Lec3 - Roy A Lacey Stony Brook University Che 131 Fall 2010...

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Unformatted text preview: Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 1 Lec-3: Atomic Theory Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 2 Atomic Theory The fundamental structural blocks of substances are the atoms Elements Compounds The electrons are situated at comparatively large distances (compared to nuclear dimensions) around the nucleus Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 3 History of matter 13-15 Billion Years ago Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 4 Time Temperature Size Composition 10-43 s 1 32 K Quarks, gluons, electrons, neutrinos 1ms 12 trillion K 1.4 light days Protons and neutrons 1s 10 billion K 4 ly Proton and neutron ratio fixed 100s – 5min 1-0.4 billion K ~55 ly Nuclei are formed 500000 yr 3000 K 1.5 million ly Atoms form, photons roam freely ν e + n → p + e − ν e + p → n + e + ⎧ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎫ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ n ↔ p Big Bang time line Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 5 Nucleosynthesis 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 2 H + H H + e H + H H + ν γ + → + → 3 3 4 1 1 1 2 H + H H + 2 n → Heavier elements are synthesized from hydrogen in the interiors of stars Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 6 Nucleosynthesis 4 4 8 2 2 4 H + H Be R 4 8 1 2 2 4 6 H + Be C + γ → Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 7 Nucleosynthesis Stage Duration Product Name Product Z Product N Hydrogen burning 7 Million yr Helium 2 2 Helium burning 700,000 yr Carbon,Oxygen 6,8 6,8 Carbon burning 400 yr Oxygen, Neon 8,10 8,10 Neon burning 1 yr Oxygen, Magnesium, Silicon 8,12,14 8,12,14 Oxygen burning 8 month Silicon, Sulfur 14,16 14,16 Silicon burning 1 day ~Iron, Nickel ~24-28 ~24-28 Burning stages of a 25 solar mass star Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2010 8 Nucleosynthesis A massive star near the end of its lifetime Supernova 1987A by Hubble Space Telescope Jan 1997 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Roy A....
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2010 for the course CHEM 131 taught by Professor Wong during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lec3 - Roy A Lacey Stony Brook University Che 131 Fall 2010...

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