2009-10-01 Energy Management Systems I

# 2009-10-01 Energy Management Systems I - Energy Management...

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Energy Management Systems I Jovan Ilić ECE 18-418 Fall 2009

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What is EMS and why do we need it? • Customers want reliable, high quality power delivery • There is a large number of generators and loads • Reliability and quality is achieved through sharing generated power • Generation must be distributed among producers to balance out the total demand satisfying technical requirements
Issues of Interest • Power Flow (PF) computations • Optimal Power Flow (OPF) computations • Controlled switching • Contingency analysis • Short circuit computations • Stability analysis

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AC Z AC Z Z V1 V2 L Z12 Z13 Z23 So, what is different from a usual electrical circuit calculations? Power Flow Computations Solve a power system network for bus voltage magnitudes and angles
Differences Between Electrical Circuits and Power Networks • Power demands expressed as P/Q, not RLC • Power sources expressed as P/V, not V • Frequency drift and system instability is possible due to P/Q generation demand mismatch • Network equations are non-linear • Multiple solutions some of which are possible and some are not

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Network equations are not non-linear because AC nature of the system!       2 3 1 -0.131296-0.0213811 i,-0.131296+0.0213811 i,0.728969,1.03362 0.221336-0.284416 i,0.221336+0.284416 i,0.183579,0.873749 19.0996+3.05797 i,19.0996-3.05797 i,10.8745,0.926289 G V V P AC Z AC Z Z V1 V2 L Z12 Z13 Z23 12 13 23 2 3 1 0.1 2 2.5 1.0 G D Z Z Z PW VV
Mathematical tools for solving a system of nonlinear equations. Gauss-Seidel iterative algorithm 1. Easy to program 2. Slow to converge 3. Might have to use “fudging” constants to control convergence 4. Point of convergence depends on the initial guess Newton-Raphson iterative algorithm 1. Harder to program 2. Very fast (quadratic) convergence 3. “Fudging” constants might be necessary 4. Point of convergence depends on the initial guess 5. Requires calculating the Jacobian

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2009-10-01 Energy Management Systems I - Energy Management...

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