Here are the keys to understanding mechanisms in 310N!! 1) There are basically four different mechanisms elements that make up the steps of carbonyl reactions. A) Add a proton B) Remove a proton C) Attack with a nucleophile D) Departure of a leaving group. 2) These same four mechanism elements describe most of the other mechanisms you have/will learn!!! (Yes, organic chemistry really is this simple if you look at it this way!!) There are basically four different mechanisms that describe the vast majority of carbonyl reactions, which are different combinations/ordering of the four mechanism elements listed above. In this class, I have termed them "Mechanism A", "Mechanism B", "Mechanism C", and "Mechanism D".They all involve a nucleophile attacking the partially positively charged carbon atom of the carbonyl to create a tetrahedral intermediate. Different reaction mechanisms are distinguished by the timing of protonation of the oxygen atom as well as the presence or absense of a leaving group attached to the carbonyl. C
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