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Lec34s - Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression th 354-356 6...

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Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression 6 th : 354-356; 362-367 (top) 7 th : 359-367 8 th : 320-322, 356-362 Different cells need different proteins – or different amounts of the same proteins.
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How the amount of a protein can be regulated
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How the amount of a protein can be regulated
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The rate of transcription of a gene is often the most important step.
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Review: genes are in operons in bacteria promoter operator RNA pol. Genes in operon Repressor protein can bind operator to block RNA polymerase.
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Eukaryotes have NO: -operons or operator -repressor that physically blocks RNA polymerase Rarely have regulatory proteins that bind small molecules (like Trp & Trp repressor in bacteria.) Eukaryotic RNA pol. doesn’t even bind the promoter by itself!
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Transcription initiation complex: RNA pol. & transcription factors
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These are general trans- cription factors; they act in transcription of all genes. Some transcription factors bind to DNA; some bind to other transcription factors.
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Transcription initiation complex doesn’t bind the promoter well. By itself; it gives very low transcription. Additional “specific” transcription factors enhance transcription.
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Specific transcription factors bind DNA at sequences called control elements and help the initiation complex bind the promoter. initiation complex control element
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2 classes of control element 1. Proximal ; close to promoter (some people consider them part of the promoter) 2. Distal ; far from promoter.
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