to or affecting muscle musculocutaneous / m skjυləυkju teiniəs/ adjective referring to muscle and skin musculoskeletal / m skjυləυ skelit(ə)l/ adjective referring to muscles and bone mutant / mju t(ə)nt/ adjective in which mutation has occurred mutant gene / mju t(ə)nt d i n/ noun a gene which has undergone mutation mutation /mju teiʃ(ə)n/ noun a change in DNA which changes the physiological effect of the DNA on the cell mute /mju t/ adjective 1. unwilling or unable to speak 2. felt or expressed without speech í noun somebody who is unable or unwilling to speak muscle spasm muscle tissue muscle wasting muscular muscular dystrophy muscular fatigue | muscular tissue musculo- musculocutaneous | | musculoskeletal | mutant mutant gene mutation | mute (NOTE: This term is sometimes considered offensive.) mutism / mju tiz(ə)m/ noun the condition of being unable to speak. Also called dumbness mutism Nursing.fm Page 194 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM my- 194 my- my- /mai/ prefix same as myo- (used before vowels) myalgia myalgia /mai ld ə/ noun a muscle pain myalgic encephalomyelitis /mai ld ik en kefələυmaiə laitis/ noun a long-term condition affecting the nervous system, in which someone feels tired and depressed and has pain and weakness in the muscles. Abbreviation ME. Also called chronic fatigue syndrome, postviral | myalgic encephalomyelitis | | | fatigue syndrome myasthenia myasthenia / maiəs θi niə/, myasthenia gravis / maiəs θi niə rɑ vis/ noun a general weakness and dysfunction of the muscles, caused by poor conduction at the motor end plates myc- /maik, mais/ prefix same as myco- (used | | myc- before vowels) myco- myco- /maikəυ/ prefix referring to fungus Mycobacterium / maikəυb k ti əriəm/ noun one of a group of bacteria including those which cause leprosy and tuberculosis Mycoplasma / maikəυ pl zmə/ noun a type of microorganism, similar to a bacterium, associated with diseases such as pneumonia and urethritis mycosis /mai kəυsis/ noun any disease caused by a fungus, e.g. athletes foot mydriasis /mai draiəsis/ noun an enlargement of the pupil of the eye mydriatic / midri tik/ noun a drug which makes the pupil of the eye become larger myelin / maiəlin/ noun the substance of the cell membrane of Schwann cells that coils into a protective covering around nerve fibres called a myelin sheath myelinated / maiəlineitid/ adjective referring to nerve fibre covered by a myelin sheath myelination / maiəli neiʃ(ə)n/ noun the process by which a myelin sheath forms around nerve fibres myelin sheath / maiəlin ʃi θ/ noun a layer of myelin that insulates some nerve cells and speeds the conduction of nerve impulses. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement myelocele / maiələsi l/ noun same as meninMycobacterium | Mycoplasma | mycosis | mydriasis | mydriatic | myelin myelinated myelination | myelin sheath myelocele gomyelocele myeloma / maiə ləυmə/ noun a malignant tumour in bone marrow, at the ends of long bones or in the jaw myelomeningocele / maiələυmə niŋ əυsi l/ noun same as meningomyelocele myelopathy / maiə lɒpəθi/ noun any disorder of the spinal cord or bone marrow myelosuppression / maiələυsə preʃ(ə)n/ noun a condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells, often occurring after chemotherapy myo- /maiəυ/ prefix referring to muscle myocardial / maiəυ kɑ diəl/ adjective referring to the myocardium myocardial infarction / maiəυ kɑ diəl in fɑ kʃən/ noun the death of part of the heart muscle after coronary thrombosis. Abbreviation MI myocarditis / maiəυkɑ daitis/ noun inflammation of the heart muscle myocardium / maiəυ kɑ diəm/ noun the middle layer of the wall of the heart, formed of heart muscle. See illustration at HEART in Supplement myocele / maiəsi l/ noun a condition in which a muscle pushes through a gap in the surrounding membrane myoclonic / maiəυ klɒnik/ adjective referring to myoclonus myoclonic epilepsy / maiəυklɒnik epilepsi/ noun a form of epilepsy where the limbs jerk frequently myoclonus /mai ɒklənəs/ noun a muscle spasm which makes a limb give an involuntary jerk myocyte / maiəυsait/ noun a muscle cell myofibril / maiəυ faibril/ noun a long thread of striated muscle fibre myofibrosis / maiəυfai brəυsis/ noun a condition in which muscle tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue myoma /mai əυmə/ noun a benign tumour in a smooth muscle myomectomy / maiəυ mektəmi/ noun the surgical removal of a benign growth from a muscle, especially removal of a fibroid from the uterus myometritis / maiəυmə traitis/ noun inflammation of the myometrium. Also called metritis myometrium / maiəυ mi triəm/ noun the muscular tissue in the uterus myoneural / maiəυ njυərəl/ adjective relating to or involving both the muscles and the nerves myoneural junction / maiəυnjυərəl d ŋkʃ(ə)n/ noun same as neuromuscular | myelomeningocele | | myelopathy | myelosuppression | | myo- myocardial | myocardial infarction | | myocarditis | myocardium | myocele myoclonic | myoclonic epilepsy myoclonus | myocyte myofibril | myofibrosis | myoma | myomectomy | myometritis | myelography myelography / maiə lɒ rəfi/ noun an X-ray examination of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space after a radio-opaque substance has been injected myeloid / maiəlɔid/ adjective 1. referring to bone marrow, or produced by bone marrow 2. referring to the spinal cord myeloid leukaemia / maiəlɔid lu ki miə/ noun an acute form of leukaemia in adults myeloid tissue / maiəlɔid tiʃu / noun red bone marrow | myeloid myeloid leukaemia | myeloid tissue myeloma myometrium | myoneural | myoneural junction junction myopathy myopathy /mai ɒpəθi/ noun a disease of a muscle, especially one in which the muscle wastes away | Nursing.fm Page 195 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 195 myopia myopia /mai əυpiə/ noun a condition in which someone can see clearly objects which are close, but not ones which are further away. Also called shortsightedness. Opposite longsightedness myopic /mai ɒpik/ adjective able to see close objects clearly, but not objects which are further away. Also called shortsighted, nearsighted myoplasty / maiəυpl sti/ noun a form of plastic surgery to repair a muscle myosarcoma / maiəυsɑ kəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour containing unstriated muscle myosis /mai əυsis/ noun another spelling of | myopic | myoplasty myosarcoma | myosis | miosis 1 myositis myositis / maiəυ saitis/ noun inflammation and degeneration of a muscle myotic /mai ɒtik/ noun a drug which causes the pupil of the eye to contract myotomy /mai ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a muscle myotonia / maiəυ təυniə/ noun difficulty in relaxing a muscle after exercise myotonic / maiəυ tɒnik/ adjective referring to tone in a muscle myringa /mi riŋ ə/ noun same as eardrum myringitis / mirin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the eardrum | myotic | myotomy | myotonia | myotonic | myringa | myringitis | myxovirus myringoplasty myringoplasty /mi riŋ əυpl sti/ noun the surgical repair of a perforated eardrum. Also called tympanoplasty myringotome /mi riŋ əυtəυm/ noun a sharp knife used in myringotomy myringotomy / miriŋ ɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make an opening in the eardrum to allow fluid to escape. Also called tympanotomy myx- /miks/, myxo- /miksəυ/ prefix referring to mucus myxoedema / miksə di mə/ noun a condition caused when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The person, often a middle-aged woman, becomes overweight, moves slowly and develops coarse skin. It can be treated with thyroxine. myxoedematous / miksə demətəs/ adjective referring to myxoedema myxoid cyst / miksɔid sist/ noun a cyst which develops at the base of a fingernail or toenail myxovirus / miksəυ vairəs/ noun any virus which has an affinity for the mucoprotein receptors in red blood cells. One of these viruses causes influenza. | myringotome | myringotomy | myx- myxoedema | myxoedematous | myxoid cyst myxovirus | Nursing.fm Page 196 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM N n n symbol nanonabothian cyst /nə bəυθiən sist/, nabothian follicle /nə bəυθiən fɒlik(ə)l/, nabothian gland /nə bəυθiən l nd/ noun a cyst which forms in the cervix of the uterus when the ducts in the cervical glands are blocked Naegele rule / nei ələ ru l/ noun a method used to determine when a pregnant woman is likely to go into labour, in which nine months and seven days are added to the date on which her last period started. If the woman does not have a 28day menstrual cycle, an adjustment is made: e.g., if she has a 26-day cycle you would subtract 2 days from the Naegeles estimated due date. naevus / ni vəs/ noun same as birthmark nabothian cyst | | | Naegele rule naevus (NOTE: The plural is naevi.) NAI NAI abbreviation non-accidental injury nail /neil/ noun a hard growth, made of keratin, which forms on the top surface at the end of each finger and toe. Also called unguis (NOTE: For nail terms referring to nail, see words beginning with onych-, onycho-.) nail avulsion nail avulsion / neil ə v lʃən/ noun the act of pulling away an ingrowing toenail nail bed / neil bed/ noun the part of the finger which is just under the nail and on which the nail rests nail matrix / neil meitriks/ noun the internal structure of the nail, the part of the finger from which the nail grows naloxone /nə lɒksəυn/ noun a drug resembling morphine, used in the diagnosis of narcotics addiction and to reverse the effects of narcotics poisoning named nurse / neimd n s/ noun a nurse, midwife or health visitor who is responsible for communicating with a particular person and ensuring that his or her needs for care and information are met nandrolone / n ndrələυn/ noun an anabolic steroid which builds muscle. Its use is banned by the International Amateur Athletics Federation. nano- /n nəυ/ prefix one thousand millionth (10-9). Symbol n | nail bed nail matrix naloxone | named nurse nandrolone nano- nanometre nanometre / n nəυmitə/ noun a unit of measurement of length equal to one thousand millionth of a metre. Symbol nm nanomole / n nəυməυl/ noun a unit of measurement of the amount of a substance equal to one thousand millionth of a mole. Symbol nmol nanosecond / n nəυ sekənd/ noun a unit of measurement of time equal to one thousand millionth of a second. Symbol ns nape /neip/ noun the back of the neck. Also called nucha nappy / n pi/ noun a cloth used to wrap round a babys bottom and groin, to keep clothing clean and dry nappy rash / n pi r ʃ/ noun sore red skin on a babys buttocks and groin, caused by long contact with ammonia in a wet nappy naproxen /n prɒksen/ noun a drug which reduces inflammation and pain, used in the treatment of arthritis narcissism / nɑ sisiz(ə)m/ noun in psychiatry, a personality disorder in which someone has a very confident opinion about their own appearance and abilities, and a great need to be admired by other people. It sometimes involves sexual interest in their own body. narco- /nɑ kəυ/ prefix referring to sleep or stupor narcolepsy / nɑ kəlepsi/ noun a condition in which someone has an uncontrollable tendency to fall asleep at any time narcoleptic / nɑ kə leptik/ adjective 1. causing narcolepsy 2. having narcolepsy í noun 1. a substance which causes narcolepsy 2. someone who has narcolepsy narcosis /nɑ kəυsis/ noun a state of lowered consciousness induced by a drug narcotic /nɑ kɒtik/ noun a pain-relieving drug which makes someone sleep or become unconscious The doctor put her to sleep with a powerful narcotic. í adjective causing sleep or unconsciousness the narcotic side-effects of an antihistamine nares / neəri z/ plural noun the nostrils (NOTE: nanomole nanosecond | nape nappy nappy rash naproxen | narcissism narco- narcolepsy narcoleptic | narcosis | narcotic | nares The singular is naris.) nasal nasal / neiz(ə)l/ adjective referring to the nose Nursing.fm Page 197 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 197 nasal apertures nasal apertures / neiz(ə)l pətʃəs/ plural noun the two openings shaped like funnels leading from the nasal cavity to the pharynx. choana nasal cavity / neiz(ə)l k viti/ noun the cavnasal cavity ity behind the nose between the cribriform plates above and the hard palate below, divided in two by the nasal septum and leading to the nasopharynx nasal conchae / neiz(ə)l kɒŋki / plural noun the three ridges of bone, called the superior, middle and inferior conchae, which project into the nasal cavity from the side walls. Also called turnasal conchae binate bones nasal congestion nasal congestion / neiz(ə)l kən d estʃ(ə)n/ noun the blocking of the nose by inflammation as | a response to a cold or other infection nasal drops / neiz(ə)l drɒps/ plural noun drops of liquid inserted into the nose nasal septum / neiz(ə)l septəm/ noun a wall of cartilage between the two nostrils and the two parts of the nasal cavity nasal spray / neiz(ə)l sprei/ noun a spray of liquid into the nose nascent / n s(ə)nt, neis(ə)nt/ adjective 1. in the process of coming into existence and starting to develop 2. referring to a substance, especially hydrogen, in the process of being created. At this stage it is often in a highly active form. Naseptin /n septin/ a trade name for a mixture containing chlorhexidine and neomycin, used to treat nasal infection by organisms such as staphylococci naso- /neizəυ/ prefix referring to the nose nasogastric / neizəυ strik/ adjective referring to the nose and stomach nasogastric tube / neizəυ strik tju b/ noun a tube passed through the nose into the stomach nasolacrimal / neizəυ l krim(ə)l/ adjective referring to the nose and the tear glands nasolacrimal duct / neizəυ l krim(ə)l d kt/ noun a duct which drains tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose nasopharyngeal / neizəυ f rin d i əl/ adjective referring to the nasopharynx nasopharyngitis / neizəυ f rin d aitis/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx nasopharynx / neizəυ f riŋks/ noun the top part of the pharynx which connects with the nose nasosinusitis / neizəυ sainə saitis/ noun a condition in which the nose and sinuses swell up nates / neiti z/ noun same as buttock National Boards / n ʃ(ə)nəl bɔ rdz/ plural noun the National Boards for Nursing, Midwifery, and Health Visiting, which were formerly responsible for the education of professionals in nasal drops nasal septum nasal spray nascent Naseptin | naso- nasogastric | nasogastric tube | nasolacrimal | nasolacrimal duct | nasopharyngeal | | nasopharyngitis | nasopharynx | nasosinusitis | nates National Boards | | navel these fields in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland National Council for Vocational Qualifications / n ʃ(ə)nəl kaυns(ə)l fə vəυ keiʃ(ə)nəl kwɒlifi keiʃ(ə)nz/ noun full form of NCVQ National Health Service / n ʃ(ə)nəl helθ s vis/ noun a government service in the UK which provides medical services free of charge at the point of delivery, or at reduced cost, to the whole population. The service is paid for out of tax revenue. Abbreviation NHS National Institute for Clinical Excellence / n ʃ(ə)n(ə)l institju t fə klinik(ə)l eksələns/ noun an organisation in the UK which produces recommendations for treatments based on clinical evidence and cost-effectiveness. Abbreviation NICE National Service Framework / n ʃ(ə)nəl s vis freimw k/ noun full form of NSF natriuretic / neitrijυ retik/ noun something which helps sodium to be excreted in the urine natural childbirth / n tʃ(ə)rəl tʃaildb θ/ noun childbirth where the mother is not given any pain-killing drugs or anaesthetic but is encouraged to give birth after having prepared herself through relaxation and breathing exercises and a new psychological outlook natural immunity / n tʃ(ə)rəl i mju niti/ noun the immunity from disease which a newborn baby has from birth and which is inherited or acquired in the uterus or from the mothers milk natural killer cell / n tʃ(ə)rəl kilə sel/ noun a white blood cell which can recognise microorganisms and tumour cells as foreign without any previous exposure to them, and destroy them natural mother / n tʃ(ə)rəl m ðə/, natural parent / n tʃ(ə)rəl peərənt/ noun same as National Council for Vocational Qualifications | | National Health Service National Institute for Clinical Excellence National Service Framework natriuretic | natural childbirth natural immunity | natural killer cell natural mother birth mother, birth parent nature nurture debate nature nurture debate / neitʃə n tʃə di beit/ noun the arguments put forward about whether human beings behave in the way they do because of their genetic make-up and instincts or because of the way they are educated and the influences they are exposed to when they are young naturopathy / neitʃə rɒpəθi/ noun a method of treatment of diseases and disorders which does not use medical or surgical means, but natural forces such as light, heat, massage, eating natural foods and using herbal remedies nausea / nɔ ziə/ noun a feeling that you want to vomit She suffered from nausea in the morning. He felt slight nausea after getting onto the boat. nauseated / nɔ zieitid/ adjective feeling as if you are about to vomit The casualty may feel nauseated. navel / neiv(ə)l/ noun the scar with a depression in the middle of the abdomen where the umbilical | naturopathy | nausea nauseated navel Nursing.fm Page 198 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM navicular 198 cord was detached after birth. Also called umbilicus (NOTE: For other terms referring to the navel, see words beginning with omphal-, omphalo-.) navicular navicular /nə vikjυlə/ adjective relating to a navicular bone í noun same as navicular bone navicular bone /nə vikjυlə bəυn/ noun one of the tarsal bones in the foot. See illustration at FOOT in Supplement NCVQ / en si vi kju / noun a government body in the UK responsible for setting standards of qualification for specific jobs. Full form | navicular bone | NCVQ National Council for Vocational Qualifications NDU abbreviation Nursing Development Unit nearsighted /niə saitid/ adjective same as nearsighted | myopic nebula nebula / nebjυlə/ noun a slightly cloudy spot on the cornea nebuliser / nebjυlaizə/, nebulizer noun same as atomiser neck /nek/ noun 1. the part of the body which joins the head to the body He is suffering from pains in the neck. The front of the neck is swollen with goitre. The jugular veins run down the side of the neck. 2. a narrow part of a bone or organ neck collar / nek kɒlə/ noun a strong high collar to support the head of a person with neck injuries or a condition such as cervical spondylosis necro- /nekrəυ/ prefix referring to death necrology /ne krɒləd i/ noun the scientific study of mortality statistics necrophilia / nekrəυ filiə/, necrophilism /ne krɒfiliz(ə)m/ noun unusual pleasure in corpses necropsy / nekrɒpsi/ noun same as post mornebuliser neck neck collar necro- necrology | necrophilia | necropsy tem needling needs assessment | | negative negative feedback negligence Neisseria | nematode neo- neoadjuvant chemotherapy | | necrosis necrosis /ne krəυsis/ noun the death of a part of the body such as a bone, tissue or an organ as a result of disease or injury Gangrene is a form of necrosis. necrotic /ne krɒtik/ adjective referring to, or affected with, necrosis necrotic tissue necrotising enterocolitis / nekrətaiziŋ entərəυkə laitis/ noun a disorder in which patches of dead tissue are found in the small or large intestine as a result of severe bacterial infection. It occurs in babies, especially premature ones. necrotomy /ne krɒtəmi/ noun the dissection of a dead body (NOTE: The plural is necrotomies.) needle / ni d(ə)l/ noun 1. a thin metal instrument with a sharp point at one end and a hole at the other for attaching a thread, used for sewing up surgical incisions 2. the hollow pointed end of a hypodermic syringe, or the syringe itself | necrotic | necrotising enterocolitis | necrotomy | needle needlestick injury needs deprivation NDU | needlestick needlestick / ni d(ə)lstik/ noun an accidental pricking of your own skin by a needle, as by a nurse picking up a used syringe needlestick injury / ni d(ə)lstik ind əri/ noun the real or potential harm resulting from a prick with a needle previously used to take blood or give an injection. The main concern is the risk of HIV or hepatitis B infection. needling / ni d(ə)liŋ/ noun the puncture of a cataract with a needle needs assessment / ni dz ə sesmənt/ noun the investigation of what a particular group of people need in terms of health and social care, so that services can be matched to their needs needs deprivation / ni dz depri veiʃ(ə)n/ noun a state in which someone does not have the opportunity or capacity to fulfil his or her basic needs negative / ne ətiv/ adjective 1. meaning or showing no 2. indicating that something being tested for is not present The test results were negative. Opposite positive negative feedback / ne ətiv fi db k/ noun a situation in which the result of a process represses the process which caused it negligence / ne lid əns/ noun the act of causing injury or harm to another person or to property as the result of doing something wrongly or failing to provide a proper level of care Neisseria /nai siəriə/ noun a genus of bacteria which includes gonococcus, which causes gonorrhoea, and meningococcus, which causes meningitis nematode / nemətəυd/ noun a type of parasitic roundworm, e.g. a hookworm, pinworm or roundworm neo- /ni əυ/ prefix new neoadjuvant chemotherapy / ni əυ d υvənt ki məυ θerəpi/ noun chemotherapy given to people with tumours instead of immediate surgery or radiotherapy, in the hope of reducing the need for these later neomycin / ni əυ maisin/ noun a drug used externally to treat bacterial infections neonatal / ni əυ neit(ə)l/ adjective referring to the first few weeks after birth neonatal death rate / ni əυneit(ə)l deθ reit/ noun the number of babies who die soon after birth, shown per thousand babies born neonatal screening / ni əυ neit(ə)l skri niŋ/ noun a set of tests performed on babies soon after birth so that any problems can be treated immediately (NOTE: Tests for certain disneomycin | neonatal | neonatal death rate neonatal screening | eases such as hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria are a legal duty.) neonate / ni əυneit/ noun a baby which is less neonate than four weeks old neonatologist / ni ənə tɒləd ist/ noun a spet who looks after babies during the first few neonatologist | Nursing.fm Page 199 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 199 weeks of life, or premature babies and babies with some congenital disorders neonatology / ni əυnə tɒləd i/ noun the branch of medicine dealing with babies in the first few weeks of life neoplasm / ni əυpl z(ə)m/ noun any new and morbid formation of tissue neoplasty / ni əυpl sti/ noun the surgical repair or replacement of damaged tissue neostigmine / ni əυ sti mi n/ noun a white crystalline compound used in the treatment of muscle fatigue myasthenia and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxant drugs nephr- /nefr/ prefix kidney nephralgia /ne fr ld ə/ noun pain in the kidney nephralgic /ne fr ld ik/ adjective relating to pain in the kidney nephrectomy /ne frektɒmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the whole kidney (NOTE: The neonatology | neoplasm neoplasty neostigmine | nephr- nephralgia | nephralgic | nephrectomy | plural is nephrectomies.) nephritis /ne fraitis/ noun inflammation of the nephritis | kidney nephroblastoma / nefrəυbl stəυmə/ noun a malignant tumour in the kidneys in young children, usually under the age of 10, leading to swelling of the abdomen. It is treated by removal of the affected kidney. Also called Wilms nephroblastoma | tumour (NOTE: The plural is nephroblastomas or nephrobrastomata.) nephrocalcinosis / nefrəυ k lsi nəυsis/ noun a condition in which calcium deposits are nephrocalcinosis | | found in the kidney nephrocapsulectomy / nefrəυ k psjυ lektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove the capsule round a kidney (NOTE: The plural is nephrocapsulectomy | | nephrocapsulectomies.) nephrogram / nefrə r m/ noun a radionephrogram graphic examination of the kidney nephrolith / nefrəliθ/ noun a stone in the kidney nephrolithiasis / nefrəυli θaiəsis/ noun a condition in which stones form in the kidney nephrolithotomy / nefrəυli θɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove a stone in the kidney nephrolith nephrolithiasis | nephrolithotomy | (NOTE: The plural is nephrolithotomies.) nephrologist /ne frɒləd ist/ noun a doctor nephrologist | who spees in the study of the kidney and its diseases nephrology /ne frɒləd i/ noun the study of the kidney and its diseases nephroma /ne frəυmə/ noun a tumour in the kidney, or a tumour derived from renal substances nephrology | nephroma | (NOTE: The plural is nephromas or nephromata.) nephron / nefrɒn/ noun a tiny structure in the nephron kidney through which fluid is filtered nerve gas nephropathy nephropathy /ne frɒpəθi/ noun a disease or medical disorder of the kidney (NOTE: The plural | is nephropathies.) nephropexy / nefrəυpeksi/ noun a surgical operation to attach a mobile kidney (NOTE: The plural is nephropexies.) nephroptosis / nefrɒp təυsis/ noun a condinephropexy nephroptosis | tion in which a kidney is mobile. Also called floating kidney nephrosclerosis nephrosclerosis / nefrəυsklə rəυsis/ noun a kidney disease due to vascular change nephroscope / nefrəskəυp/ noun a type of endoscope used to examine the kidneys nephrosis /ne frəυsis/ noun degeneration of the tissue of a kidney nephrostomy /ne frɒstəmi/ noun a surgical operation to make a permanent opening into the pelvis of the kidney from the surface (NOTE: The | nephroscope nephrosis | nephrostomy | plural is nephrostomies.) nephrotic nephrotic /ne frɒtik/ adjective relating to or caused by nephrosis nephrotic syndrome /ne frɒtik sindrəυm/ noun increasing oedema, albuminuria and raised blood pressure resulting from nephrosis nephrotomy /ne frɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut into a kidney (NOTE: The plural is | nephrotic syndrome | nephrotomy | nephrotomies.) nephrotoxic / nefrəυ tɒksik/ adjective poinephrotoxic | sonous or damaging to kidney cells nephroureterectomy / nefrəυ jυəritə rektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of a kidney and the ureter attached to it. Also called ureteronephrectomy (NOTE: The nephroureterectomy | | plural is nephroureterectomies.) nerve nerve /n v/ noun 1. a bundle of fibres that can transmit electrochemical impulses and that forms part of the network that connects the brain and spinal cord to the bodys organs 2. the sensitive tissue in the root of a tooth (NOTE: For other terms referring to nerves, see words beginning with neur-, neuro-.) nerve block / n v blɒk/ noun the act of stopnerve block ping the function of a nerve by injecting an anaesthetic nerve centre / n v sentə/ noun the point at which nerves come together nerve ending / n v endiŋ/ noun same as nerve centre nerve ending sensory receptor nerve entrapment syndrome nerve entrapment syndrome / n v in tr pmənt sindrəυm/ noun pain caused by pressure on a nerve, especially where nerves occur in narrow passages such as the wrist nerve fibre / n v faibə/ noun a thin structure leading from a nerve cell and carrying nerve impulses, e.g. an axon nerve gas / n v s/ noun a gas which attacks the nervous system | nerve fibre nerve gas Nursing.fm Page 200 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM nerve impulse 200 nerve impulse nerve impulse / n v imp ls/ noun an electrochemical impulse which is transmitted by nerve cells nerve regeneration / n v ri enəreiʃ(ə)n/ noun the growth of new nerve tissue after damage has occurred nerve root / n v ru t/ noun the first part of a nerve as it leaves or joins the spinal column nerve regeneration | nerve root (NOTE: The dorsal nerve root is the entry for a sensory nerve, and the ventral nerve root is the exit for a motor nerve.) nerve tissue / n v tiʃu / noun tissue which nerve tissue forms nerves, and which is able to transmit the nerve impulses nervosa /nə vəυsə/ ‘ anorexia nervosa nervous / n vəs/ adjective 1. referring to nerves 2. very easily worried Dont be nervous the operation is a very simple one. nervous breakdown / n vəs breikdaυn/ noun any sudden mental illness (informal ) nervous complaint / n vəs kəm pleint/, nervous disorder / n vəs dis ɔ də/ noun an emotional or mental illness (informal ) nervousness / n vəsnəs/ noun the state of being nervous nervous system / n vəs sistəm/ noun the nervous tissues of the body, including the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, ganglia and nerve centres nether parts / neðə pɑ ts/, nether regions / neðə ri d (ə)nz/ plural noun the lower part of the body, especially the buttocks or genital area nervosa | nervous nervous breakdown nervous complaint | | nervousness nervous system nether parts (informal ) nettle rash nettle rash / net(ə)l r ʃ/ noun same as urticaria neural tube defect | tube defect if the mother takes folic acid during her pregnancy.) neurapraxia / njυərə pr ksiə/ noun a lesion neurapraxia | of a nerve which leads to paralysis for a very short time, giving a tingling feeling and loss of function neurectomy /njυ rektəmi/ noun a surgical operation to remove all or part of a nerve (NOTE: neurectomy | The plural is neurectomies.) neurilemma neurilemma / njυəri lemə/ noun the outer sheath, formed of Schwann cells, which covers the myelin sheath around a nerve fibre. Also called neurolemma. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement neuritis /njυ raitis/ noun inflammation of a nerve, giving a constant pain neuro- /njυərəυ/ prefix nerve or nervous system neuroendocrine system / njυərəυ endəkrin sistəm/ noun a system in which the central nervous system and hormonal systems interact to control the function of organs and tissues neuroepithelial / njυərəυepi θi liəl/ adjective referring to the neuroepithelium neuroepithelium / njυərəυepi θi liəm/ noun the layer of epithelial cells forming part of the lining of the mucous membrane of the nose or the labyrinth of the middle ear neurofibril / njυərəυ faibril/ noun a fine thread in the cytoplasm of a neurone neurofibrilla / njυərəυ fibrilə/ noun same as neurofibril. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement (NOTE: The plural is neurofibrillae.) neurofibroma / njυərəυfai brəυmə/ noun a benign tumour of a nerve, formed from the neurilemma (NOTE: The plural is neurofibromas or | neuritis | neuro- neuroendocrine system | neuroepithelial | neuroepithelium | neurofibril | network network / netw k/ noun any of various computer-based systems designed to allow fast communication of information between NHS agencies, e.g. communication of X-ray results from a hospital to a GP surgery a network of fine blood vessels Neumans model / nɔimənz mɒd(ə)l/ noun a modern model for nursing in which prevention is the primary nursing aim (NOTE: Prevention Neumans model focuses on keeping both the things which cause stress and the patients response to stress from having a damaging effect on the body.) neur- /njυər/ prefix same as neuro- (used before vowels) neural / njυərəl/ adjective referring to a nerve neur- neural or the nervous system neural arch / njυərəl ɑ tʃ/ noun a curved part of a vertebra, which forms the space through which the spinal cord passes neuralgia /njυ r ld ə/ noun a spasm of pain which runs along a nerve neural tube / njυərəl tju b/ noun a tube lined with ectodermal cells running the length of an neural arch neuralgia | neural tube embryo, which develops into the brain and spinal cord neural tube defect / njυərəl tju b di fekt/ noun a congenital anomaly which occurs when the edges of the neural tube do not close up properly while the fetus develops in the uterus, e.g. spina bifida (NOTE: There is less risk of a neural neurofibrilla | neurofibroma | neurofibromata.) neurofibromatosis neurofibromatosis / njυərəυ faibrəυmə təυsis/ noun a hereditary condition in which a person has neurofibromata on the nerve trunks, limb plexuses or spinal roots, and pale brown spots appear on the skin. Abbreviation NF. Also called molluscum fibrosum, von Reckling| | hausens disease neurogenic neurogenic / njυərəυ d enik/ adjective coming from the nervous system neurogenic bladder / njυərəυd enik bl də/ noun a disturbance of the bladder function caused by lesions in the nerve supply to the bladder neurogenic shock / njυərəυd enik ʃɒk/ noun a state of shock caused by bad news or an unpleasant surprise | neurogenic bladder neurogenic shock Nursing.fm Page 201 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 201 neuroglandular junction neuroglandular junction / njυərəυ l ndjυlə d ŋkʃən/ noun the point where a nerve joins the gland which it controls neurohormone / njυərəυ hɔ məυn/ noun a hormone produced in some nerve cells and secreted from the nerve endings neurohypophysis / njυərəυhai pɒfəsis/ noun the lobe at the back of the pituitary gland, which secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (NOTE: | neurohormone | neurohypophysis | The plural is neurohypophyses.) neurolemma / njυərəυ lemə/ noun same as neurilemma neuroleptic / njυərəυ leptik/ noun an antineurolemma | neuroleptic | psychotic drug which calms a person and stops him or her from worrying, e.g. chlorpromazine hydrochloride neurological / njυərə lɒd ik(ə)l/ adjective referring to neurology neurological assessment / njυərəlɒd ik(ə)l ə sesmənt/ noun an evaluation of the health of a person with a disorder of the nervous system, using interviews, a physical examination, and specific diagnostic tests, sometimes with the help of a family member or close friend neurologist /njυ rɒləd ist/ noun a doctor who spees in the study of the nervous system and the treatment of its diseases neurology /njυ rɒləd i/ noun the scientific study of the nervous system and its diseases neuroma /njυ rəυmə/ noun a benign tumour formed of nerve cells and nerve fibres (NOTE: The neurological | neurological assessment | neurologist | neurology | neuroma | plural is neuromas or neuromata.) neuromuscular / njυərəυ m skjυlə/ adjective referring to both nerves and muscles neuromuscular | neuromuscular junction neuromuscular junction / njυərəυm skjυlə d ŋkʃən/ noun the point where a motor nerve joins muscle fibre. Also called myoneural junction neuron / njυərəυn/, neurone / njυərɒn/ noun a cell in the nervous system which transmits nerve impulses. Also called nerve cell neuropathic bladder / njυərəυp θik bl də/ noun a condition in which the bladder does not function properly because its nerve supply is damaged, e.g. due to an injury to the spinal cord neuropathology / njυərəυpə θɒləd i/ noun the study of diseases of the nervous system neuropathy /njυə rɒpəθi/ noun a disease involving destruction of the tissues of the nervous system (NOTE: The plural is neuropathies.) neurophysiology / njυərəυfizi ɒləd i/ noun the study of the physiology of nerves neuroplasty / njυərəυpl sti/ noun surgery to repair damaged nerves neuropsychiatry / njυərəυsai kaiətri/ noun the study of mental and nervous disorders neuron neuropathic bladder neuropathology | neuropathy | neurophysiology | neuroplasty neuropsychiatry | next-day pill neurorrhaphy neurorrhaphy /njυ rɔ rəfi/ noun a surgical operation to join by suture a nerve which has been cut (NOTE: The plural is neurorraphies.) neurosecretion / njυərəυsi kri ʃ(ə)n/ noun a substance secreted by a nerve cell neurosis /njυ rəυsis/ noun a disorder of the personality in which a person experiences obsessive negative emotions towards someone or something, e.g. fear of empty spaces or jealousy of a sibling. psychoneurosis (NOTE: The plural is | neurosecretion | neurosis | neuroses.) neurosurgeon neurosurgeon / njυərəυ s d ən/ noun a surgeon who operates on the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord neurosurgery / njυərəυ s d əri/ noun surgery on the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord neurotic /njυ rɒtik/ adjective relating to or having neurosis neurotomy /njυ rɒtəmi/ noun a surgical operation to cut a nerve (NOTE: The plural is neurot| neurosurgery | neurotic | neurotomy | omies.) neurotoxic neurotoxic / njυərəυ tɒksik/ adjective harmful or poisonous to nerve cells neurotransmitter / njυərəυtr ns mitə/ noun a chemical substance which transmits nerve impulses from one neurone to another neurotripsy / njυərəυtripsi/ noun surgical bruising or crushing of a nerve neurotrophic / njυərəυ trəυfik/ adjective relating to the nutrition and maintenance of tissue of the nervous system neurotropic / njυərəυ trɒpik/ adjective referring to a bacterium which is attracted to and attacks nerves neuter / nju tə/ adjective neither male nor female neutral / nju trəl/ adjective (of a substance) neither acid nor alkali A pH factor of 7 is neutral. neutralise / nju trəlaiz/, neutralize verb 1. to counteract the effect of something Alkali poisoning can be neutralised by applying acid solution. (NOTE: neutralising neutralised) 2. to form a salt from an acid neutropenia / nju trə pi niə/ noun a condition in which there are fewer neutrophils than usual in the blood neutrophil / nju trəfil/ noun a type of white blood cell with an irregular nucleus, which can attack and destroy bacteria. Also called poly| neurotransmitter | neurotripsy neurotrophic | neurotropic | neuter neutral neutralise neutropenia | neutrophil morph newton newton / nju t(ə)n/ noun an SI unit of measurement of force. Symbol N new variant CJD / nju veəriənt si d ei di / noun ‘ variant CJD next-day pill / nekst dei pil/ noun same as new variant CJD next-day pill morning-after pill Nursing.fm Page 202 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM next of kin 202 next of kin next of kin / nekst əv kin/ noun the person or persons who are most closely related to someone The hospital has notified the next of kin of the death of the accident victim. (NOTE: Takes a singular or plural verb.) nexus nexus / neksəs/ noun a point where two organs or tissues join NHS abbreviation National Health Service NHS Direct / en eitʃ es di rekt/ noun in the UK, a national telephone helpline run by nurses to provide information about health and health services for the public NHS targets / en eitʃ es tɑ its/ plural noun performance targets set by the government for individual NHS primary care trusts niacin / naiəsin/ noun a vitamin of the vitamin B complex found in milk, meat, liver, kidney, yeast, beans, peas and bread, lack of which can cause mental disorders and pellagra. Also called NHS NHS Direct | NHS targets niacin nicotinic acid nicardipine nicardipine /ni kɑ dipi n/ noun a drug which slows down the movement of calcium ions into smooth muscle cells, used especially to treat angina NICE /nais/ abbreviation National Institute for Clinical Excellence niclosamide /ni kləυsəmaid/ noun a drug used for removing tapeworms nicotine / nikəti n/ noun the main alkaloid substance found in tobacco nicotine addiction / nikəti n ə dikʃən/ noun an addiction to nicotine, derived from smoking tobacco nicotine patch / nikəti n p tʃ/ noun a patch containing nicotine which is released slowly into the bloodstream, applied to the skin as a method of curing nicotine addiction nicotine replacement / nikəti n ri pleismənt/ noun the use of nicotine patches or other products to help during an attempt to give up smoking nicotinic acid / nikətinik sid/ same as | NICE niclosamide | nicotine nicotine addiction | nicotine patch nicotine replacement | nicotinic acid niacin nictation nictation /nik teiʃ(ə)n/, nictitation /nikti teiʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of winking nidation /nai deiʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the process of building the endometrial layers of the uterus between menstrual periods 2. the point in the development of an embryo at which the fertilised ovum reaches the uterus and implants in the wall of the uterus. Also called implantation nidus / naidəs/ noun a site where bacteria can settle and breed, which becomes a centre of infection (NOTE: The plural is niduses or nidi.) Niemann-Pick disease / ni mən pik di zi z/ noun a rare inherited disease of a group which affect metabolism. Signs in babies include | | nidation | nidus Niemann-Pick disease | feeding difficulties, a large abdomen within 3 to 6 months, and progressive loss of early motor skills. nifedipine /ni fedipi n/ noun a drug which stops the heart muscles from taking up calcium, used in the treatment of high blood pressure and angina pectoris night nurse / nait n s/ noun a nurse who is on duty at night night sweat / nait swet/ noun heavy sweating when a person is asleep at night night terror / nait terə/ noun a period of disturbed sleep, which a child does not remember afterwards nigra / nai rə/ ‘ linea nigra nihilism / naihiliz(ə)m/ noun the rejection of all the usual social conventions and beliefs, especially of morality and religion nihilistic / naihi listik/ adj relating to or showing a belief in nihilism nipple / nip(ə)l/ noun 1. same as mammilla 2. US a rubber teat on a babys feeding bottle Nissl granule / nis(ə)l r nju l/, Nissl body / nis(ə)l bɒdi/ noun one of the coarse granules surrounding the nucleus in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. See illustration at NEURONE in Supplement nifedipine | night nurse night sweat night terror nigra nihilism nihilistic | nipple Nissl granule [Described 1894. After Franz Nissl (18601919), German psychiatrist.] nit /nit/ noun an egg or larva of a louse nitrate / naitreit/ noun a drug such as glyceryl nit nitrate trinitrate which dilates the vessels leading to the heart muscle and lowers cardiac work by reducing venous return to the heart, for rapid relief of angina and in heart failure (NOTE: Patients can develop tolerance to these drugs.) -nitrate -nitrate /naitreit/ suffix used in names of nitrate drugs nitrazepam /nai tr zip m/ noun a tranquilliser used in some sleeping pills nitrofurantoin / naitrəυfjυ r ntəυin/ noun a drug which helps to prevent the growth of bacteria, used in the treatment of urinary infections nitrogen / naitrəd ən/ noun a chemical element, which is a gas that is the main component of air and is an essential part of protein (NOTE: nitrazepam | nitrofurantoin | nitrogen The chemical symbol is N.) nitroglycerin nitroglycerin / naitrəυ lisərin/ noun a drug which helps the veins and coronary arteries to become wider nitrous oxide / naitrəs ɒksaid/ noun a colourless gas with a sweet smell, used in combination with other gases as an anaesthetic in dentistry and surgery. Also called laughing gas nm abbreviation nanometre NMC abbreviation Nursing and Midwifery Council nmol abbreviation nanomole NMR abbreviation nuclear magnetic resonance noci- /nəυsi/ prefix pain or injury | nitrous oxide nm NMC nmol NMR noci- Nursing.fm Page 203 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM 203 nociassociation non-union nociassociation / nəυsiə səυsi eiʃ(ə)n/ noun an unconscious release of nervous energy, affairs (NOTE: From a Latin phrase meaning not e.g. as a result of shock nociceptive / nəυsi septiv/ adjective referring to nerves which carry pain to the brain nociceptor / nəυsi septə/ noun a sensory nerve which carries pain to the brain noct- /nɒkt/ prefix same as noctinocte / nɒkti/ adverb at night. Opposite mane non-contagious | | nociceptive | nociceptor | noct- nocte (NOTE: used on prescriptions) nocti- /nɒkti/ prefix referring to night nocturia /nɒk tjυəriə/ noun the fact of passing nocti- nocturia | an unusually large quantity of urine during the night nocturnal /nɒk t n(ə)l/ adjective referring to or taking place at night nocturnal emission /nɒk t n(ə)l i miʃ(ə)n/ noun the production of semen from the penis while a man is asleep nocturnal enuresis /nɒk t n(ə)l enjυ ri sis/ noun the act of passing urine when asleep in bed at night. Also called bedwetting nodal / nəυd(ə)l/ adjective referring to nodes nodal tachycardia / nəυd(ə)l t ki kɑ diə/ noun a sudden attack of rapid heartbeats. Also called paroxysmal tachycardia node /nəυd/ noun a small mass of tissue node of Ranvier / nəυd əv r nviə/ noun one of a series of gaps in the myelin sheath surrounding a nerve fibre. See illustration at NEURONE in nocturnal | nocturnal emission | | nocturnal enuresis | | nodal nodal tachycardia | node node of Ranvier Supplement nod off / nɒd ɒf/ verb to fall asleep (informal ) nodosum /nəυ dəυsəm/ ‘ erythema nodonod off nodosum | sum nodular nodular / nɒdjυlə/ adjective formed of nodules nodule / nɒdju l/ noun 1. a small node or group of cells. Bohns nodules 2. the anterior part of the inferior vermis nomen proprium / nəυmən prəυpriəm/ noun full form of n.p. non- /nɒn/ prefix not non-absorbable suture / nɒn əb zɔ bəb(ə)l su tʃə/ noun a suture made of a substance which cannot be absorbed into the body and which eventually has to be removed non-accidental injury / nɒn ksi dent(ə)l ind əri/ noun an injury which is not caused accidentally non-allergenic / nɒn lə d enik/ adjective not aggravating an allergy non-compliance / nɒn kəm plaiəns/ noun the failure to take drugs at the correct times and in the dosages prescribed, or to take them at all non compos mentis / nɒn kɒmpəs mentis/ adjective referring to a person who is mentally incapable of managing his or her own nodule nomen proprium non- non-absorbable suture | non-accidental injury | non-allergenic | non-compliance | non compos mentis of sound mind.) non-contagious / nɒn kən teid əs/ adjective not contagious non-emergency surgery / nɒn i m d ənsi s d əri/ noun a surgical operation which does not need to be performed immediately because it is for a condition which is not life-threatening, e.g. joint replacement. Also called non-urgent | non-emergency surgery | surgery non-Hodgkins lymphoma non-Hodgkins lymphoma / nɒn hɒd kinz lim fəυmə/ noun a cancer of the lymph nodes which differs from Hodgkins disease by the absence of a particular type of cell with double nuclei non-insulin-dependent diabetes / nɒn insjυlin di pendənt daiə bi ti z/ noun same as Type II diabetes mellitus non-invasive / nɒn in veiziv/ adjective referring to treatment which does not involve entering the body by making an incision. invasive non-maleficence / nɒn mə lefis(ə)ns/ noun the concept that professionals in the health service have a duty to protect the patient from harm non-medical prescriber / nɒn medik(ə)l pri skraibə/ noun a professional healthcare worker who prescribes medicine but is not a registered doctor or dentist non-official drug / nɒn ə fiʃ(ə)l dr / noun a drug that is not listed in the national pharmacopoiea. Compare official drug non-palpable / nɒn p lpəb(ə)l/ adjective not able to be felt when touched non-secretor / nɒn si kri tə/ noun a person who does not secrete substances indicating ABO blood group into mucous fluids such as semen or saliva non-smoker / nɒn sməυkə/ noun a person who does not smoke non-specific / nɒn spə sifik/ adjective not caused by any single identifiable cause non-specific urethritis / nɒn spə sifik jυəri θraitis/ noun any sexually transmitted inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhoea (dated ) Abbreviation NSU non-steroidal / nɒn ste rɔid(ə)l/ adjective not containing steroids non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug / nɒn ste rɔid(ə)l nti in fl mət(ə)ri dr / noun a drug used in the treatment of pain associated with inflammation, including rheumatic disease, post-operative analgesia and dysmenorrhoea, by inhibiting the release of prostaglandins. Abbreviation NSAID (NOTE: Non-steroidal anti| non-insulin-dependent diabetes | | non-invasive | non-maleficence | non-medical prescriber | non-official drug | non-palpable non-secretor | non-smoker non-specific | non-specific urethritis | | non-steroidal | non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug | | inflammatory drugs have names ending in -fen: ibuprofen.) non-union / nɒn ju njən/ noun a condition in non-union which the two parts of a fractured bone do not join together and do not heal Nursing.fm Page 204 Monday, May 14, 2007 4:47 PM non-urgent surgery 204 non-urgent surgery non-urgent surgery / nɒn d ənt s d əri/ same as non-emergency surgery noradrenaline / nɔ rə drenəlin/ noun a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands which acts as a vasoconstrictor and is used to maintain blood pressure in shock, haemorrhage or hypotension normal / nɔ m(ə)l/ adjective usual, ordinary or conforming to a standard After he took the tablets, his blood pressure went back to normal. Her temperature is two degrees above normal. He had an above-normal pulse rate. Is it normal for a person with myopia to suffer from headaches? normo- /nɔ məυ/ prefix normal, usual or expected normoblast / nɔ məυbl st/ noun an early form of a red blood cell, usually found only in bone marrow but occurring in the blood in some types of leukaemia and anaemia normocyte / nɔ məυsait/ noun a red blood cell normotension / nɔ məυ tenʃən/ noun blood pressure at the usual level normotensive / nɔ məυ tensiv/ adjective referring to blood pressure at the usual level Norton score / nɔ t(ə)n skɔ / noun a scale for deciding how likely it is that pressure sores will develop, used mostly in assessing elderly patients nortriptyline /nɔ triptəli n/