Ch_03_summary - CHAPTER 3 PERIODICITY(IB TOPICS 3 AND 13...

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CHAPTER 3 PERIODICITY (IB TOPICS 3 AND 13) SUMMARY © IBID Press 2007 1 Basic concepts Periodic Table is arranged according to increasing atomic number and consists of horizontal rows called periods, and vertical columns called groups (or families). The arrangement is such that elements with similar chemical properties fall directly beneath each other in the same group. A period is a series of elements arranged according to increasing atomic number, which begins with the first element having one electron in a new main energy level. A group is a vertical column consisting of elements with the same electron arrangement in their outer energy levels, which gives the group similar chemical properties. Modern Periodic Law states that chemical and physical properties of elements vary periodically if elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers. Periodicity is the regular repeating of properties according to arrangement of elements in the periodic table (i.e., after regular intervals) such as atomic radius, ionisation energy, etc. arising from the systematic filling of successive energy level. Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost energy level (the highest energy level) of an atom and are usually the electrons that take part in a chemical reaction. Properties of elements are chiefly due to the number and arrangement of electrons in the outer energy level of atoms. The number of valence electrons is the same for a group, but increases across a period. The transition metals are the large d-block elements in the middle of the Periodic Table from Sc to Zn etc. (includes three transition series).
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