language notecards

language notecards - Acoustic cues property of a sound...

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Acoustic cues- property of a sound signal that provides information about its identification/
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Acoustics- the study of the physical properties of sound, such as intensity, frequency and duration.
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Affricate- sounds produced by an initial stop closure followed immediately by a gradual release of the air pressure. The articulatory gestures needed in the production of affricates are those for stops followed by a fricative. The sounds that begin and end the words church and judge are voiceless and voiced affricates, respectively.
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Allophonic variation- the individual allophones in a phoneme category represent the allophonic variations permissible in that phoneme category.
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Alveolar- refers to any consonant made with the tongue near or touching the alveolar ridge, which is behind the upper front teeth. In English the alveolar consonants are (t), (d), (n), (s), (z), and (l)
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Alveolar ridge- behind the upper front teeth.
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Amplitude- the height of a sound wave, from peak to trough, It’s perceptual correlate is loudness.
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Analysis-by-synthesis- a model of speech perception. The listener guesses the possible identity of a speech signal, mentally synthesizes it’s acoustic characteristics, and compares the result to the input signal. If there is a match, the signal is accurately identified.
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Anterior- a descriptor used in distinctive features system of classifying speech sounds. Sounds produced at the front of the mouth, from the lips to the alveolar ridge are plus anterior. All other places of articulation are anterior.
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Aperiodic- an event that occurs at irregular intervals, not cyclical. In acoustics, the turbulent noise associated with voiceless fricatives (f), (0) (s) small line) is aperiodic.
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Bilabial- sounds produced by bringing both lips together. The articulation of (p), (b), and (m) require these gestures; they are consequentially described as bilabial.
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Bottom up processing- A listeners perceptual analysis of the physical sound pattern of speech “upward” from the level of the recognition of phonemes to eventual comprehension of sentence meaning. A hypothesized mode of processing information.
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. Burst- a short, high amplitude noise that accompanies the release of stop consonants.
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Carrier phrase- a fixed phrase in which target words are inserted, for sample, “I see a ____”
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Categorical perception- a term that describes a special pattern of results in identifying and discriminating speech stimuli that differ systematically along a phonetic continuum. I categorical perception, listeners can discriminate only between stimuli that are identified as members of two phoneme categories.
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Citation form- speech that is produced with clear and deliberate enunciation. Acoustic studies of speech have used samples of natural speech produced in citation form.
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Co-articulation- the influence of adjacent segments on the co articulation of a given segment. Such influence consists of overlapping speech motor gestures that involve more than one point in the vocal tract.
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language notecards - Acoustic cues property of a sound...

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