TB 1 Chapter 07- Multiple-Choice Questions-1

TB 1 Chapter 07- Multiple-Choice Questions-1 - 1. According...

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Unformatted text preview: 1. According to the text, learning involves: A) the ability to think abstractly. B) a change in behavior due to experience. C) the development of prosocial behavior. D) a reduction in extrinsic motivation. 2. If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates: A) spontaneous recovery. B) associative learning. C) observational learning. D) operant conditioning. 3. Conditioning is the process of: A) discrimination. B) spontaneous recovery. C) learning associations. D) observational learning. 4. Pet cats who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their cat food illustrate: A) shaping. B) extrinsic motivation. C) classical conditioning. D) observational learning. 5. After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates: A) shaping. B) spontaneous recovery. C) respondent behavior. D) observational learning. 6. Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying: A) intrinsic motivation. B) respondent behavior. C) spontaneous recovery. D) operant conditioning. Page 1 7. The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by: A) Watson. B) Skinner. C) Bandura. D) Pavlov. 8. John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n): A) physiological psychologist. B) cognitive psychologist. C) behaviorist. D) psychoanalyst. 9. John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether: A) consumer buying habits are influenced by newspaper advertisements. B) worker productivity is influenced by hourly wage rates. C) academic achievement is influenced by a positive selfconcept. D) aggressive behavior is influenced by threats of punishment. 10. Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol? A) negative reinforcement B) classical conditioning C) latent learning D) operant conditioning 11. The “psychic secretions” that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were: A) unconditioned responses. B) primary reinforcers. C) conditioned responses. D) conditioned reinforcers. 12. Which of the following is an unconditioned response? A) playing jump rope B) running through a maze to get a food reward C) sweating in hot weather D) clapping after a thrilling concert performance Page 2 13. In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was: A) a tone. B) salivation to the sound of a tone. C) the presentation of food in the dog's mouth. D) salivation to the food in the mouth. 14. In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n): A) unconditioned stimulus. B) unconditioned response. C) conditioned stimulus. D) conditioned response. 15. In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n): A) conditioned response. B) unconditioned response. C) unconditioned stimulus. D) conditioned stimulus. 16. In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n): A) conditioned response. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) unconditioned response. D) conditioned stimulus. 17. A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n): A) conditioned response. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) conditioned stimulus. D) unconditioned response. 18. If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n): A) unconditioned stimulus. B) primary reinforcer. C) conditioned stimulus. D) immediate reinforcer. Page 3 19. A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a: A) US. B) CS. C) UR. D) CR. 20. Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called: A) shaping. B) acquisition. C) generalization. D) spontaneous recovery. 21. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a: A) UR. B) US. C) CR. D) CS. 22. In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________. A) US; CS B) UR; CR C) CS; US D) CR; UR 23. A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly: A) after an appropriate UR. B) after an appropriate US. C) before an appropriate UR. D) before an appropriate US. Page 4 24. Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________. A) UR; CR B) CS; UR C) US; UR D) CS; US 25. Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone: A) spontaneous recovery. B) extinction. C) generalization. D) discrimination. 26. Spontaneous recovery refers to the: A) expression of learning that had occurred earlier but had not been expressed because of lack of incentive. B) organism's tendency to respond spontaneously to stimuli similar to the CS as though they were the CS. C) return of a response after punishment has been terminated. D) reappearance, after a rest pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. 27. The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction: A) the CS is eliminated. B) the CR is eliminated. C) the CS is suppressed. D) the CR is suppressed. 28. Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates: A) spontaneous recovery. B) continuous reinforcement. C) latent learning. D) generalization. Page 5 29. Compared to nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates: A) shaping. B) generalization. C) the law of effect. D) negative reinforcement. 30. Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of: A) latent learning. B) generalization. C) delayed reinforcement. D) shaping. 31. Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bedwetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate: A) shaping. B) generalization. C) spontaneous recovery. D) secondary reinforcement. 32. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates: A) generalization. B) secondary reinforcement. C) shaping. D) spontaneous recovery. 33. After getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campfire, Julie became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stoves. This best illustrates the survival value of: A) latent learning. B) spontaneous recovery. C) generalization. D) shaping. Page 6 34. The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called: A) acquisition. B) discrimination. C) generalization. D) latent learning. 35. Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of: A) shaping. B) intermittent reinforcement. C) discrimination. D) spontaneous recovery. 36. The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning. A) shaping B) discrimination C) generalization D) cognitive processes 37. Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves: A) negative reinforcement. B) cognitive processes. C) spontaneous recovery. D) shaping. 38. A person adhering to the cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on: A) an organism's active behavioral responses to environmental stimulation. B) the amount of time between the presentation of the CS and the US. C) how frequently an organism is exposed to an association of a CS and a US. D) an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS. 39. Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with: A) loud sounds. B) bright lights. C) novel tastes. D) high-pitched sounds. Page 7 40. The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by: A) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats. B) Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response. C) Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants. D) Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children. 41. Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by: A) cognitive processes. B) biological predispositions. C) continuous reinforcement. D) latent learning. 42. An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by: A) Pavlov's experiments. B) Watson's behaviorism. C) a biopsychosocial approach. D) the law of effect. 43. Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because: A) it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning. B) so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned. C) it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning. D) all learning depends on reinforcement. 44. In order to assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a: A) US. B) UR. C) CS. D) CR. Page 8 45. Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears: A) can interfere with the process of learning. B) can be used as negative reinforcers. C) are acquired through observational learning. D) may be produced through classical conditioning. 46. After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of: A) secondary reinforcement. B) generalization. C) shaping. D) spontaneous recovery. 47. After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin began to experience a fear of the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear. A) negative reinforcer B) conditioned stimulus C) secondary reinforcer D) unconditioned stimulus 48. An organism learns associations between events it doesn't control during the process of: A) negative reinforcement. B) extrinsic motivation. C) classical conditioning. D) shaping 49. In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences? A) observational learning B) classical conditioning C) operant conditioning D) latent learning 50. Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of: A) generalization. B) classical conditioning. C) latent learning. D) operant conditioning. Page 9 51. Learning associations between one's own behavior and resulting events is to ________ as learning associations between events one doesn't control is to ________. A) latent learning; observational learning B) classical conditioning; operant conditioning C) observational learning; latent learning D) operant conditioning; classical conditioning 52. The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________. A) Pavlov; Skinner B) Bandura; Skinner C) Skinner; Bandura D) Bandura; Pavlov 53. B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called: A) shaping. B) observational learning. C) the law of effect. D) latent learning. 54. A Skinner box is a(n): A) aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors. B) “slot machine” used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on human gambling practices. C) chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward. D) television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning. 55. You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to: A) fear cars in the street. B) dislike the taste of dead birds. C) wag its tail whenever it is emotionally excited. D) retrieve sticks and balls. Page 10 56. Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of: A) secondary reinforcement. B) delayed reinforcement. C) spontaneous recovery. D) shaping. 57. A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ in order to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors. A) mirror neurons B) modeling C) a cognitive map D) shaping 58. A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n): A) unconditioned stimulus. B) partial reinforcement. C) discriminative stimulus. D) primary reinforcer. 59. Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of: A) generalization. B) modeling. C) shaping. D) latent learning. 60. An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n): A) conditioned stimulus. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) reinforcer. D) operant behavior. Page 11 61. Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n): A) positive reinforcer. B) unconditioned response. C) conditioned response. D) negative reinforcer. 62. Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________. A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer B) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer C) immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer D) reinforcement; punishment 63. Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding. A) decrease; increase B) increase; decrease C) increase; increase D) have no effect on; decrease 64. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer. A) positive B) negative C) conditioned D) partial 65. The taste of food and the termination of a headache are both ________ reinforcers. A) positive B) negative C) primary D) conditioned 66. A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer. A) delayed B) negative C) partial D) conditioned Page 12 67. Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer? A) applause for an excellent piano recital B) a spanking for eating cookies before dinner C) a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day D) termination of shock after removing one's finger from a live electric wire 68. The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ________ is to ________. A) delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer B) primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer C) discrimination; generalization D) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement 69. In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use: A) classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning. B) partial reinforcement rather than continuous reinforcement. C) immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers. D) negative reinforcers rather than positive reinforcers. 70. Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor's house, at which time she'll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ________ reinforcers. A) primary B) negative C) immediate D) partial 71. A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of: A) continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement. B) primary reinforcement followed by secondary reinforcement. C) partial reinforcement followed by continuous reinforcement. D) secondary reinforcement followed by primary reinforcement. Page 13 72. Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement. A) delayed B) intermittent C) conditioned D) negative 73. Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. Although at one time her mother granted every request, she now does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will: A) soon give up asking for a treat entirely. B) come to ask for a treat only occasionally. C) continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store. D) ask for a treat every time her mother takes her out, even if they don't go to the grocery store. 74. A fixedratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n): A) specified time period has elapsed. B) unpredictable time period has elapsed. C) specified number of responses have been made. D) unpredictable number of responses have been made. 75. Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement. A) fixed-ratio B) fixed-interval C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio 76. Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) variable-ratio; fixed-ratio B) fixed-ratio; variable-ratio C) fixed-ratio; variable-interval D) fixed-interval; variable-ratio Page 14 77. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) variable-interval C) fixed-ratio D) variable-ratio 78. Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) fixed-ratio C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio 79. A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n): A) unpredictable time period has elapsed. B) specified time period has elapsed. C) specified number of responses has been made. D) unpredictable number of responses has been made. 80. An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) fixed-ratio C) variable-ratio D) variable-interval 81. On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) fixed-ratio C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio Page 15 82. Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) fixed-ratio C) variable-interval D) variable-ratio 83. Rates of operant responding are ________ for fixed-ratio than for fixed-interval schedules; they are ________ for variable-ratio than for variable-interval schedules. A) lower; higher B) higher; lower C) lower; lower D) higher; higher 84. Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of: A) negative reinforcers. B) generalization. C) spontaneous recovery. D) punishment. 85. The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________. A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer B) acquisition; extinction C) reinforcement; punishment D) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer 86. Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding. A) increase; decrease B) decrease; increase C) decrease; decrease D) have no effect on; decrease 87. For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of: A) shaping over modeling. B) reinforcement over punishment. C) classical conditioning over operant conditioning. D) primary reinforcers over secondary reinforcers. Page 16 88. The use of physical punishment may: A) lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior. B) model aggression as a way of coping with problems. C) lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent. D) do all of the above. 89. Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the operant conditioning of work habits. A) primary reinforcers B) biological predispositions C) spontaneous recovery D) cognitive processes 90. Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. A) secondary reinforcers B) cognitive processes C) biological predispositions D) intrinsic motivation 91. After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a: A) cognitive map. B) discriminative stimulus. C) law of effect. D) fixed-interval schedule. 92. If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates: A) shaping. B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) modeling. Page 17 93. The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of: A) shaping. B) latent learning. C) extrinsic motivation. D) computer-assisted learning. 94. Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of: A) respondent behavior. B) spontaneous recovery. C) cognitive processes. D) conditioned reinforcers. 95. The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves: A) latent learning. B) extrinsic motivation. C) partial reinforcement. D) delayed reinforcers. 96. Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit: A) respondent behavior. B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) intrinsic motivation. 97. Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. In this instance, Yuri's behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George's behavior was a reflection of ________. A) operant conditioning; classical conditioning B) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation C) an unconditioned response; a conditioned response D) a fixed-interval schedule; a variable-interval schedule Page 18 98. It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning. A) primary reinforcers B) generalization C) spontaneous recovery D) biological predispositions 99. After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. A) conditioned reinforcement B) latent learning C) generalization D) biological predispositions 100. According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by: A) external influences. B) emotions. C) unconscious motives. D) conscious thoughts. 101. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized: A) inherited predispositions. B) fear and greed. C) faulty child-rearing practices. D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society. 102. B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's: A) personal freedom. B) early childhood experiences. C) pleasure-seeking tendencies. D) cultural background. 103. B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both: A) continuous reinforcement and latent learning. B) positive reinforcement and punishment. C) shaping and immediate reinforcement. D) observational learning and spontaneous recovery. Page 19 104. Which of the following is least likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software? A) respondent behavior B) immediate reinforcement C) operant behavior D) shaping 105. Alex learned how to make 3-point basketball shots by successfully making very short shots before shooting from increasingly longer distances from the hoop. This learning strategy best illustrates the process of: A) observational learning. B) delayed reinforcement. C) classical conditioning. D) shaping. 106. Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profitsharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of: A) latent learning. B) operant conditioning. C) classical conditioning. D) spontaneous recovery. 107. When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent training experts would suggest that his mother should: A) threaten to punish Hakim if he continues his tantrums. B) offer to buy the snack food Hakim wants only if he quiets down and behaves himself. C) continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums. D) return any snack foods that are already in her cart to the store shelves. 108. Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of: A) associative learning. B) respondent behavior. C) observational learning. D) intrinsic motivation. Page 20 109. A learned association between a response and a consequence is to ________ as a learned association between two stimuli is to ________. A) latent learning; observation learning B) operant conditioning; classical conditioning C) secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement D) acquisition; extinction 110. Our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others best illustrates: A) respondent behavior. B) prosocial behavior. C) operant conditioning. D) observational learning. 111. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of: A) respondent behavior. B) immediate reinforcement. C) modeling. D) shaping. 112. Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for: A) the law of effect. B) spontaneous recovery. C) observational learning. D) extrinsic motivation. 113. Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind. A) spontaneous recovery B) mirror neurons C) habituation D) operant chambers 114. We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to: A) partial reinforcement. B) spontaneous recovery. C) mirror neurons. D) extrinsic motivation. Page 21 115. Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior? A) delayed reinforcement B) observational learning C) immediate reinforcement D) classical conditioning 116. Who highlighted the importance of observational learning? A) Watson B) Bandura C) Skinner D) Pavlov 117. In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of: A) operant conditioning. B) respondent behavior. C) observational learning. D) spontaneous recovery. 118. We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are: A) conditioned responses. B) extrinsically motivated. C) followed by reinforcement. D) violent or antisocial. 119. Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to: A) punishing. B) discriminating. C) modeling. D) generalizing. Page 22 120. Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting: A) conditioned responses. B) prosocial behavior. C) extrinsic motivation. D) spontaneous recovery. 121. Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience. This best illustrates the impact of: A) operant conditioning. B) spontaneous recovery. C) observational learning. D) respondent behavior. 122. Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to: A) practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness. B) practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues. C) neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness. D) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness. 123. Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of: A) delayed reinforcement. B) observational learning. C) respondent behavior. D) shaping. 124. Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to: A) react with a sense of distress at the sight of two children fighting on the school playground. B) overestimate the percentage of crimes that involve violent acts. C) be more inhibited about personally starting a fight on the school playground. D) overestimate the pain and injury experienced by victims of violent crime. Page 23 125. Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior. A) inhibits B) causes C) is unrelated to D) predicts 126. Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits: A) justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm. B) unjustified violence that causes no visible pain or harm. C) justified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm. D) unjustified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm. Page 24 ...
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