Lec38s - DNA Technology or Genetic Engineering 6th ed.:...

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DNA Technology or Genetic Engineering 6 th ed.: 375-380 383-385 7 th ed.; 384-389 406-407 8 th ed.: 396-403 421-423
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Genetic engineering: manipulation of genes for desired results Other words : -Recombinant DNA technology -Molecular biology -Gene cloning
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Goals : 1.Products - improved crops, livestock - proteins (insulin) 2.Research - Basic knowledge - Medical applications 3.Forensics - “DNA evidence”
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Gene cloning : making many copies of a desired gene or another piece of DNA
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Bacteria : central role in gene cloning. -Fast-growing -Cheap; high volume -We can take advantage of mechanisms that evolved in bacteria, and use them for our own purposes.
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Many copies of any gene can be grown in bacteria to - 1.isolate the gene for further study, OR: 2. have bacteria express the gene: isolate the protein
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Our example: express human insulin gene in bacteria; isolate recombinant insulin for treatment of diabetes
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1. Isolate DNA from human cells. 2. Digest DNA to fragments with a restriction enzyme.
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Restriction enzymes: endonucleases that cleave DNA at specific sequences enzyme
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Many enzymes - from different bacteria - Each recognizes a different sequence (4-8 nucleotides)
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Most enzymes see palindromes : sequence is same FORWARD on 1 strand and BACKWARD on the other strand AGTACT TCATGA
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enzymes to destroy foreign DNA (viruses) Bacteria protect their own genomes by methylating sites when they occur. This prevents cleavage.
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2010 for the course BIO 202 taught by Professor Dean during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lec38s - DNA Technology or Genetic Engineering 6th ed.:...

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