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Chem HW #13 - Feedback Electrons fill energy levels in the...

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Feedback: Electrons fill energy levels in the order: ....... 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d Lowest levels fill first. Note that the 4s orbital fills before the 3d. ....... ..... .. ...... ... ....... ....... ......... ..... .. ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... 3d 4s ..... .. 3p 3s ..... .. 2p 2s ..... .. ..... .. ..... .. 1s Feedback: Each line in an orbital energy diagram represents an orbital. This diagram is filled out based upon 3 principles: "Filling up" or Aufbau Principle Electrons go into the lowest energy orbitals first. Pauli Principle A maximum of 2 electrons can occupy an orbital. When 2 electrons occupy the same orbital, they must have paired spins, (or "ud" using our notation). Hund's Rule When filling p or d orbitals with the same energy, electrons go into separate orbitals with parallel spins until all of the orbitals are occupied by one electron. Then they are paired. S has 16 electrons. The orbital energy diagram for sulfur is therefore: ... ... 3p 3s ... ...
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2p 2s ... 1s Because of Hunds Rule, sulfur has 2 unpaired p electrons. Orbitals have characteristic shapes. s orbitals are spherical p orbitals are 'dumbell' or 'figure 8' shaped d orbitals are cloverleaf shaped For a given type of orbital, as n increases the size of the orbital increases.
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This is illustrated with the first three s orbitals.
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