chem chapter 7_2

chem chapter 7_2 - Chapter 7 part II Physical Meaning of a...

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Chapter 7 part II
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Physical Meaning of a Wave Function The square of the function indicates the probability of finding an electron near a particular point in space. Probability distribution intensity of color indicates the probability of finding an electron at that position As you move away from the nucleus there is less chance of finding an electron Hydrogen 1s wave function
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Orbital shapes and energies What does the orbitals look like ? 90 % of the electron density is found in the center of the atom Size of H 1s orbital Distance from nucleus (r) Indicates that there are areas of 0 electron density along the curve NODES
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S Orbitals The radial distribution curve allows us to visualize the hydrogen s orbitals S orbitals are spherical in shape
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P Orbitals P orbitals are dumb-bell shaped The 3 P orbitals are degenerate in energy They all have the same energy 3p orbital has a node 2p orbital has no nodes
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D Orbitals The 5 D orbitals are also degenerate in energy D orbitals are complicated
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Polyelectronic atoms What about atoms with more than one electron ? Complications come from electron repulsions, cannot be calculated exactly. Electron attracted to nucleus and feels repulsion from other 10 electrons. Electron is not so tightly attracted to nucleus- shielded When electrons are placed in a particular quantum level, they “prefer” the orbitals in the order s , p , d , and then f. Sodium atom
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2p x 2p y 2p z 1s S Orbitals: spherical QN values of: all values of n l = 0, m l = 0 (1 subshell) Atomic Orbitals P Orbitals: dumbell QN Values of: n 2, l = 1, m l = 1, 0, 1 (3 subshells) D Orbitals: complicated shapes QN Values of: n 3, l = 2, m l = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2 (5 subshells) d xz d yz d xy d x2 y2 d z2
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Example How many 2p orbitals are there in an atom? 2p n=2 l = 1 If l = 1, then m l = -1, 0, or +1 3 orbitals How many electrons can be placed in the 3d subshell? 3d n=3 l = 2 If l = 2, then m l = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2 5 orbitals which can hold a total of 10 e -
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Penetration effect 2 s electron penetrates to the nucleus more than one in the 2 p orbital.
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2010 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Peterpastos during the Summer '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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chem chapter 7_2 - Chapter 7 part II Physical Meaning of a...

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