Lec2 - Chemical Bonds Functional Groups Chemical bonds...

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Chemical Bonds, Functional Groups
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Chemical bonds • Covalent bonds – Polar = unequal sharing of electrons – Non-polar = equal sharing of electrons – Single/double/triple = 1, 2, or 3 pairs of electrons shared, respectively • Ionic bonds • Weak bonds – Hydrogen bonds – Van der Waals forces Two or more atoms held together by covalent or ionic bonds are called a molecule
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Examples of covalent bonding single, non-polar double, non-polar single, polar single, non-polar
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Electrons are at equal distances from the nuclei of the atoms Electrons are shifted toward the nucleus of the more electronegative atom Non-polar and polar covalent bonds Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s attraction for electrons
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O-H is a polar covalent bond The more electronegative atom is partially negative, the less electronegative atom is partially positive [delta ( δ ) indicates a partial charge, less than that of an electron] If the difference in electronegativity is so great that the electrons are stripped from the less electronegative atom, ionic bonds are formed (ionic compounds are often called salts) Oxygen is the most electronegative of all elements in living cells and, therefore, shifts electrons towards it
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Ionic bonds One electron moves from Na to Cl, making Na+ positively charged and Cl- negatively charged positively charged ions = cations negatively charged ions = anions cations and anions attract each other
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Ionic compounds can be a combination of 1 cation + 1 anion
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Lec2 - Chemical Bonds Functional Groups Chemical bonds...

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