chem chapter 8_1

chem chapter 8_1 - Chapter 8 Part I Bonding Questions to...

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Chapter 8 Part I Bonding
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Questions to Consider • What is a “chemical bond”? • Why do atoms bond with each other to form compounds? • How do atoms bond with each other to form compounds? The way atoms combine influences both the physical and chemical properties of the compounds formed.
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A chemical bond • Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. • A bond will form if the energy of the aggregate is lower than that of the separated atoms. System always wants to achieve the lowest possible energy state.
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Types of bonding • Ionic Bonding – electrons are transferred ; Electrostatic interaction between cation and anion • Ionic Solids (NaCl) • Covalent Bonding – electrons are shared equally; Electrons are attracted to both positively charged nuclei diatomics H 2 • Polar covalent bonding- electrons unequally shared; HF
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Chemical Bonds Covalent Ionic
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Covalent Bonding Molecules want to achieve the lowest possible energy configuration Lowest E state is where a bond occurs Interaction of two hydrogen atoms
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Covalent Bonding Molecules want to achieve the lowest possible energy configuration The length of the bond will be defined by this energy state H H H H H H When very far apart the H atoms experience no interaction As they approach one another their electron density begins to spread out as they start to interact Continues until they form a molecule (optimal distance)
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Covalent Bonding Polar Covalent shared electrons are not equally distributed, leading to negative and positive ends of a molecule CO, HF H H Pure Covalent shared electrons are equally distributed, leading to an electronically neutral molecule H 2 , N 2, CH 4 H ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ F δ + δ 1 Polar covalent molecules exhibit a DIPOLE MOMENT The more electronegative atom will pull the electron density towards itself
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Polar covalent bonding Molecules with a dipole moment orient themselves in an electric field H ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ F δ + δ 1
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Electronegativity The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
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chem chapter 8_1 - Chapter 8 Part I Bonding Questions to...

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