Ch22.1 - Which of the following is true about all amino...

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Unformatted text preview: Which of the following is true about all amino acids? A. Degradation generates products that can enter the citric acid cycle. B. They cannot be catabolized by humans. C. The Frst step of catabolism is always the removal of the -amino group. D. They can be stored. E. None of the above Pathways of Amino Acid Degradation Figure 18-15 Which amino acid groups can be converted into glucose? Pink = glucogenic Blue = ketogenic 20 amino acids 6 major products Structures of enzyme cofactors involved in one carbon transfers: Another cofactor: Tetrahydrobiopterin Not involved in one-carbon transfers S-adenosylmethionine and the Methyl Cycle: Figure 18-18 CH 3 of SAM ~1000x more reactive than in CH 3-THF The role of PLP in serine and glycine catabolism (SHMT) Chapter 22 -- Biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and related molecules Overview of Nitrogen Metabolism Which chemical reaction depicts nitrification? A. N 2 NH 4 + B. NO 3- NH 4 + C. NO 2- NO 3- D. NO 3- N 2 Some thoughts about nitrogen --- Few species can convert atmospheric nitrogen into useful forms Different species (bacteria, plants and animals) function interdependently to salvage and reuse biologically available nitrogen Biologically useful nitrogen compounds can be scarce, so most organisms strictly control their use of ammonia, amino acids and nucleotides The nitrogen cycle Assimilation Anammox bacteria : oxidation of ammonia Specialized ladderdane lipids of anammoxosome membrane Nitrogen fxation -- occurs in certain prokaryotes - cyanobacteria, Azotobacter, and symbionts in root nodules oF leguminous plants N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 Exergonic reaction, but it has an extremely high activation energy The enzyme complex that catalyzes this reaction, uses energy of binding and hydrolysis oF ATP. The nitrogenase complex igure 22-4 Nitrogen fxation -- the nitrogenase complex Dinitrogenase reductase : dimer oF 2 identical subunits (blue and green), each dimer contains a single 4e-4S redox center and two binding sites For ATP Dinitrogenase : tetramer (2 copies oF 2 subunits = pink and gray) contains 2 pair oF 4e-4S centers and 2 e-Mo coFactors dinitrogenase dinitrogenase reductase igure 22-3 N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 The cofactors The nitrogenase cofactors....
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2010 for the course CH 53380 taught by Professor Raymond during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Ch22.1 - Which of the following is true about all amino...

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