Ch22.3 - Newborn infants sometimes develop jaundice because...

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Newborn infants sometimes develop jaundice because of an accumulation of A. heme. B. biliverdin. C. urobilin. D. bilirubin.
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Figure 22-7 Covalent modifications of glutamine synthetase: Adenylylation of tyr residue near active site AT - adenylyltransferase UT - uridylyltransferase
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Figure 22-9 Overview of amino acid biosynthesis
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Figure 22-20 Biosynthesis of histidine (bacteria and plants) Starts with PRPP and ATP
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Figure 22-20 Biosynthesis of histidine (bacteria and plants) Common reactions used: Amidotransferase from glutamine Aminotransferases from glutamate (incorporation of α -amino group) Then Gln donates a nitrogen…
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Enzyme Multiplicity Regulation of amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria: Figure 22-22 When same step in a pathway is catalyzed by multiple isozymes (same enzyme function, but from different genes) that are independently regulated. Independent regulation of these isozymes allow flux through certain branches of the pathway, but not others… cell can produce one end product without necessarily forming others (even though they share a common precursor). Sequential Feedback Inhibition When a biochemical pathway undergoes feedback inhibition at multiple steps of the pathway.
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Nitrogenous biomolecules derived from amino acids: Porphyrins (for heme proteins) are synthesized from either glycine (in animals) or glutamate (bacteria and plants) Glutathione is produced from gly, glu and cys Neurotransmitters and other biological amines are products of amino acid decarboxylation (PLP mediated) Nitric oxide is produced from arginine
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Chapter 22 -- Biosynthesis of Nucleotides
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Which of the following is true about the de novo synthesis of nucleotides? A. Deoxyribonucleotides are precursors of ribonucleotides. B. Amino acids are precursors of nucleotides. C. Purines are synthesized then attached to ribose or deoxyribose. D. Pyrimidines are precursors of purines.
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Notes about Nucleotides… They are: • Precursors of DNA and RNA • Carriers of chemical energy (i.e. ATP and GTP) • Components of critical cofactors (NAD, CoA, AdoMet) • Used as cellular second messengers (cAMP, cGMP) There are two pathways for the synthesis of nucleotides: -- de novo -- salvage
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We’ll start with the synthesis of purines, the de novo pathway is essentially the same in all organisms. The origin of the carbon and nitrogen atoms in the purine ring…
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Ch22.3 - Newborn infants sometimes develop jaundice because...

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