Ch12.1-1 - Which of the following occurs in the degradation...

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Which of the following occurs in the degradation pathway of AMP? A. AMP is converted to adenosine. B. The end product is urea. C. Adenine is converted to hypoxanthine. D. Adenosine is converted to adenine.
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Figure 22-45 Catabolism of purine nucleotides Excreted by primates, birds, reptiles, insects
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De novo purine biosynthesis Figure 22-33
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Formation of AMP and GMP from IMP: Figure 22-34
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Pyrimidine Biosynthesis (de novo ): Figure 22-36
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Reduction of ribonucleotides by ribonucleotide reductase Figure 22-39
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Figure 22-42 Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase -- both the activity and the substrate specificity is regulated. ATP activates RR dATP inactivates RR purines pyrimidines
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Figure 22-44 Thymidylate synthesis
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Chapter 12 Biosignaling Signal transduction
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Activation of a G protein-coupled receptor causes the stimulatory G protein (G s ) to A. generate cGMP. B. dissociate from adenylyl cyclase. C. hydrolyze GTP into GDP and P i . D. replace its bound GDP with GTP.
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Fig. 12-1 The affinity between signal (ligand) and receptor is typically high on the order K d ~10 -10 M or less. Signal Transduction -- four important features…
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Scatchard Plot K a = [RL]/ [R][L] = 1/K d [RL]/[L] = 1/K d (B max - [RL])) B max = total number of binding sites (B max = [R] + [RL]) Box 12-1, Fig.1b R + L RL (R = Receptor, L = Ligand)
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Fig. 12-1 happens within milliseconds!
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Fig. 12-1
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Fig. 12-1
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Different types of receptors and different ways to respond… 1 2 3 4 5 •signal interacts with receptor receptor interacts with cellular machinery •produces change in the target cell’s metabolic activity •finally, transduction event terminates and cell returns to prestimulus state
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Before we discuss specific types of receptors and signal transduction, let’s describe some of the common players involved in many of the signal transduction pathways: •Protein kinases •Protein phosphatases •Second messengers
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1. General Protein Kinases: PKA = cAMP-dependent protein kinase Two catalytic subunits (M r ~39,000) and two regulatory subunits (M r ~ 35,000); activated by cAMP (see p. 428) PKG = cGMP-dependent protein kinase One catalytic and one regulatory domain on same polypeptide (M r ~ 80,000); activated by cGMP PKC = a regulatory and catalytic domain tethered by a hinge region; activated by diacylglycerol and Ca 2+ All these kinases phosphorylate other proteins on a Ser or Thr residues at one or more specific site(s).
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2. Specific protein kinases:
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2010 for the course CH 53380 taught by Professor Raymond during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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Ch12.1-1 - Which of the following occurs in the degradation...

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