Cellular_Respiration - Cellular Respiration Stage 1:...

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Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis
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Glycolysis ± Breaking down glucose ² “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) ² ancient pathway which harvests energy ± where energy transfer first evolved ± transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP ± still is starting point for all cellular respiration ² but it’s inefficient ± generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose ² occurs in cytosol glucose →→→→→ pyruvate 2 x 6C 3C In the cytosol? Why does that make evolutionary sense?
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Evolutionary perspective ± Prokaryotes ² first cells had no organelles ± Anaerobic atmosphere ² life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O 2 ) in atmosphere ² energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O 2 ± Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life ² ALL cells still utilize glycolysis You mean we’re related? Do I have to invite them over for the holidays?
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10 reactions ± convert glucose (6C) to 2 pyruvate (3C) ± produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADH ± consumes: 2 ATP ± net: 2 ATP & 2 NADH glucose C-C-C-C-C-C fructose-1,6bP P- C-C-C-C-C-C -P DHAP P- C-C-C G3P C-C-C -P pyruvate C-C-C Overview DHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate G3P = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ATP 2 ADP 2 ATP 4 ADP 4 NAD + 2 2 2 P i enzyme enzyme enzyme enzyme enzyme enzyme enzyme enzyme 2 P i 2 H
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Glycolysis summary endergonic invest some ATP exergonic harvest a little ATP & a little NADH yield 2 ATP 2 NADH like $$ in the bank 4 ATP ENERGY INVESTMENT ENERGY PAYOFF G3P C-C-C -P NET YIELD
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P i 3 6 4,5 ADP NAD + Glucose hexokinase phosphoglucose isomerase phosphofructokinase Glyceraldehyde 3 -phosphate (G3P) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glucose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate isomerase glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase aldolase 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) 1 2 ATP ADP ATP NADH NAD + NADH P i CH 2 CO CH 2 OH PO CH 2 OP O CHOH C CH 2 O CHOH CH 2 O CH 2 O P O P O CH 2 H CH 2 OH O CH 2 P O O CH 2 OH P O 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) Glucose “priming” ± get glucose ready to split ² phosphorylate glucose ² molecular rearrangement ± split destabilized glucose
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2nd half of glycolysis (5 reactions) Booyah! Makin ATP! ± NADH production ² G3P donates H ² oxidize sugar ² reduce NAD + ² NAD + NADH ± ATP production ² G3P pyruvate ² PEP sugar donates P ² ADP ATP 7 8 H 2 O 9 10 ADP ATP 3-Phosphoglycerate (3PG) 3-Phosphoglycerate (3PG) 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Pyruvate Pyruvate phosphoglycerate kinase phosphoglyceromutase enolase pyruvate kinase ADP ATP ADP ATP ADP ATP H 2 O CH 2 OH CH 3 CH 2 O - O C P H CHOH O - O - O - C C C C C C P P O O O O O O CH 2 NAD + NADH NAD + NADH Energy Harvest G3P C-C-C -P P i P i 6
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Substrate-level Phosphorylation P is transferred from PEP to ADP ± kinase enzyme ± ADP ATP I get it!
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Cellular_Respiration - Cellular Respiration Stage 1:...

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