12 BISC 120_PhylogeneticSyst

12 BISC 120_PhylogeneticSyst - Phylogenetic Systematics...

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1 Phylogenetic Systematics 26.1-26.3 2 Molecular systematics has revealed surprises! Fig. 26.2 3 More surprises! Eukarya Archaea Eubacteria 4 Even more surprises! Burbano et al. 2010. Science 328 (5879):723-725
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2 5 Some definitions… • Phylogeny = the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species • Systematics = scientific system for classifying organisms • Taxonomy = the science of naming and classifying living things • Phylogenetic systematics = classification of organisms by their order of branching on an evolutionary tree 6 • Developed by Carolus Linnaeus in 18th century • Includes two part format for scientific names (= binomial nomenclature ) and hierarchical classification system (e.g. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) • Still in use today (although Domain has been added as the most inclusive hierarchical category) Old-school taxonomy Species Panthera pardus Genus Family Felidae Carnivora Order Mammalia Class Phylum Chordata Kingdom Animalia Eukarya Domain Fig. 26.3 8 Taxonomic tips • ‘Species’ is both the singular and the plural form (there is no such thing as a specie!) • ‘Genus’ is singular, ‘Genera’ is plural • In a binomial name, the first letter of the genus (but not the species) is capitalized, e.g.
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12 BISC 120_PhylogeneticSyst - Phylogenetic Systematics...

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