NACS641-10L1 - Structure and function of neurons &...

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Unformatted text preview: Structure and function of neurons & Organization of the nervous system NACS 641 2010 Friday, September 10, 2010 Neurons and the organization of the nervous system The origin of membrane potentials and propagation of signals Neurotransmitters, Receptors and synaptic transmission Friday, September 10, 2010 How many do you recognize? Friday, September 10, 2010 How many do you recognize? Friday, September 10, 2010 How many do you recognize? Friday, September 10, 2010 How many do you recognize? Friday, September 10, 2010 Subdivisions of the Nervous System Cautionary tale! Friday, September 10, 2010 Cellular Components of the Nervous system Neurons Glia - or Neuroglia 10-50 times more glial cells than neurons in the brain Friday, September 10, 2010 The Neuron Doctrine mid 19 century; Schleiden & Schwann; “Cell theory” A- Reticularist’s view of the nervous system – axons enter and fuse. Golgi held this view. B-The neuron doctrine – cells are discontinuous. Ramon y Cajal held this view. He was right. Friday, September 10, 2010 Synapses are sites of information transfer between neurons Cajal said there had to be connections, but they couldn’t be seen until electron microscopes showed them decades later. Golgi didn’t see them and didn’t believe they could be there. (Cautionary tale!) ~ 1897 Sherrington---> synapse Friday, September 10, 2010 NEURONS Friday, September 10, 2010 NEURONS About 1011 neurons in the human NS. Thousands of different “types” In general - have dendrites, cell body, axon Information generally flows from dendrites to axon Varied shape and branching patterns: unipolar, bipolar, multipolar (# of processes leaving the cell body) Friday, September 10, 2010 Morphology----Function Friday, September 10, 2010 Morphology----Function No axon Granule cell OB Friday, September 10, 2010 Long vs. short axons monopolar bipolar Afferent vs. Efferent Friday, September 10, 2010 From Ramon y Cajal lateral recurrent Convergence Divergence Friday, September 10, 2010 Cortical Pyramidal neuron Cerebellar Purkinje neuron Multipolar Different ways of labeling neurons Friday, September 10, 2010 (Neuro)glial cells Friday, September 10, 2010 (Neuro)glial cells Friday, September 10, 2010 (Neuro)glial cells Development; guidance and survival of neurons, synapse formation Myelination Control of synaptic function Homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter and K ion concentration Friday, September 10, 2010 (Neuro)glial cells Macroglial cells Astrocytes are the most common Involved in K and NT uptake around active neurons. Not motile A role in guiding axons to their target cells during development (“glial scaffold”) Part of the “blood/brain barrier” between blood and CSF Microglial cells Found in the cerebrospinal fluid and CNS small motile phagocytic cells, like macrophages Can secrete signaling molecules that modulate inflammatory response to injury (e.g. cytokines). Mobilized after damage. Friday, September 10, 2010 Orientation in Vertebrates: Basic Plan Friday, September 10, 2010 ...
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