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Beadle 1 STUDY GUIDE PSYC 2000 EXAM #1 Module 1: Story of Psychology Psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes Wilhelm Wundt: established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany Edward Bradford Titchener: Titchener used introspection to search for the mind’s structural elements William James and Mary Whiton Calkins: James, legendary teacher-writer, mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be President of the American Psychological Association Margaret Floy Washburn: The first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D., Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind Sigmund Freud: The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity’s self-understanding John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner: Working with Rauner, Watson championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “Little Albert.” B.F. Skinner A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior Charles Darwin: Darwin argued that6 natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies The biggest and most persistent is the nature-nurture issue—the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience. Three Levels of Analysis “The Biopsychosocial Approach”: Biological Influences-natural selection of adoptive traits; genetic predispositions responding to environment; brain mechanisms; hormonal influences Psychological influences-learned fears and other learned experiences; emotional responses; cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Social—Cultural influences-presence of others; cultural, social and family expatiations; peer and other group influences; compelling models (such as in the media) All influences relate to the behavior or mental process The sub-fields of psychology: Counseling psychology-a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being. Clinical psychology- a branch of psychology that studies, asses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
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Beadle 2 Psychiatry-a branch of medicine dealing with psychology disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy Counseling psychologist help people to cope with challenges and crisis (including academic, vocational, and martial issues) and to improve their personal and social functioning. Clinical psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders Psychiatrists also provide psychotherapy; are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders Module 2: Thinking Critically in Psychological Science Hindsight Blindness: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the
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