CH_20_STUDENT_OUTLINE

CH_20_STUDENT_OUTLINE - Chapter 20: The Diversity of Fungi...

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Chapter 20: The Diversity of Fungi
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1. Fungi Obtain Their Nutrients from Other Organisms 2. Fungi Propagate by Spores 3. Most Fungi Can Reproduce Both Sexually and Asexually Key Features of Fungi
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Body Structure Most fungi are multi-cellular Cells are surrounded by cell walls composed of chitin , a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide Body of almost all fungi is a mycelium , an interwoven mass of threadlike filaments called hyphae (singular, hypha) Figure 20-1(a,b), p. 388 illustrates the filamentous body of a fungus…
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hyphae
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Hyphae Hyphae of most species are divided into many cells by partitions called septa (singular, septum); each cell possesses one or more nuclei Pores in the septa allow cytoplasm to stream from one cell to the next Hyphae of some fungi lack septa, consisting of single elongated cells with hundreds or thousands of nuclei The nuclei of most species are haploid
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cell wall septum cytoplasm pore two haploid nuclei
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Nutrition and Fungal Lifestyles All are heterotrophic (secrete enzymes outside their bodies and absorb the digested nutrients) Have diverse lifestyles Fungal decomposers (saprobes) feed on dead organic material and wastes Fungal parasites absorb nutrients from cells of living hosts and may cause disease Some symbiotic fungi live in mutually beneficial relationships with other organisms Fungal predators consume living organisms
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Fungi Reproduce by Means of Spores Spores are haploid reproductive cells capable of developing into an adult fungus Usually produced in large numbers Dispersed by animals or air currents Most fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually Both asexual and sexual reproduction involve the production of spores within fruiting bodies
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Spores being dispersed after a drop of water hits the fungus
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Asexual Reproduction Typically occurs under stable conditions Can occur either by: Fragmentation of the mycelium Asexual spore formation Spores germinate and develop into a new mycelium by mitosis Results in the rapid production of genetically identical clones
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Sexual Reproduction Typically occurs under conditions of environmental change or stress Two different hyphae fuse so that the nuclei share a common cell The different haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote Zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid sexual spores Spores germinate and develop into a new mycelium by mitosis Results in the production of genetically diverse fungal bodies
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CH_20_STUDENT_OUTLINE - Chapter 20: The Diversity of Fungi...

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