chem chapter 9_1

chem chapter 9_1 - Chapter 9 Part I Hybridization...

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Chapter 9 Part I Hybridization
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Covalent Bonding How do Bonds form? From the Localized Electron Model we can predict: 1. Electron arrangement (Lewis) 2. Geometry of molecules (VSEPR) Bonding is due to the sharing of valence e between atoms Implies the overlap of atomic orbitals
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Covalent Bonding Bonding Molecular Orbitals Hybridization MO Theory Atomic Orbital Overlap 2 center bonding Bonds are formed by the simple overlap of atomic orbitals Localized electron model Multicenter bonding Bonds are formed by the interaction of valence electrons with all nuclei in molecule
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The localized Electron Model Consider Methane In order for these bond to form: We presume that the atomic orbitals of carbon must point in the direction of the hydrogen atoms Methane is made up of 4 bonds In order to form a methane molecule: Four identical C H bonds need to be formed What atomic orbitals will carbon use for bonding?
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The localized Electron Model Lets consider the electronic configurations for C and H C:[He]2s 2 2p 2 H:1s 1 Can we use these orbitals directly to create the appropriate geometry? We need 4 IDENTICAL bonds These orbitals will lead to bond angles of 90 o and not 109.5 o
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The localized Electron Model Lets consider the electronic configurations for C and H C:[He]2s 2 2p 2 H:1s 1 Can we use these orbitals directly to create the appropriate geometry? We need 4 IDENTICAL bonds So what do we do????? These orbitals will lead to bond angles of 90 o and not 109 o
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Sp 3 Hybridization We make Hybrid Orbitals 1 s + 3 p’s Î 4 sp 3 ’s The native 2s and three 2 p Atomic Orbitals of a Carbon atom are combined (mixed) to form a set of four new hybrid orbitals sp 3 hybrid orbitals Animation
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3 Hybridization Hybridization ixing of the native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding The native 2s and three 2 p Atomic Orbitals of a Carbon atom are combined (mixed) to form a set of four new hybrid orbitals 4 Atomic orbitals 4 Hybrid orbitals Note that both the number and the energy of the hybrid orbitals is conserved. sp
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chem chapter 9_1 - Chapter 9 Part I Hybridization...

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