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Compare and contrast the major muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs and
relate their similarities and differences to their function.
The upper and lower limbs muscles, also called appendicular muscles, help in total range
of movement of these limbs. Upper limb involves the pectoral girdle and muscles of the
arm whereas lower limb involves the pelvic girdle and muscles of leg.
In the upper limb, pelvic girdle muscle mainly, pectoralis major is responsible for keeping
the upper limb stable or close to torso (adduction), initiating movement by flexion of upper
arm and internal rotation of arm. Likewise pelvic girdle muscles involved in lower limb are
iliacus and psoas major. They stabilize the upper leg being connected to axial skeleton on
other end and help in transferring of weight and initiating movement limb. Gluteus
maximus muscle on the back helps in extending hip joint and external rotation of leg.