exam2-06 - Chemistry 342, Spring 2006 Second Exam, March 10...

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Chemistry 342, Spring 2006 Second Exam, March 10 1. a) Show an example of a process where heat is fully converted into work. Does this process contradict the second law of thermodynamics? Why? b) Why do all the Carnot engines working between the same temperatures have the same efficiency? What would happen if they would not? c) Imagine that heat capacities of different materials are different but constant. Can in such a world the third law of thermodynamics be valid? Why? 2. Consider the process of formation of ammonia: . mol K J 29.13 (g)) (N C , mol K J 28.82 (g)) (H C , mol K J 35.06 (g)) (NH C , mol K J 130.68 S , mol K J 191.61 S , mol K J 192.45 S kJ/mol, 46.11 H (g) 2NH (g) N (g) 3H 1 - 1 - 2 m p 1 - 1 - 2 m p 1 - 1 - 3 m p 1 - 1 - 0 (g) H 1 - 1 - 0 (g) N 1 - 1 - 0 (g) NH 0 (g) NH 3 2 2 2 2 3 3  a) Calculate Δ S, Δ G, Δ H in this reaction if you produce one mole of ammonia at the standard temperature and at T=500 K (the pressure is always P = 1 atm). Find also the change of the entropy for the surroundings. b) How would you proceed in a) if the heat capacities were temperature dependent? c) Is the above process reversible or not? At which temperature do you expect that the opposite process is spontaneous? d) Compute the equilibrium constant at the standard temperature and at T=500 K. e) Find also μ 0 (N(g)) if you know that . mol K J 153.3 S kJ/mol, 472.7 H -1 -1 0 N(g) 0 N(g) f) In a general reaction, try to explain what is the role of the Boltzmann distribution in the equilibrium reaction constant. What will be the distribution of reactants and
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exam2-06 - Chemistry 342, Spring 2006 Second Exam, March 10...

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