Ch23 - Chapter 23 Integration and Hormonal Regulation of...

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Chapter 23 Integration and Hormonal Regulation of Mammalian Metabolism
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The release of insulin from the pancreas is triggered or stimulated by A. low intracellular levels of glucose. B. a drop in intracellular ATP. C. the opening of Ca 2+ channels in the plasma membrane. D. stimuli from the sympathetic nervous system.
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Figure 23-12
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The liver gets the first look at the breakdown products of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins obtained from the diet. We’ll look at sugars first: Figure 15-17 GLUT2 transporter - efficiently transports blood glucose into liver. Glucokinase - converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Regulated by [glucose], not by [glucose-6-P] like other hexokinases.
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Figure 23-23/25 The liver plays a key role in keeping blood glucose levels stable.
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Possible fates of glucose in liver: Figure 23-13
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Metabolism of amino acids in the liver:
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Figure 23-15 What about fatty acids in liver?
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Summary of Liver Metabolism : The liver is the central metabolic organ. It processes nutrients from the diet, then synthesizes and distributes metabolites to other tissues where they are needed. The liver deals with excess amino groups by synthesizing urea and exporting it to kidney for excretion. The liver also detoxifies foreign and other possibly harmful compounds. (cytochrome P-450). The liver plays a key role in maintaining blood glucose levels under different dietary conditions.
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Now, look at some other tissues and their roles in whole body metabolism. Adipose tissue (stores and supplies fatty acids): • Triacylglycerols make up 65% of the volume of these cells. • When carbohydrate intake is high, adipocytes convert glucose to fatty acids then store them as TAGs • They also store TAGs made in the liver. • When fuel is in demand, hormones stimulate the release of fatty acids (via lipases) which are delivered to heart and muscle for fuel. Figure 23-16 Human adipocytes
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uses ATP to do mechanical work Figure 23-18 Figure 23-20 Cori cycle Heavy breathing after significant physical exertion helps to supply O 2 for oxidative phosphorylation in liver (to make ATP for gluconeogenesis). Creatine
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Ch23 - Chapter 23 Integration and Hormonal Regulation of...

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