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The actual bonding is a mixture of the various

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Unformatted text preview: t cannot be described adequately by a single structure. Resonance structures have the same sigma bonds but differ in the arrangement of the pi bonds. The actual bonding is a mixture of the various possible arrangements, and will have a lower energy than any of the individual forms. The phenomenon is called delocalization because the valence electrons provided by individual atoms are no longer held in the vicinity of that atom, but are mobile and shared by a number of atoms. It is this spreading out of the electrons that gives the structure its lower potential energy than it would have if double and single bonds were arranged in such a way that orbital overlap could not take place. Thus, delocalization stabilizes a structure. Bonds have electron distribution with axial symmetry around the axis joining the two nuclei (from combination of two s orbitals or an s and a p or hybridized orbitals); π bonds result from the sideways overlap of parallel p orbitals with...
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